Study Guide 6 with Answers
Study Guide 6 with Answers 414
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brenna McCormick on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 414 at Northern Illinois University taught by Dr. Davis or Dr. Sagebiel in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Archaeology of Mesoamerica in ANTH at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Lecture 21 MaLa Collapse April 9m 1 Who founded the site of Dos Pilas What site did they then found as a twin capital Founded by a faction of the Tikal ruling lineage in ad 648 old Jaguar Paw lineage Aguateca 2 Why did the elite abandon Dos Pilas Where did they go What happened to Dos Pilas after they left In ad 761 Dos Pilas Ruler 4 was defeated and likely killed by longtime rival Tamarindito Dos Pilas elites then moved to Aguateca Post ad 761 Dos Pilas squatters robbed the stones from the temples and palaces to build two walls around the site center 3 What kinds of defensive structures are found at Dos Pilas and Aguateca What other evidence is there of violence at both sites Walls Dos Pilas Skull pit and spear points in killing alley Aguateca burned down 4 What do the Maya stelae tell us about cracks in the foundation of Maya rulership during the ad 700s During the 700s many of the stelae erected throughout the lowlands depicted kings with companions who appear to be former vassals who had been promoted in rank This likely indicates the pressure the kings were feeling to share power 5 Why were more stelae erected in ad 790 than at any other time in the Maya lowlands major centers like Tikal and Calakmul were no longer in control and many petty kings were trying to assert their own rule 6 What were the likely causes of the Maya collapse What might have been the final blow Why couldn t the Maya survive this final blow Overpopulation use of marginal land erosion malnutrition and disease low fertility warfare rebellion outsiders Drought Could not store lots of food couldn t transport food very far 7 When did the Cult of the Feathered Serpent arise What did it emphasize What traits of the cult were shared throughout Mesoamerica In Epiclassic ad 9001100 militarism and human sacrifice creativity fertility regeneration through sacrifice elites and elite goods trade ballgame and decapitation pilgrimage centers Calendar Round colonnaded halls friezes of warfare and sacri ce chacmool tzompantli 8 What other important changes occurred during the Epiclassic Increased trade and markets increased militarism and professionalism of warriors migration Lecture 22 MaLa Survival in Northern Yuczian Chichen Itz21and Mayapan April 14m 9 What are the three major sites in the Northern Yucatan during the Postclassic and where was each located Uxamal Puuc Coba Eastern Chichen Northerncentral Yucatan 10 What is multepa rule What evidence for and against it is there at Uxmal Rule by several lineages the two large multiroom structures Nunnery and Palace of Governors Mat motif on latter no stelae or texts indicating rule by a single king 11 Who were the Itza Where where they from and who else were they related to What was their major profession Mexicanized Maya from the Chontalpa region traders Chontal and Putun 12 Why is it thought that Chichen Itza was the result of a fusion of Maya and Mexican cultures Which site in particular is thought to have in uenced Chichen Itza South is Maya in architectural style north is Mexican in style Tula 13 Mexican in uence at Chichen Itza is probably the result of which processes mix of migration conquest proselytizing and trade 14 What is the Castillo at Chichen Itza What solar event is marked there and how Foursided pyramid with atroofed temple Quetzalcoatl baulstrades equinoxes 15 Describe the Great Ball Court at Chichen Itza In particular what do the friezes show Ishaped largest in Mesoamerica vertical hoops very high vertical walls friezes of ItzaMaya history and ballgame decapitation 16 What kinds of imagery are shared between Tula and Chichen Itza Atlantean gures eagles with human hearts pottery pipes prowling jaguars gures on sculpted columns benches with processions of gures and serpents 17 What evidence is there of multepal rule at Chichen Itza No images of single rulers Murals seem to show multiple rulers or elites Dedication texts of buildings do not mention rulers Texts mention people as being brothers may not be real brothers but either ctive kin andor intermarried lineages Colonial documents state the Chichen Itza was ruled by three brothers who had come from the west Mayapan the successor to Chichen Itza and occupied at the Conquest had multepal or joint rule 18 Who was Hunac Ceel What city was he from How did he manage to defeat Chichen Itza Leader of the Cocom ruling lineage at Mayapan At a wedding of the princess of Izamal Hunac Ceel gave a love potion to the ruler of Chichen Itza Chac Xib Chac causing him to fall in love with the bride and carry her off The forces of Mayapan and Izamal joined together to sack Chichen Itza 19 What kinds of things did the Cocom do to retain power in the Mayapan realm The Cocom were taking heirs of rival sites into their court at Mayapan in order to educate them but in reality it was hostagetaking Each provincial lord had a palace at Mayapan and was expected to spend considerable time there They also used Gulf Coast Mexicanized Maya mercenaries to intimidate other sites into paying tribute These mercenaries used the bow and arrow There was a reestablishment of pure Maya lineages and purging of ToltecMexican lineages as Mayapan rulers would test potential new lords about esoteric Maya religious and other knowledge Those who answered incorrectly were put to death 20 How did Mayapan try to reestablish Maya ways Purging of nonMaya lineages Less use of Mexicanized things like tzompantli skull racks Revival of the use of stelae with at least 25 at Mayapan Increased use of censersincensarios with both Maya and Mexican gods depicted on them Lecture 23 Tul nd the Toltecs April 215 t 21 What kinds of things spread from Tula and the Toltecs into the rest of Mesoamerica Nahua and Otomi Toltec dynasties trade networks and new gods 22 Who is Cihuacoatl Who did she represent as a goddess Why do you think women who died in childbirth were akin to warriors killed on the battle eld Snake goddess midwives childbirth women who died in childbirth and accompanied the sun 23 What new artifact types appear with the Toltecs Why wasn t the wheel more broadly adopted in Mesoamerica Wheeled toys grater bowls tlaloc incense burners long clay smoking pipes of serpents No draft animals and rough terrain 24 What was the Aztatlan network What territory did it cover What kinds of things were traded along it and into Tula itself Trading network in West Mexico up to SW US obsidian turquoise jade shell from both coasts pottery 25 What did Chaco Canyon share with Mesoamerica What important resource might it have controlled Parrots copper bells chocolate Turquoise 26 What direct and indirect evidence of there of contact between Mesoamerica and the Southeast United States Pachuca obsidian temple mounds Feathered Serpent motif maize 27 What architecture art and artifacts are shared by Tula and Chichen Itza Temple of WarriorsPyramid B chacmool tzompantli atlantean gures colonnaded halls Ishaped ball courts with rings benches decorated with processions of soldiers feathered serpent door jambssupports Quetzalcoatl gt Prowling jaguars and birds with hearts in their mouth or claws Longstem clay pipes Soldiers wearing similar outfits Venus imagery Turquoise VVVVV Copper bells 28 What Mayaassociated things are found at Tula What does this say about the direction of in uence between the two sites Maya pottery possible stelae In uence from Tula to Chichen was stronger 29 What ultimately happened to Tula Who might have been responsible and why Tula was burned and torn down likely be Chichimecs as drought spread 30 What happened to the Aztecs after the reached the Basin of Mexico between ad 13001325 Where did they live and what did they do Chapultepec expelled then Cuicuilco and worked as mercenaries for Culhuacan 31 What happened when the Aztecs arranged to marry the Culhua s daughter How did that lead to the founding of Tenochtitlan They ayed her they were chased into Lake Texcoco 32 What were the positive aspects of Tenochtitlan s location What were the negative aspects of Tenochtitlan s location Aquatic resources defensible easy transport by canoe chinampa agriculture central location No wood or stone no fresh water ooding Lecture 34 The Middle Postclzisic Aztecs November 22E 33 Who were the Aztecs subject to in the early years of Tenochtitlan What service did they provide Tepanecs soldiers 34 Who was Tezozomoc Why was he an important figure in the Basin of Mexico Tepanec ruler of Azcapotzalco conquered much of the Basin of Mexico 35 How did Tezozomoc pay the Aztecs for their service What did this allow the Aztecs to obtain let them keep some of the conquered territories allowing them to get tribute This allowed them more access to wood stone and other products 36 Who was Nezahualcoyotl What was he famous for doing Son of defeated Texcoco ruler architect poet stateman 37 What is a segmentary state They were very similar in their social organization and economies and could survive on their own without becoming part of larger polities This made any grouping into a larger polity very fragile as there was little incentive to stay and plenty of incentive to leave particularly tribute obligations 38 What is a calpulli What did it control An extended lineage that owned land corporately Together under a headman or woman they administered farmland education rituals tribute obligations military cadres craft production and dealt with disputes 39 What is Flower War What was its purpose It was a set of stylized planned military engagements that allowed cities to test one another s strength and take captives for sacrifice Common soldiers were sacrificed Officers were exchanged after the battle was over if they were captured 40 How did the Tarascans manage to stay independent of the Aztecs Distance and metal BONUS Lecture 21 MgLa Collapse April 9n 1 Which was the last Petexbatun site to be abandoned What kind of defenses did that site have Punta de Chimino on a peninsulaisland Three trenches were excavated across the peninsula The fill was then used to build ramparts 30 feet high 2 What evidence is there of foreigners taking over the Petexbatun after ad 830 Odd stelea at Ceibal 3 When were the last lowland Maya stelae erected Ad 909 4 What happened to the major sites after they were abandoned by the elites What did the nonelites use them for Also continued to get pilgrimages to site centers offerings caches and censers and the resetting of stelae including upside down throughout the Postclassic and Colonial periods Site centers often have squatters houses in the central plazas 5 Where did much of the surviving lowland Maya populations move to Northern Maya lowlandsYucatan 6 Where did Mesoamerican metalworking originate West Mexico from Ecuador 7 What are the two phases of Mesoamerican metalworking Copper ad 6001200 bronze 12001521 8 What techniques were used to work metal Lost wax hammering smelting 9 What kinds of objects were made out of metal What about these objects fooled the Spanish Tinklers ornamentsjewelry axes needles tweezers rings looked like gold and silver 10 What new technology was developed for making cotton cloth Standardized spindle whorls 11 What is the site of El Tajin known for Stepfret motif ying cornice over 12 ballcourts Pyramid of Niches with 365 niches room that mimics ballcourts 12 What new development led to the 200 year nearabandonment of Cholula Settlement of Caxcatla 13 What kinds of things are shown on the Cacaxtla murals Warfare Mexican beating Maya ordinary scenes of trade 14 What three things about the site of Xochicalco are typical of sites throughout Mesoamerica in the EpiclassicPostclassic Feathered Serpent cult hilltop and fortified ve ball courts Lecture 22 MaLa Survival in Northern Yucmn Chichen Itz21and Mayapan April 14m 15 What two or three terms are used for the period from roughly ad 8009001100 1200 Epiclassic Terminal Classic Early Postclassic 16 What are some of the new architectural forms used in the Postclassic Colonnaded halls repetitious friezes ChacTlaloc masks prevalent Feathered serpent prevalent prefab blocks false temples standard bearers atlantean figures veneer tzompantli chacmool 17 What two occupations are professionalized during the Postclassic Traderspochteca warriorssoldiersmilitary 18 What happened to the societies of people who were left in the southern Maya lowlands after the collapse In the Southern Maya area some populations devolved back to huntingforaging and smallscale farming 19 What are cenotes and chultuns used for in the Northern Yucatan Storing water 20 Who ruled at Uxmal from ca ad 900925 Why did he likely have that name Lord Chac because of importance of rain 21 What is odd about the Pyramid of the Magician at Uxmal Oval shape 22 What is odd about the settlement pattern of Coba Why did it have this arrangement Spread out along sacbes because it was swampy 23 Where is one of the longest sacbes in Mesoamerica Why was it built Coba to Yaxuna likely to thwart Chichen away from Yaxuna 24 What is the Chontalpa region Why was it important Where the Itza were from Gulf Coast of Yucatan good location for trade with Gulf and several rivers into lowlands and highlands cacao and cotton area 25 Who were the rst Mesoamericans that Columbus met What were they doing Traders 26 What kinds of things were thrown into the Cenote of Sacrifice Does it surprise you that children were the most common group of people sacrificed why or why not jade gold wood ceramic shell and textile objects along with copal incense spindle whorls and human remains all ages and sexes although children are most common No sympathetic magic 27 What does the Temple of the Warriors look like What other structure in Mesoamerica is similar to the Temple of the Warriors at Chichen Itza It consists of columns of warriors Feathered Serpent Columns Chacmool Atlantean gures Standard bearers Murals of PuucYucatec and Itza Maya Similar to Pyramid B at Tula 28 What is the Caracol What was it used for Round with spiral staircase astronomical observatory 29 Where did many of the Itza from Chichen Itza ee to Lake Peten Itza in the PetenTayasal 30 Why is Mayapan often referred to as a mini Chichen Itza Because it looks like a small replica of Chichen architecturally with a Castillo and Caracol etc 31 How did Mayapan fall The rulers of Mayapan became increasingly despotic and their vassal lords eventually allied with the Xiu lineage of Mani and destroyed the city in ad 1441 32 What was the Yucatan peninsula like politically after the fall of Mayapan Thereafter the Northern Maya Lowlands would contain many small citystates all ghting amongst one another with none reaching prominence before the Spanish Conquest Lecture 23 Tul nd the Toltecs April 215 t 33 Who were the Chichimec and Coyotlatelco Where did they originate What languages did they speak Broad swath of people in Late ClassicPostclassic West and NW Mesoamerica or Gran Chichimeca Otomi and Nahua 34 What things originated with the ChichimecCoyotlatelco and spread throughout Mesoamerica in the Postclassic Cut stone sweatbaths and hearths maguey tech turquoise colonnaded halls tzompantli metal 35 What kinds of buildings and other structures did La Quemada have Road system ball courts Hall of Columns charnel house 36 Why were people aggregating in the period around ad 7001200 What is meant by the term aggregation It was dry people of different ethnicities and languages were living together in large communities 37 What site preceded Tula Grande Who lived there Tula Chico Coyotlatelco 38 When was Tula inhabited 9001150 39 What ethnic groups made up Tula Teotihuacanos Nonoalca Chichimecs Coyotlatelco 40 Which two old gods continued to be important at Tula Tlaloc and Quetzalcoatl 41 Who was Tezcatlipoca What makes him recognizable in art Smoking Mirror God of the gods archsorcerertransformer foot as mirror or bone 42 Who is Ehecatl Where did he likely come from What is unique about his temples Wind God Gulf Coast round temples 43 Who is Xipe Totec Flayed Skin god agricultural renewal 44 Who are Xochiquetzal and Tlazolteotl Tied to childbirth sexuality fertility motherhood weaving moon Filth God old woman curer confessor sin eater 45 What about Tula s architecture was similar to that of Teotihuacan s same alignment Major pyramid on north largest on the east apartments 46 What does Pyramid B look like What other pyramid in Mesoamerica does it resemble What in particular does it share with that other temple Colonnaded halls warrior columns possible stelae like Temple of the Warriors at Chichen serpent doorjambs benches with warrior friezes jaguars and birds of prey with hearts 47 What is the Palacio Quemado What kinds of things were found in it Likely administrative sunken patios benches altars firepits patolli games colonnades 48 What other structures are found at Tula Which ones are also found at Chichen Itza Coatepantli Ishaped ball courts tzompantli chacmool adoratorios aparments 49 Which later group looted Tula for treasure to take back to their capital The Aztecs 50 Where is Snaketown located What does the site share with Mesoamerica Outside of Phoenix ball courts copper bells 51 Where is Chaco Canyon located What kinds of architecture did it have New Mexico Great Houses road system kivas 52 Where is Casas Grandes located What are some of the features of its architecture Chihuahua platform mounds Ishaped ball courts high rise apartments bird pens special quarters for various workers 53 What kinds of goods were produced at and traded through Casas Grandes Copper shell turquoise hide peyote 54 Who is Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl What two sites is he associated with He was kicked out of Tula and may have migrated to Chichen Itza 55 What is Mixteca Puebla style Who originated it What were some of the uses of the style It consisted of a stylized pictographiciconographic recording system that was a lingua franca used across several language groups for communication ToltecaChichimeca It was used on many forms of art but particularly in codices paper books The codices cover much of the same information as Classic Maya stelae especially genealogies of rulers 56 Where did the Aztecs say they migrated from Where did they stop along the way Migrated from Aztlan island Tula Chicomoztoc every 52 years for New Fire ceremony 57 What god did the Aztecs bring with them Their god Huitzilopochtli 58 What is the image on the Mexican ag today Eagle on a prickly pear cactus with a snake in its beak Lecture 24 The Aztecs and Tarascans in the Middle Postclassic April 23 59 Why did the Aztecs and Tepanecs go after the cities in the southern part of the Basin of Mexico They needed fresh lake water 60 Who is Maxtla How did his actions ultimately lead to the formation of the Triple AllianceUsurped Tezozomoc s throne killed Aztec ruler blocked Tenochtitlan s access to fresh water from Chapultepec led to allies to defeat him 61 When the ChichimecsAztecs moved into the Basin of MeXico where did they begin farming What techniques did they use and what did they grow Piedmonts dryslopes maguey terraces 62 What are tlatoani and huetlatoani Citystate rulers were tlatoani When states were conquered their overlords were huetlatoani 63 How did Nezahualcoyotl keep control over his part of the Aztec empire Nezahualcoyotl kept his part of the alliance under control by killing off the tlatoani who were not loyal to him and elevating someone from the same lineage who was If there was no one who was loyal then he appointed a calpixque or steward for that city He made tlatoani and calpixqui responsible for collecting tribute not from the people surrounding their own city but from nearby cities therefore depriving them of a power base 64 What kinds of buildings and structures were in the center of Tenochtitlan Templo Mayor Tezcatlipoca Temple Sun Temple Quetzalcoatl temple tzompantli Ishaped ball courts coatepantli 65 Who was the Templo Mayor dedicated to What was at the foot of its stairways Tlaloc and Huitzilopochtli disk of H s sister Coyolxauhqui 6 Where did the Tarascans live What was their capital city Michoacan Lake Patzcuaro Tzintzuntzan 67 What aspects of Tarascan religion differed from that of the Aztecs Curicuaeri No Tlaloc or Quetzalcoatl although they had other similar gods No writing system No day name divination Ballgame but no ball courts yacatas 68 What aspects of religion did the Tarascans share with the Aztecs 260 day calendar Human and autosacrifice Reverence for mountains springs and caves Importance of serpents and butter ies 69 Who was Curicaueri Tarascan principle god 70 Which two Postclassic empires in Postclassic Mesoamerica had Triple Alliances Aztecs and Tarascans 71 What was the largest defeat the Aztecs suffered before the Spanish conquest By the Tarascans
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