Gen. Psychology EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE
Gen. Psychology EXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE PSYCH 1000 - 02
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jovani Jones on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 1000 - 02 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dennis Miller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 587 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Chapter One 11 o Psychological Science The study of the mind brain and behavior through means of research 0 Although many of us function as intuitive psychologists a vast majority of our intuitions and beliefs are incorrect 0 Thinking critically helps improve the accuracy of our ideas 0 Research findings must have critical thinking We must understand the research methods that psychologists use 0 Through psychology we have been able to identify typical errors 0 Ignoring the evidence that does not support an individual s beliefs confirmation bias 0 Failing to I Judge source credibility accurately I MisunderstandNeglect to use statistics I See relationships that do not exist I Make relative comparisons I Accept afterthefact explanations I Take mental shortcuts 0 Failure to see one s own faultsinadequacies selfserving bias 12 0 Even though people have thought about psychological questions for many years Wilhelm Wundt began the first formal teaching laboratory of psychology in Germany within the of E o Wilhelm Wundt thought it was necessary to lessen the mental processes to their structural parts This would go on to become Structuralism Edward Titchener was another wellknown structuralist 0 William James argued that it is more important to understand the adaptive functions of the mind that to identify componentbasic elements This would go on to become Functionalism o The idea of understanding the objective mind was a main factor of early psychological research 0 The Gestalt notions focused on people s perceptions o Freud s PsychodynamicPsychoanalytic theories emphasized the unconscious mind 0 Both John Watson and B F Skinner brought about the idea of Behaviorism a view that emphasized the study of all observable behavior The theory came about due to the fact mind studies had been too subjective and unscientific as a result 0 With the Cognitive Revolution in the 1960s George Miller and Ulric Neisser brought the mind back to the forefront causing much research on the mental processes memory language and decision making to explode 0 Solomon Asch and Kurt Lewin helped spur the increase attention to social contexts on both behavior and mental activity 0 Because of the last century s advances in psychology information on psychological disorders now include treatments 13 0 Four themes illustrate the latest developments in psychological science 0 Biology I Is very much emphasized when explaining psychological phenomena I Psychological research into how the brain enables to mind was due to a spark in a biological revolution I Increasing developments due to the revolution 0 Brain chemistry knowledge 0 Technology to view the brain in action 0 Mapping of the human genome 0 Evolution I Argues that the brain has evolved as an answer to our past ancestors survival problems I Psychology has been influenced a lot by evolution 0 Culture I Provides many adaptive solutions I Contemporary Psychology 0 An increasing interest in the cultural norms and the effect they have on thought processes and behaviors I Cultural norms can reflect the solutions to problems that were worked out by past generations in order to help the future generations learn 0 Psychological Science I Because it involves many levels of analysis all psychologists share the same goal of understanding the mind brain and behavior Many psychologists focus on analysis via biological individual social and cultural means I Understand that many problems in psychology require studies at all levels There are diverse subfields and all focus on different levels of analysis Chapter Two 21 0 Science has four primary goals 0 Description Describing what the phenomenon is 0 Prediction Predicting when a phenomenon might happen 0 Control Controlling the conditions under which a phenomenon occurs 0 Explanation Explaining what causes the phenomenon to occur 0 Critical thinking helps many people become educated consumers of information All critical thinkers 0 Can question claims 0 Seek definitions for parts of the claims 0 Evaluate said claims by seeking out wellsupported evidence 22 24 Using scientific method psychologists can succeed in describing predicting controlling and explaining behavior The scientific inquiry relies on objective methods and empirical evidence to answer testable questions Overall the scientific method s based on the use of theories to make hypotheses that can be tested by collecting objective data via research Good theories should be falsifiable and parsimonious and in turn will generate many testable hypotheses When a theory has been made based on observing phenomena the scientific method is used 0 Form a hypothesis based on said theory 0 Conducting a literature review in order to see how individuals are testing said theory 0 Choosing a research method to test the hypothesis 0 Conducting a research study 0 Analyze the data gathered 0 Reporting the results Scientists will often examine the results to see how they compare to the original hypothesis The theory should be adjusted when new findings confirm or disprove the hypothesis Unexpected or serendipitous discoveries will sometimes occur but only researchers who are prepared to recognize their importance will benefit from them Although unexpected findings can suggest newer theories these findings must be replicated and elaborated Three main types of studies are used in psychological research 0 Descriptive o Correlational 0 Experimental Although descriptive and correlational designs are useful for describing and predicting behavior they do not allow researchers to assess causality The only way for researchers to determine causality is through experiments In a experiment a researcher will manipulate an independent variable to study how it affects the dependent variable while controlling all the other potential influences When performing research sampling will allow researchers to draw a sample that best represents the population and generalize the findings to the population Psychological researchers should consider ethical consequences of the data they collect Strict rules oversee the research regarding both human participants and research animals Every research study is evaluated by an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee IACUC which is made up of scientists nonscientists and a veterinarian This group ensures the ethical treatment of animals before during and after the study Data should be valid reliable and accurate Data must have 0 Construct validity a measure of what they are supposed to measure 0 External validity apply outside of the laboratory 0 Internal validity accurately represent effects of manipulations to the independent variable and not something else All descriptive statistics should summarize data They include the measures of central tendency and measures of variability The measures of central tendency indicate the typical response of a group as a whole 0 Mean 0 Median 0 Mode 0 Range Chapter Three The basic units of the nervous system are neurons They receive process and relay information to other neurons The nervous system consists of two parts 0 Central Nervous System CNS I Brain and the Spinal Cord 0 Peripheral Nervous System PNS I Autonomic o Sympathetic o Parasympathetic I Somatic Neurons receive the information via dendrites and processes in in the cell body If excitatory the neuron generates an quotaction potential and fires causing a signal down the axon to release neurotransmitters in the synapse A lot of neurons are insulated via the myelin sheath which surrounds the axon and lets an action potential travel quickly Anytime a neuron is resting it is negatively charged A neuron firing depends on o Excitatory I Encourages the neuron to fire 0 Inhibitory I Discourages the neuron to fire Intensity of an excitatory signal affects the frequency of neural firing but not its strengths A neurons go by the quotallornothing principle on channels will close and return to their negative resting state after a neuron fires When neurotransmitters are removed from the synapse action potentials end Removal occurs via 0 Reuptake 0 Enzyme Deactivation 0 Actions of the Autoreceptors 32 33 Agonists enhance the neurotransmitters while antagonists inhibit the neurotransmitters There are eight crucial neurotransmitters for psychological research Acetylcholine Involved in motor control and mental processes EpinephrineNorepinephrine Deal with energy arousal and attention Serotonin Important for emotional states impulse control and dreaming Dopamine Deals with reward motivation and motor control GABAGlutamate General inhabitation and excitation Endorphins Important for pain reduction 0 00000 In early research it was debated that the relationship between human brain structures and is functions Imaging techniques have advanced understanding of the brain The spinal cord carries sensory information from the body to the brain and motor information from the brain to the body Reflexes are also produced The back of the brain stem has the cerebellum which is responsible for o Coordinated Movement 0 Balance 0 Motor Learning Numerous structures with unique functions are under the cerebral cortex 0 Hypothalamus Regulates body functions 0 Thalamus A way for sensory information to travel to the cortex 0 Hippocampus Memory formation 0 Amygdala Influences emotional states 0 Basal Ganglia Planning and production of movement as well as reward The cerebral cortex is the outer surface of the brain and is divided into lobes o Occipital Lobe Vision 0 Parietal Lobe Touch and Attention 0 Temporal Lobe Hearing Memory Facial and Object Perception o Frontal Lobe Contains the prefrontal cortex is associated with Movement High level psychological processes and Personality Surgical division of the two hemispheres results in the left hemisphere displaying different abilities than the right hemisphere The Central Nervous System 0 Attends to body and I Environment I Initiates Actions I Directs peripheral and endocrine systems to respond appropriately The Peripheral Nervous System consists of o Somatic Nervous System 0 Autonomic Nervous System I Controls both Sympathetic and Sympathetic activity o The Endocrine System has a lot of endocrine glands such as the pituitary and adrenal glands The Central Peripheral and Endocrine Systems use chemicals to transmit signals This transmission occurs across synapses while endocrine systems use hormones that travel via the blood stream 0 Hormones in gonads estrogen progesterone testosterone are crucial in the development of 0 Secondary Sex Characteristics 0 Sexual Behavior 0 The hypothalamus controls the endocrine system by directing the pituitary to send out hormones that affect other endocrine glands o The communication systems are integrated and promote behavior that is adaptive to an organism s environment 34 o The circuitry of the brain is constantly reworked in response to experience during both development and across a life span 0 Male and female brains are mostly similar but the differences are revealing Male and females perform the same cognitions using different parts of the brain 0 Male brains I Larger but not necessarily better 0 Female brains I Organized more for language 0 Understandings of brain organization and plasticity has enabled researchers to understand conditions such as the phantom limp syndrome The creation of new neurons or neurogenesis underline neural plasticity o The brain m reorganize after a brain injury However child brains show much more reorganization after injury as opposed to adult brains 0 Human behavior is influenced by genes 0 People will inherit physical attributes and personality traits from their parents 0 The Human Genome Project mapped the basic sequence of DNA providing information that help scientists increase their understanding of individual differences in people s characteristics and develop treatments for genetically based disorders 0 With studying trait heritability researchers also study how and when genes are expressed Genetic expression is affected by environment including experience 0 Epigenetics is the study of how environment can change genetic expression 0 Transgenic mice and optogenetics are scientific techniques that help scientists learn more about how genes and brain activity control behavior Chapter Four 41 o Consciousness is a person s subjective experience of the world 42 43 There has been a long ongoing debate about the relationship between the physical brain and consciousness Nowadays it is believed that consciousness results from the workings of the brain Although we need to attend to information to be conscious of it information can be processed subliminally or without conscious awareness Consciousness arises as a result of which brain circuits are active according to the M Workspace Model Severe brain injury can result in 0 Persistent vegetative state 0 Minimally conscious state 0 Brain death Most animals experience sleep The sleeper loses contact with the external world in this altered state of consciousness Sleep is characterized by five stages They are associated with unique patterns of electrical activity in the brain as reflected in EEG readings 0 Stage 1 0 Stage 2 0 Stage 3 0 REM Common sleep disorders Insomnia Inability to sleep 0 Sleep Apnea Interruptions in breathing Narcolepsy Falling asleep unexpectedly It is unknown why animals sleep It could be a restorative function by helping the brain recover from its metabolic activity during the day Sleep deprivation will cause decrease cognitive function and will cause illness and even death in some cases Sleep facilitates learning Dreams occur in REM and nonREM sleep The dreams differ in these two types however This may be due to the activation and deactivation of different brain structures during these types of sleep NonREM I Dreams are realistic REM I Dreams are more bizarre O O O 0 Although we do not know why we dream there are a few theories 0 Freud s theory suggests that symbolic images in dreams help resolve unconscious conflicts o Hobson and McCarley s activationsynthesis theory suggest dreams result from neural activation produced via REM sleep 0 Others say that the content of dreams has many similarities to waking cognition 0 Altered states of consciousness can be achieved via hypnosis meditation and immersion in activities 0 Some people are more susceptible to hypnosis than others A lot of people cannot be hypnotized o Hypnotic and posthypnotic suggestions can change how people react even if they are not aware that they were given a suggestion o Hypnosis can be a means to control pain 0 The patterns of brain activity suggest individuals who are hypnotized show an activation in the brain areas that are associated with hypnotic suggestion 0 Both concentrative and mindfulness meditation can contribute to improved health 0 Fl is an altered state of consciousness that results due to engaging in tasks that are deeply absorbing require extreme physical exertion or produces a profound religious expe ence o Escaping the self can have its benefits when altering consciousness f taken to extremes the activity can have negative consequences 44 0 Categories of psychoactive drugs 0 Stimulants Amphetamines and Cocaine o Depressants Alcohol 0 OpiatesNarcotics Heroin and Morphine o HallucinogensPsychedelics LSD 0 Others such as marijuana have mixed effects 0 Psychoactive drugs produce their effects through influencing neurotransmitter systems All abused drugs affect dopamine reward centers in the brain either directly or indirectly 0 Drug abuse is costly to society contributing to illness violence crime and death 0 With excessive drug use addiction a condition defined as a physical and psychological dependence is eminent The nucleus accumbens along with other brain regions have been implicated in the experience of addiction nsua is crucial for the experience of craving o Addiction is influenced by personality factors like attention seeking It can also be influenced by the environment or context in which drug use can occur iClicker Questions Review amp Answer as needed 1 According to the textbook why is critical thinking important a Critical thinking is important for only scientists who need to do experiments b Critical thinking enables us to interpret information and evaluate claims c Critical thinking is necessary for science and math but is not important for any other disciplines 2 A study of the experiences of a serial killer someone with a very rare set of behavior is like to make use of a Random selection b A case study c Crosssectional research d Participant observation quotA college professor found that the more class absences students have the lower their grade in the course tends to be What type of correlation is suggested by the aforementioned statement a Positive b Negative c Zero quotIndividuals with high incomes have low levels of diabetes while those with low incomes have high levels of diabetes What correlation coefficient is suggested by the statement above a Positive b Zero c Negative quotIn a study of American cities it was found that as the number of violent crimes increased so did the number of stories selling pornography What type of correlation is suggested by the statement above a 03 b 07 c 0 d 05 e Either A or B are correct When an experiment lacks the proper control which of the following unintended variables can influence the outcome of a study a Confound b Independent Variable c Dependent Variable d All are correct In the nervous system Alzheimer s disease is characterized by a Plaques between cells b Tangles within cells c Increased brain volumesize d Both A and B are correct e A B and C are correct Dr Smith wants to study Alzheimer s disease and the brain He uses which tracks harmless radioactive substance to examine the brain s metabolic activity a A positron emission tomography PET scan b Magnetic resonance imaging MRI c An electroencephalogram recording EEG d Functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI After cautiously walking home and arriving safely from latenight class Selma notices her heart rate slows as does her breathing This automatic return to a normal state is due to the activity of the a Somatic nervous system b Sympathetic system c Parasympathetic system d Endocrine system 10 Which corresponds best to the parietal lobecortex a A b B c C d D 11 Which is important for attention working memory decision making and appropriate social behavior a A b B c C d D e E 12 Which best corresponds to the cerebellum a A b B c C d D e E 13 When John burned his finger on the stove neurons carried the message to the spinal cord and neurons instructed the muscles in his arm to retract from the flame a Motor sensory b Sensory motor c Afferent efferent d Both A and C are correct e Both B and C are correct 14 During the resting potential a neuron s interior has a A positive charge relative to the outside of the neuron b A negative charge relative to the outside of the neuron c No electrical charge d A positive charge for cells in the central nervous system and a negative charge for cells in the peripheral nervous system 0 439 1 4 l 39 Patholong Slt in 43 Figure 3 5 2013 WW Medan amp Company Inc 15 Which best corresponds to the synapse aka synaptic cleft 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 905m angt e E When not active the inside of neurons have a electrical charge relative to the outside This is referred to as anthe a Positive action potential b Negative resting potential c Positive resting membrane potential d Negative resting membrane potential Inhibitory signals polarization the likelihood of an action potential a Decrease decreasing b Decrease increasing c Increase decreasing d Increase increasing Propagation of the action potential occurs a Along the axon at the nodes of Ranvier b Along the dendrites at the nodes of Ranvier c Between neurons at the synapse d On the cell body How do neurons communicate a Neurotransmitters cross the synapse and bind with receptors on the postsynaptic dendrites b Terminal buttons plug into receptor sits on adjacent dendrites Electric signals jump across the synapse to the adjacent neuron d Chemicals released into the synapse are converted to neurotransmitters that bind with receptors Neurotransmitters a Are specific with a separate neurotransmitter for each behavior b May affect a variety of behaviors depending on the size of the action potential c Influence behavior through the function of a particular postsynaptic neuron d Convert enzymes at particular synapses A medication that blocks the reuptake of serotonin would lead to a More serotonin in the synapse b Less serotonin in the synapse c More serotonin in the axon d Less serotonin in the axon According to the research presented today cannabinoid receptor agonists a Increase food intake b Decrease the behavioral and neurochemical response to a painful stimulus c Decrease food intake d Both A and B are correct 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 e Both B and C are correct If a person in a coma shows some evidence of being aware of his surroundings the condition is known as a Consciousness b Permanent conscious state c Minimally conscious state d Brain death On Monday night Cody couldn t sleep He was worried about Tuesday s calculus test On Tuesday night he got his usual night s sleep Cody experienced on Monday night a Idiopathic insomnia b Iatrogenic insomnia c Transient insomnia d Narcolepsy e Somnambulism Occasionally Meifen will fall asleep while working with a customer She is experiencing which sleep disorder a Narcolepsy b Transient insomnia c Sleep apnea d Iatrogenic insomnia Our cycles of wakefulness and sleepiness depend mainly on a Changes in heart rate and blood pressure b Detection of changes in magnetic fields c Hormones regulated by the adrenal gland d Cyclic activity generated within the brain itself A rhythm of activity and inactivity that lasts about a day is called a a Euclidean rhythm b Diadromous rhythm c Biorhythm d Circadian rhythm When we re tired we would likely have in the brain a High levels of adenosine b High levels of orexinhypocretin c Low levels of adenosine d Both A and B are correct e Both B and C are correct Daniel is currently in Stage 1 sleep If we examine his brain s electrical activity we would most likely observe a Alpha waves Beta waves Delta waves Theta waves Sleep spindles and kcomplexes DP95quot 30 Which best describes stage slowwave sleep a Lack of genital activity and moderate muscle tone b Slow or absent eye movements c Delta waves in electroencephalogram EEG d Both A and B are correct e A B and C are correct 31 According to dreams reflect sleeping mind quotmaking sense of random brain activity a Memory integration hypothesis b Evolvedthreat rehearsal hypothesis c Psychodynamic theory d Activationsynthesis hypothesis 32 What is not an adaptive functions of sleep a Shutting off the brain b Repairing damage c Hiding during times of damage d Both A and B are not adaptive functions of sleep e A B and C are not adaptive functions of sleep 33 Which is the best example of tolerance to alcohol a When Meirong drinks alcohol her balance and coordination are impaired and she cannot safely drive her car b After several years of alcohol use Meirong experiences a strong psychological desire or craving for alcohol she is not able to drink c After several years of alcohol use Huian experiences a bed headache and nausea when she is not able to drink alcohol d When Meili started college she needed one beer to relax after several years of alcohol use finds she needs twelve beers to relax 34 Which best describes the effects of opiates on brain and behavior a Altering perceptions and thoughts b Increase physical and mental processes c Lessen the experience of pain d Decrease the symptoms of schizophrenia 35 Stimulant addiction is related to activity of neurons from the to the a Occipital cortex frontal cortex Hypothalamus pituitary gland Frontal cortex occipital cortex Ventral tegmental area nucleus accumbens Ventral tegmental pituitary gland DPPPquot
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