Study Guide 5 with Answers
Study Guide 5 with Answers 414
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brenna McCormick on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 414 at Northern Illinois University taught by Dr. Davis or Dr. Sagebiel in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Archaeology of Mesoamerica in ANTH at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
ANTH 414 Archaeologv of Mesoamerica Studv Guide 5 Lectures 16 19 and associated readings DUE Tuesday April 14Q NAME Instructions 40 Questions worth 1 point each for a total of 40 points Answers do not have to be in complete sentences but all information needed to answer the question should be included in the answer All information should be available from the slides lectures and the textbook DO NOT use online or other sources You may work with a partner but turn in your own assignment Assignments that are exactly the same wordfor wordverbatim will earn zeros for all parties involved Electronic emailed to Dr Sagebiel ksagebielniuedu as a Word document is preferred or hard copy versions are acceptable Study Guide 4 is due Tuesday April 14th at class time Late assignments will lose 2 pointsday beginning at 1046 pm on April 14th LectureReadings Thursdav March 26th The MaLa in the Middle and Late Formative Part 1 1 What are the southern Maya lowlands like environmentally What are the northern lowlands like South mountainous and wetter than north north at dry no major rivers 2 What two major types of natural resources did Kaminaljuyu possibly control Obsidian El Chayal and J ilotepeque and jade 3 What kind of in uence did the art of Kaminaljuyu have on Maya art The erection of stelae with historical texts and depictions of some rulership practices such as decapitation sacrifice and penis autosacrificebloodletting 4 The earliest example of what architectural form is found at Chiapa de Corzo True palace with cut stone roof beams and thickplastered oors and walls 5 What are Usulutan ceramics What do they look like How were they used by their makers and by the lowland Maya Originate in SE Usulutan Sphere area doubleslipped with waxresist technique usually with wavy lines used in reciprocal feasts by chiefs in the SE part of an elite burial subcomplex in the Maya lowlands 6 Where did the Maya originate ie what was their original homeland Where did they move to in the Formative Period Chiapas and Guatemala highlands moved to Maya lowlands 7 What Classic attributes of Maya culture actually developed in the LateTerminal Formative Monumental construction public art kingship ideology 8 What site has the first evidence of the typical Maya architectural plan What are some of the architectural attributes of that plan Nakbe acropolis with temples and pyramids ball court causewayssacbes stelae EGroup 9 What are some of the body modifications practiced by the elite Maya Tooth modification filing and implanting jewels cranial shaping jewels on forehead to create crossedeyes tattoos and scarification piercings of ears and lips LectureReadings Tuesday March 315 The Mava in the Middle and Late Formative Part 2 10 What site dominates the Maya lowlands after the decline of Nakbe How is it literally connected to Nakbe El Mirador by a sacbe 11 What four sites made up the first Maya polity Nakbe El Mirador Calakmul Uaxactun 12 What is an EGroup How is it used How is it similar to the use of surveyor s crosses at Teo A large pyramid on the west side of a plaza that faces across to a platform with three structures on the east side As viewed from the pyramid the sun rose over the top of the southern and northern structures at the solstices and over the central structure on the equinoxes Served as a horizon calendar 13 Which site has the most massive monumental architecture ever in the Maya lowlands El Mirador 14 Describe a typical Maya house group Commoners were living in typical Maya house groups of three or four oneroom structures on a low platform surrounding a patio usually housing an extended family called a plazuela group House Kitchen Storage building Shrine Garden Orchard DumpMidden 15 How was the temple with masks used at Cerros What did the masks represent The temple has masks at each level representing the rising and setting sun the planet Venus as morning and evening star and the Hero Twins The ruler moved through this mythological space as heshe climbed the staircase where he she would perform a ritual such as a blood sacrifice to the gods to thank them for bringing maize and life to the people 16 What is Xibalba The Maya Underworld 17 Which stela has the earliest Long Count in the Maya lowlands What is the date Tikal Stela 29 ad 292 18 What events of a ruler s life are often depicted or written about on their stelae Hisher ancestry genealogy some fictional Hisher birth Accession to the throne Marriage Children usually just the presumed heir Important battles won Captives taken sacrifices of captives Meetings with foreign dignitaries Building dedications Important religious events heshe presided over Calendrical events Coming of age ceremonies Autosacrifice Death Apotheosis into a godlike being LectureReadings Thursdav April 2quot Ear1v Classic MaLa 19 What does the Early Classic period date to ad 300600 20 Describe the Peten area Why was it important Tropical lowlands of Mexico Belize Guatemala Flat Wet very and dry seasons Heart of the Maya area 21 What activities did Maya kings engage in that made them shamans writ large Intermediaries with the gods insured rain and agricultural fertility insured the cycles of time divined future events 22 What major rituals did Maya kings and royalty engage in Animal and human sacrifice autosacrifice burnt offerings 23 What kinds of offerings did the Maya have Where were they usually placed Food and precious goods buried in caches placed in caves or thrown into water 24 Where were Maya kings buried Why Tombs in templepyramids Allowed continued ancestor veneration and intercession by them with the gods 25 Describe how the Maya envisioned their cosmos including the heavens sky earth and underworld The world is on the back of a caiman crocodile or turtle that swims in the primordial sea At the center of the world is the World Tree ceiba tree that holds up the sky The heavens have 13 layers often depicted as the Milky Way or a giant serpent The underworldXibalba has 9 layers Earth is in the middle 26 What are the five sacred colors for the Maya and what are they related to Eastredsunrise westblacksunset northwhitesummer solstice southyellowwinter solstice greencenterWorld Tree 27 Who burned Maya books and then sat down with a Maya scribe to record the Maya alphabet Why is the Maya script not an alphabet Diego de Landa it s syllabic 28 How many Maya glyphs are there and how many have been deciphered 800 about 8085 29 Why are Maya glyphs so difficult to read Who could read them In your opinion was it an elite strategy to make the Maya hieroglyphs difficult to read Why or why not There are many different spellings artistic variation Elites could read them LecturelS Thursday April 239 Early Classic Mava Continued 30 Why is Tikal Stela 29 important First Tikal stela with earliest long count date of ad 292 and first use of Tikal emblem glyph 31 Who was Lady Baby Jaguar What do we know about women s role as kings Ruled Tikal independently used later by Stormy Sky to justify rule through mother s line Might rule independently if no clear male heir were usually regents for their underage sons 32 What was the Teotihuacan entrada Who led the entrada On whose behalf did he lead it Led by Smoking Frog on behalf of Spearthrower Owl of Teo Offed Jaguar Paw and likely others 33 Who was Spearthrower Owl What was his relationship to Smoking Frog and Curl Nose Ruler of Teo father of Curl Nose Smoking Frog likely his general 34 Who did Curl Nose marry Why A Tikal woman likely Jaguar Paw s daughter In order to help legitimize himself to the Maya 35 Who is Stormy Sky How does he try to legitimize his right to rule Son of Curl Nose grandson of both Jaguar Paw and Spearthrower Owl Two of his stelae chart his maternal Maya ancestry including grandpa Jaguar Paw even though overthrown by Smoking Frog 36 Why is Stela 31 so important What does it show How does it compare to Stela 29 Why did Stormy Sky likely invoke the imagery on Stela 29 Tries to legitimize Stormy Sky shows him with his father Curl Nose similar in style to first known Stela 29 of First Step Shark trying to tie himself back to the founder of the ruling lineage Stormy Sky lists himself as the 16th ruler implying no break in the dynasty His father Curl Nose is shown on each side of the stela as a Teotihuacan warrior and overhead as an ancestral god Maya concept The back of the stela discusses Tikal s history with special mention of Lady Baby Jaguar Unen B alam probably in order to reinforce his right to rule through his mother s ancestral Maya line 37 What new military strategies and gear did Teotihuacan introduce to the Maya Teotihuacanos may have introduced a new form of militarism or new military strategies that were unknown to the Maya Perhaps atlatls Maya used jabbing spears clubs embedded with obsidian blades cotton armor andor battles to the death rather than for capture and sacrifice 38 Who was the founder or founding ruler of Copan Where did he likely come from Yax Kuk Mo Tikal or Teo 39 What is Altar Q What does it tell us Has all 16 kings of Copan on their name glyphs 40 Who ended the TikalCalakmul rivalry What did he do to commemorate this great victory Ruler A The celebration included sacrifice of the Calakmul king blood sacrifice by Ruler A display of the effigies of the captured patron deities of Calakmul and reenactments of the battle plus stories about its historical significance BONUS LectureReadings Thursdav March 26th The MaLa in the Middle and Late Formative Part 1 1 What are the four major geographic areas where the Maya lived Chiapas Coast Guatemala Highlands southern Maya lowlands northern Maya lowlands 2 What is the major capital of the Chiapas coast What is known about its art style and monuments What god is depicted there that the lowland Maya adopt Izapa blends Olmec with a local style that in uenced the Maya stelae and altar pairs with frogshaped altars the longlipped god known later as the rain god Chac by the Maya 3 After the Olmecs declined what happened at Chalchuapa Ceased monumental construction soon regained prominence as a trading center between the Usulutan Sphere the MayaChicanel Sphere and the KaminaljuyuMira ores Sphere Traded Ixtepeque obsidian LectureReadings Tuesdav March 315 The MgLa in the Middle and Late Formative Part 2 4 What is a sacbe How are they used An elevated causeway connect parts of a single site or two sites together practical purpose to keep people out of the bajos and religious purpose in use for processions 5 What are a bajos How were they cultivated Swampy bogs they were basically drained fields or islands in the bajos that were cultivated 6 How did the Maya manage water at Edza and Cerros Edzna Yucatan Mexico had 27 reservoirs connected to 19 miles of canals These drained excess water stored it and moved it to fields that needed it Cerros Belize had a canalmoat around it Water ran off the stuccoed and paved architecture and drained into it There were also raisedditched fields surrounding the site 7 Who are the Hero Twins in Maya mythology The Hero Twins are revered for going to the Underworld Xibalba and saving their father the Maize God from the Lords of the Underworld 8 What do we know about the fortifications at Becan and Tikal What were these types of fortifications used for Were these kinds of fortifications found at Teotihuacan What might that indicate They both have ditch and parapet fortifications Tikal also had a wooden palisade Defense No Teo likely had few close and powerful enemies LectureReadings Thursday April 2quot Early Classic Mag 9 What does the Early Classic period date to ad 300600 10 During what period were the Maya at their height and producing Long Count dates Classic ad 300900 11 When did the classic traits of Maya complexity hieroglyphs cities etc actually begin LateTerminal Formative 300 bcad 300 12 Where are the Maya highlands Guatemala 13 Describe the Northern Maya lowlands Limestone shelf at dry few rivers cenotessinkholes 14 How many place holders are there in the Maya Long Count Five 15 Other than the Long Count Date what are some of the other parts of the Maya calendar Intro glyph 9 Lords of the Night Lunar Phase Venus Phase 819 day sequence 16 Why is Maya writing described as mostly phonetic with some ideographspictographs Mostly syllabic with some glyphs that stand for whole words 17 On what kinds of things is Maya writing found Books monuments of stone stucco facades wood lintels murals pottery lapidary objects bone and shell LecturelS Thursday April 2nd Eger Classic Maya Continued 18 What was Tikal s peak population size How many known rulers did it have 60000 and 33 19 What was the name of Tikal s first ruler About when did he rule First Step Shark ad 75100 20 What does the Tikal crown look like Where is it depicted It is a cloth headband Jade in First Step Shark s tomb 21 Who was Great Jaguar Paw What was the relationship between Tikal and Teotihuacan like during his reign Ruler of Tikal Tikal doing fine Tikal had also adopted Teotihuacan style taludtablero architecture was trading with Teotihuacan for Pachuca obsidian and may even have been intermarrying with Teotihuacan 22 What artistic evidence is there of Teo s entrada at Tikal A lost vessel showing Teo warriors and ambassadors in Maya area Uaxactun mural showing Teo warrior with ax and Maya person in submissive position Uaxactun stela with Smoking Frog ball court marker in the Lost World Group 23 What other new practices and ideas are introduced at the time of the entrada New rulers new rulership hierarchy and titles 24 How does Curl Nose s tomb differ from those before and after his Mexican style artifacts particularly ceramics 25 Who are Stormy Sky s grandfathers Jaguar Paw and Spearthrower Owl 26 What ultimately happened to Stormy Sky s tomb and Stela 31 Before it was built over Stela 31 was pulled up into the sanctuary pots were smashed and burned and then it was all covered over 27 Why was Teotihuacan in the Maya lowlands during the Early Classic What was happening at Teo that might explain their interest in the Maya area This was during the period after the uprising of ad 300 when the Teo rulers were living in the relatively modest Street of the Dead Complex and were busy building apartment complexes for the commoners Was this as Evans suggests a strategy of survival by a Teotihuacan faction or rulers 28 What other Maya sites apparently had their old dynasties replaced by Teotihuacanbacked new dynasties El Peru Palenque Rio Azul Holmul 29 What evidence is there at HolmulLa Sufricaya that indicates some sort of Teotihuacan presence or in uence New palace built at Sufricaya Teostyle artifacts murals and graffiti of Teo warriors and weapons one year anniversary of Teo s arrival Lecture 19 Tuesday April 7th SE Mesoamerica Tikal and Calakmul 30 Why is Southeastern Mesoamerica somewhat marginal in comparison to the rest of Mesoamerica Had its own linguistic and ethnic identities highly mountainous volcanoes 31 Which Maya city is the farthest southeast Copan 32 What two raw materials were traded through Copan and Quirigua Jade and obsidian 33 What is the Rosalila Who does it commemorate Why is it such an important archaeological find Shrine over Yax Kuk Mo s original Hunal temple Well preserved 34 Who is The Lady in Red How did she get that name Where is she from Why would Yax K uk Mo have married her At what site is there a similar marriage alliance Yax Kuk Mos wife covered in cinnabar and hematite because she was likely from the previous ruling lineage similar to Curl Nose and Jaguar Paw s daughter at Tikal 35 What serious injury did Yax K uk Mo have How did he likely get it Why would such an injury be commemorated in art Right arm fracture probably in battle Likely because it proved he was a great warrior 36 Why is Ceren known as the American Pompeii Because it is well preserved under volcanic ash 37 What happened after the eruption of Ilopango Where else in Mesoamerica is there a similar demographic change after a volcanic eruption People ed to K and Copan like eeing to Teo 38 What childhood playthings are found at Household 1 Why is it thought the child was learning to count Miniature pot and 20 sherds because of 20 sherds and base 20 system 39 What is important about the adobe bricks stockpiled at Household 2 They may have been for tribute to San Andres 46 What are some of the odder things found in Ceren households In particular things that aren t normally preserved at most Mesoamerican archaeological sites A possible cleanser potter s clay pigments painted gourds fiber rings for jars fiber rope baskets wood ash for soaking maize corn crib woven cloth bone needles awls huskers 41 Why is Structure 3 thought to be a communal building at Ceren Solid adobe walls few artifacts benches niches largest pot with poly ladle graffiticalendrics Tomb 42 Why is Structure 9 thought to be a sweatbath Domed with soot firebox oor of stone with ash cover narrow doorway interior bench exterior seats 43 Why is Structure 12 thought to be a shrine andor shaman s house Painted red and white different orientation rounded rather than square cornices latticed windows niches a highly restricted room no artifacts in the rafters niche with many worn sacred items 44 Why is it thought that the East Room in Structure 12 was particularly sacred Access to the interior room East Room was highly restricted with changes of direction barrier walls a low beam and changes in oor level 45 Who was Double Bird Where was he while there were 23 illegitimate rulers on the Tikal throne Legitimate heir of Teo lineage in exile 46 Who might the usurpers or illegitimate rulers have been Which site apparently backed them Allies of Calakmul Andor descendants of the old Jaguar Paw preTeo lineage 47 What ultimately happened to Double Bird and who were the perpetrators What was the result for Tikal and its allies Why was Tikal particularly vulnerable at that time He was killed by CaracolCalakmul 130 year hiatus with no monuments Teo left 48 Who in general were the new rulers who succeeded Double Bird at Tikal The new rulers at Tikal during the Hiatus may have been Calakmul puppets although there is some evidence that they were of the lineage that ruled before the Teotihuacan Entrada Jaguar Paw s lineage 49 What likely caused some of the ruling elite to move from Tikal to Dos Pilas What does that fact that they were under Calakmul s protection indicate Reentrenchment of Teo lineage They were of the Maya Jaguar Paw lineage 50 What does the timing of the victory celebration and the revival of the use of Teotihuacan imagery at Tikal likely tell us about the new ruler s background The date of the celebration of the defeat was timed to occur on the 260 year anniversary of Spearthrower Owl of Teotihuacan s death That he is of the TeoSpearthrower Owl lineage
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