Study Guide 4 with Answers
Study Guide 4 with Answers 414
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brenna McCormick on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 414 at Northern Illinois University taught by Dr. Davis or Dr. Sagebiel in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Archaeology of Mesoamerica in ANTH at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
ANTH 414 Archaeologv of Mesoamerica Studv Guide 4 Lectures 12 15 and associated readings DUE Friday March 20th Lecture 12 Tuesdav March 3 Intro to Basin of Mexico Formative Period 1 What is meant by the statement that the Central Mexican Highlands were a symbiotic region They are integrated culturally and economically 2 Why is it called the Basin of Mexico and not the Valley of Mexico at least when referring to it in the past There were a series of lakes in its center that couldn t drain out to the oceans that is why it was a Basin and not truly a Valley 3 What is distinctive about the history of Puebla and Tlaxcala They have remained wellpopulated throughout prehistory and into today Remained independent of the Aztecs Allied with Cort s 4 What is distinctive about the main pyramid at Cholula It has the largest pyramid by volume in Mesoamerica 5 What innovations allowed people to move into the northern portion of the Basin of Mexico Irrigation allowed both population growth and the cultivation of drier areas 6 What is a patronclient relationship How does it lead to greater social stratification In a patronclient relationships patrons would loan food and other goods to the client to get them through a crop failure The client then owed the patron food labor goods and even land This allowed some people to accumulate more land and goods than others 7 What two sites in the Basin of Mexico were likely rivals in the Late Formative Teotihuacan and Cuicuilco 8 How did the location next to two active volcanoes affect ritual life at Cuicuilco Not surprisingly one of Cuicuilco s primary gods was the Old Fire God usually depicted with a censer on his head for used for fire and burning incense 9 What do we know about agricultural practices at Teotihuacan How are they related to the site s location Teotihuacan was established at the base of Cerro Gordo where there are springs that form bogs between the mountain and the shores of Lake Texcoco These bogs were drained using canals and chinampas were built on them for planting 10 What did the Aztecs think of the site of Teotihuacan The Aztec perceived it as the place where the gods came together to create the 5th world 11 Why are the ceramic models of the Teuchitlan culture area important What do they depict Teuchitlan is known for ceramic models of community actiVities taking place in their architectural context Dances and ceremonies Ball games with courts players and spectators Voladores or iers who y down from the top of a pole while attached to a rope Lecture 13 Thursday March 5 Teotihuacan 12 What happened around 300 bc ad 1 in the Basin of Mexico that caused Teotihuacan to greatly increase in size The volcano Xitle erupted and covered Cuicuilco 13 What are the names of the three large pyramids at Teotihuacan Can you rank them in size Largest to smallest Pyramid of the Sun Pyramid of the Moon Temple of the Feathered Serpent 14 Why was the Pyramid of the Sun built where it was built It was built over a cave 15 Why was the Basin of Mexico deforested in Teotihuacan s time What was the result The large amount of wood needed for construction of the city as well as for fuel heating and cooking fires lime plaster and potterymaking fires etc led to deforestation and erosion in the Basin 16 Why is the Pyramid of the Sun angled at 155quot north of west Where else do we see this alignment see preVious lectures The Pyramid of the Sun is oriented 155 0 north of west the horizon point of the setting sun on August 13 the first day of the current creation in 3114 bc and of the setting sun 260 days later April 29 San Jose Mogote and La Venta have similar alignment with that date oriented to the Milky Way 17 What is a surveyor s cross How were they used at Teotihuacan Usually pecked into a rock or surface used to align buildings to important horizon points 18 What is taludtablero architecture Why is it important The tablero is rectangular with a recessed inset It sits on top of a talud or a sloping apron It is important as a marker of Teotihuacan in uence across Mesoamerica 19 Why were the pyramids of Teotihuacan built As funerary monuments and possibly to honor the gods 20 What deities are depicted on the Temple of the Feathered Serpent How are the Feathered Serpent Venus and waterTlaloc tied together Tlaloc and Quetzalcoatl These concepts are tied together because captives were sacrificed for their blood which symbolically transformed into water allowing fertility Lecture 13 Tuesday March 17 Teotihuacan Continued 21 What were the three major palaces of Teotihuacan In what order were they occupied Oldest to most recent Xalla Ciudadela Street of the Dead Complex 22 What are the two events that might account for the partial destruction of the Temple of the Feathered SerpentQuetzalcoatl around ad 300 Uprising andor earthquake 23 What kind of housing did the ordinary residents of Teotihuacan live in before ad 300 What did their new residences look like after ad 300 Wattledaub houses replaced by permanent adobe apartments 24 What is the Adosada How does its decoration differ from that of the Temple of Quetzalcoatl The Adosada was a building that partially covered the Temple of Quetzalcoatl The Adosada has cheap murals rather than sculptures on the tableros 25 Why was the palace moved from the Ciudadela to the Street of the Dead Complexes How were the Street of the Dead Complexes different from the earlier Xalla and Ciudadela palace complexes Why After the uprisingearthquake and defacement of the Temple of Quetzalcoatl The Street of the Dead Complexes are less ostentatious on the exterior 26 Describe a typical Teotihuacan apartment complex What did it look like Who lived in them They are built on platforms of mud and gravel held in place with stone walls Apartment walls were plastered adobe Some had stone pillar supports Roofs were at and made of wood beams and plaster Exterior walls were windowless Patios shrines murals cisterns etc Common people lived in them 27 Why is it thought that the cult of the king at Teotihuacan disappeared after ad 300 What happened after the cult died out The cult of the king seems to have died after ad 300 with the uprising that led to the defacing of the Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent the building of the Adosada the repurposing of the Ciudadela and the building of the less ostentatious Street of the Dead Complex for the rulers and elite After the uprising Everyone gets apartments The ruler s quarters are lower profile And no more major pyramids are built 28 How is the Early Classic period originally defined What are some of the hallmarks of the Early Classic in Mesoamerica The Classic period in Mesoamerica is traditionally defined as the period when the Maya centers reached their height Hallmarks True states cities in states states with large territories alliances and con icts greater complexity Lecture 14 Tuesdav March 17 Teotihuacan Art Writing and Rulership 29 How might the nature of rulership have changed at Teotihuacan after ad 300 There are some who think that Teotihuacan may have been ruled by coalitions of elite families rather than a single rulerlineage after ad 300 ie cult of the king was dead 30 How are rulers portrayed in the art and writing of Teotihuacan vs how they are portrayed in the Valley of Oaxaca and Maya area The art of Teotihuacan downplays the individuality of rulers The murals that show rulers really emphasize their costumes as uniforms of office there is no individuality There are also no stelae that portray rulers Also no names in hieroglyphs 31 How do the murals of Teotihuacan and the murals of the Maya differ The murals at Teotihuacan are often called wallpaper because the designs are so repetitious vs Maya murals which often show known stories and scenes litany vs story 32 Describe the writing system used at Teotihuacan How does it differ from Maya hieroglyphic writing The Teotihuacan written language is pictographic pictures that stand for things or ideas rather than syllabic based on syllables like Maya or alphabetic based on sounds like English Therefore the entire context is essential in order to understand the meaning 33 What is a chinampa What does it consist of How are the islands used How are the canals used Chinampas were islands formed using dirt and woven mats and held together by fruit trees They were used to grow 23 cropsyear The canals drained the swampy soil and provided nutrientsfertilizer when they were cleaned out and the muck was put on the chinampa islands They also provided fish and water fowl as well as transportation 34 What is the difference between Otumba and Pachuca obsidian Why was the latter particularly important Otumba source close to Teotihuacan gray and black obsidian decent quality Pachuca Cerro de las Navaj as 30 miles from Teotihuacan very fine quality occurs in a range of green tones It is important because it is the only green obsidian in Mesoamerica and green was a sacred color 35 About how much of the Teotihuacan population was involved in craft production exclusively 2533 36 What is the archaeological evidence of ethnic barrios at Teotihuacan Why were these foreigners at Teotihuacan What were some of the ethnic groups occupying barrios at Teotihuacan Evidence of enclaves includes pottery architecture murals burial practices figurines and bone chemistry These people were likely living in Teotihuacan as traders ambassadors and craftspecialists Oaxacan barrio Oaxacan pottery and burial urns May have been plasterworking specialists based on the tools found there Gulf Coast barrio Huastecstyle houses that were round rather than square Maya barrio based on Mayastyle murals Southern Basin of Mexico Cuilcuilcans etc Old Fire God censers Lecture 15 Thursdav March 19 Teotihuacan In uence and Demise 37 What evidence is there that Matacapan was a colony of Teotihuacanos in the Gulf Lowlands Taludtablero architecture Pottery forms cylinder tripods incensarios candeleros and figurines all used every day in households ie not special trade wares Items made at Matacapan are in Teotihuacan style locals have the knowledge and desire to make Teotihuacan things 38 What are some of the internal factors that may have led to Teotihuacan s collapse There was another likely internal uprising around ad 500 Disease food shortages environmental degradation particularly erosion of the upper slopes of the Basin and the clogging of the canals 39 What role did environmental degradation play in Teotihuacan s collapse With upper slope soil erosion farming declined eroded soil clogged up the canals leading to more labor to clean them out and keep them open 40 What external factor may have been the ultimate cause of Teotihuacan s demise A volcanic eruption predecessor of Krakatoa in Indonesia erupted around ad 535 and caused worldwide cooling until about ad 590 May have led to a drought in the Basin of Mexico BONUS Lecture 12 Tuesdav March 3 Intro to Basin of Mexico Formative Period 1 In the Initial Formative where were most people in the Basin of Mexico living Why Farmers were living in the southern part where the climate was more moderate and rainy closer to Morelos also an area better for farming 2 What two gods were important at Teotihuacan and why The Rain God ChacTlaloc The Great Goddess associated with Cerro Gordo Importance of rain and water for agriculture 3 What are the four major language families in Mesoamerica Which language did the Aztecs and likely the Teotihuacanos speak UtoAztecan MixeZoque Mayan Otomangean Teo and Aztecs Nahuatl 4 What do we know about the Chupicuaro culture How was it related to Cuicuilco It is found in the Bajio of Michoacan The culture is mostly known through burials and looted artifacts The pottery and figurine styles were traded and copied throughout the Chupicauro Sphere The sites were on hilltops above the Lerma River possibly for defense The area may have been settled by Cuicuilco perhaps as part of militaristic state expansion 5 What is distinctive about Teuchitlan burial customs Shaft tombs found near or under circular stepped mounds Some shafts nearly 70 feet deep These tombs often contained hollow figurines particularly of ball players Some were family crypts with families buried together Lecture 13 Thursdav March 5 Teotihuacan 6 Which mountain appears to have been most sacred to the Teotihuacanos Why Cerro Gordo behind Pyramid of the Moon Great Goddess Cerro Gordo possibly because of the springs at its base that led into the chinampa system 7 What material was used to build the Pyramid of the Sun Where did it come from How was it put together from an engineering stand point The dirt fill came from the caves underneath it packed earth reinforced with wooden poles The poles are set at angles to offset the natural outward push of the material 8 Why is the angle of the northsouth and eastwest streets at Teotihuacan off by 1 In order to retain the sacred alignments with the points on Cerro Gordo and Cerro Colorado 9 Describe the Ciudadela What did it look like What was it used for Enclosed 11 acres Temple of Feathered Serpent and Adosada palace structure other temples stairway First it was a palace and later it was either administrative or a school 10 What concepts is the Feathered Serpent associated with rulership authority creativity fertility warfare and Venus Lecture 13 Tuesday March 17 Teotihuacan Continued 11 What is the Great Compound at Teotihuacan Where was it located What might have been its function On the west side of the Street of the Dead across from the Ciudadela A very large open space possibly a market or some other administrative function 12 What was the Ciudadela used for after it was no longer used as a palace Administration priesthood boy s school Lecture 14 Tuesday March 17 Teotihuacan Art Writing and Rulership 13 Why was Morelos important for Teotihuacan What crops were grown there Warm humid less risk of frost maize and cotton 14 What are the pro and con arguments for the economic importance of obsidian for Teotihuacan Some see it as a key component particularly given the desirability of Pachuca obsidian Others point out that only a small number of people were needed to make obsidian goods and it was a skill that many people had 15 What are the two major types of pottery made byfor Teotihuacan What is different about them Teotihuacan pottery is called San Martin Orange It is very utilitarian consisting mostly of bowls jars and plates Thin Orange is a very fine pottery made in Puebla and exported to Teotihuacan It became a marker of Teotihuacan in uence and contact across Mesoamerica 16 How and why did figurine production change over time at Teotihuacan Early production was by women making handmade figurines It then changed to maleproduced moldmade standardized figurines Possibly a change from familyhousehold production to morespecialized factorylike production 17 What is meant by the term lapidary arts What kinds were practiced at Teotihuacan Working stone There were a few jade and serpentine workshops making jewelry figurines oracle masks etc 18 What other crafts were likely practiced at Teotihuacan but have left little archaeological trace Weaving textiles and basketry featherworking woodworking 19 What are the four major socialeconomic classes at Teotihuacan Ruling elites nonruling elites commoners slaves 20 What kinds of occupations did nonruling elites have Military officers Priests Administrators Elite artisans made elite luxury goods political economy Traders in elite goods 21 What kinds of occupations did nonelite commoners have Farmers laborers nonelite craftsmen traders in nonelite goods 22 Who became slaves at Teotihuacan Slavery was relatively rare mostly economically unfortunate without families and criminals 23 What kinds of socialeconomic status differences are found within Teotihuacan barrios What is the archaeological evidence for these Evidence for familial relatedness status and class comes mostly from burials and art Patriarch and wife lower class stray relatives widows servants and slaves Evidence comes from burials and from art Lecture 15 Thursday March 19 Teotihuacan In uence and Demise 24 In general what kinds of evidence is there at various sites throughout Mesoamerica that those sites were either directly or indirectly in contact or controlled by Teotihuacan Hint this includes things like architecture and artifacts Taludtablero architecture Thin Orange pottery cylinder tripod vessels sometimes Teostyle figurines and deities 25 Why was the site of Chingu established by Teotihuacan Who seems to have lived and worked there and why Established to make limestone plaster Oaxacan plaster workers lived there 26 What are pulque cups What were they used for What evidence do we have for their use Pulque cups were used to serve agavemaguey liquor during rituals evidence of their use comes from art particularly murals 27 Where is thought that Teotihuacan refugees may have ed to as Teotihuacan was collapsing What evidence is there for this Michoacan Apartmentstyle housing with central patios with ancestral shrines just like at Teotihuacan 28 What is chalchihuitl Where did Teotihuacan get its supply Greenstone from West Mexico and the Southwest US 29 What two areas in uenced Guerrero during the Early Classic What art style is found there Teotihuacan and Oaxaca Mezcala art style 30 Who were the Huastec What language did they speak What is distinctive about their art and architecture Lived on the Gulf Coast speak Mayan round houses pottery may have introduced the cylinder tripod and was a lustrous ware 31 What was the Tehuacan Valley s relationship with Teotihuacan What does the settlement pattern in the Tehuacan Valley in the Early Classic tell us about internal politics Small sites in the Valley bottom have Otumba and Pachuca obsidian and Thin Orange pottery likely occupied by Teotihucanos as tradingway stations to the Cuicatlan Ca ada and Oaxaca Valleys Early Classic sites are on hilltops and are walled in appears that the sites in the Tehuacan Valley were fighting each other 32 What evidence is there of a possible second internal uprising at Teotihuacan What happened after this uprising Was Teotihuacan abandoned suddenly or gradually Many buildings along the Street of the Dead were burned down Elites either left or rulership was radically altered Elite craftsman seem to have left the area Population declined from 100000 to about 25000 Teo no longer had much in uence over other areas By ad 900 the City was abandoned although there continued to be a number of villages on its periphery so suddenly at first but then very slowly 33 What is Teotihuacan s importance in Mesoamerica after its abandonment How does it continue to in uence the Maya and even the Aztec It continued to be a place of pilgrimage its ideological power as the place where the 5th world was created continued to serve an important role particularly among the Maya 34 Why would malnutrition be a problem in a city like Teotihuacan Nonfarmers in the City were dependent on farmers and were more vulnerable to food scarcities 35 Why couldn t Teotihuacan s population rebound after the uprising Repopulation from surrounding areas was limited because most people already lived in Teotihuacan Fertility was also likely lower due to malnutrition and disease
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