Study Guide for Lectures 1-6
Study Guide for Lectures 1-6 AOSC200
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Miller on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to AOSC200 at University of Maryland taught by Tim Canty in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see Weather and Climate in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Lecture 1 Weather what is going on in the atmosphere at a specific place and time Pressure temperature wind speed and wind direction describe the state of the atmosphere and indicate weather and climate Climate the set of conditions that prevail in a region over at least a 30 year period Reasons to learn about climate 0 Good to be prepared 0 Limits risk to lives and property Temperature anomaly change in temperature relative to an average value 1 C rise in temperature 0 What if temperatures cooled by 12 C This actually happened from 1400 1800AD known as the Little Ice Age 0 What if temperatures cooled by 5 C This actually happened about 18000 years ago known as the Last Ice Age which left our area under a complete sheet of ice Lecture 2 The atmosphere is like an ocean and we re at the bottom 0 Waves of air roll through like waves in the ocean o The rippling effect can be seen in the clouds which is caused by air hitting mountains and going over them Weather maps 0 Front boundary between two differing air masses I Cold front cold air replacing warm air I Warm front warm air replacing cold air I Stationary front border between different fronts neither front strong enough to move the other I Occluded front cold front takes over a warm front I The symbols indicate the direction that the air is moving ALL W MA N smm 0121 Cold from Stat onar39y from Occudnd from I Atmospheric temperature 0 Weather in the troposphere happens earlier higher up in the atmosphere 0 Troposphere we live here Temperature decreases with increased altitude Air is colderthinnerless dense with less pressure at the top of the troposphere b c the surface is warm so as you move away the air cools down 0 Tropopause b w the stratosphere and troposphere where the temperature pauses o Stratosphere temperature increases with increasing height 0 Temperature inversion temperature increases with increasing height grand canyon salt lake city If it s really low you can t light a fire b c the smoke will only go up to a certain height the hot air above prevents the smoke from leaving The government has to ban burning sometimes because of poor air quality 0 Ozone is great for blocking UV rays by absorbing them in the stratosphere but breathing them in in the troposphere can damage selfreplicating broken DNA which can lead to skin cancer Smog is photochemical ozone CFCs that destroy ozone have been banned globally because CFCs are also greenhouse gases Stratopause there is a pause in the temperature increase Mesosphere temperature decreases with height Mesopause pause in temperature decrease Thermosphere temperature increases with height 0000 120 110 100 90 xi 80 70 MESOSPHERE 60 Altitude km 50 Stratopause 1 1 mb k 40 30 STRATOSPHERE lomb 2 Ozone 20 maximum Tropopause 100 80 60 40 20 0 1 20 80 40 O 40 Temperature 0 Lapse rate the rate that temperature decreases with height 65 C per km or 35 F for every lOOOft fronts can mix this up so it s an approximation Understanding pressure 0 We notice changes in pressure but we don t notice the normal pressure on us 0 Units of measurement I Inches of Hg I mbar 0 Tornadoes may make your ears pop which indicates that low pressure is coming through 0 Ideal gas law I pressure volume constant temperature I pressure density temperature constant Atmospheric composition 0 Nitrogen 7808 doesn t do anything to you 0 Oxygen 2095 what we need higher levels are more likely to ignite o Gases that control the chemistry of the atmosphere I Water vapor I Carbon dioxide I Methane I Nitrous oxide I Ozone I Particles dust soot etc I Chloro uorocarbons CFCs Carbon Dioxide Cycle 0 Currently there are more sources than sinks 9 rising levels of C02 in the atmosphere which is correlated with the rise in temperatures 0 There are currently few ways to reduce C02 0 Rain water is acidic b c there is C02 in it Recent science 0 30 increase in the acidity of the ocean since 1700 9 100 increase by 2100 This is a rate of change in ocean chemistry that is 10 times anything documented over the last 50 million years Lecture recap 0 Temperature determines the vertical structure of the atmosphere 0 Pressure decreases with height 0 Pressure and temperature determine the density of the atmosphere 0 Atmosphere is mostly nitrogen and oxygen 0 Trace gases drive the chemistry of the atmosphere 0 C02 has biological and human sources rising steadily over time Lecture 3 Carbon Dioxide C02 0 Not at the highest it s ever been 0 500 million years ago C02 was 20 times higher than it is today but Earth was a very different place back then Recent science the bad news 0 There has been a 30 increase in the acidity of the ocean since 1700 and we now expect that by 2100 it will have become a 100 increase This constitutes a rate of change in ocean chemistry that is 10 times anything scientists can document over the last 50 million years 0 C02 is rising in the atmosphere Some of that is going into the ocean which is getting more acidic We don t really notice it but creatures with shells their shells are getting more rough around the edges b c of the acidic water This is potentially damaging the livelihood of people who work in the shellfish industry Recent science the good news 0 Transition to methane power plants from coal ones cleaner more efficient get more energy out of methane than coal 0 US president said we ll be fracking b c now we re finally exporting it Methane CH4 sources and sinks o Methane is mainly lost by chemical reactions in the atmosphere The carbon in methane eventually becomes C02 Methane is a stronger greenhouse gas than C02 quot 5 0 o o I Z 0 7 OCEAN F WATER 17 FRESH r WATER METHANE HYDRATE o Ruminants livestock significant source 0 Rice paddies rice doesn t produce methane but the growing process does Better practices are going to be used to reduce rice paddies as a source of methane Aerosols little bits of dust that are suspended in the air 0 Help form rain and snow Don t get destroyed and can get blown around quite a bit Main sources ocean sea salt erosion fires volcanoes and human activity Can be harmful to human health can be carcinogenic Volcanoes put a lot of crap in the air They re really re ective and can blanket the whole planet and drop global temperatures by a quarter of a degree for a few years Aerosol observations satellite o CloudAerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation CALIPSO Atmospheric temperature 0 Ozone absorbs UV radiation 0 Ozone at the surface smog 0 Poor quality air days more ER visits school absences and work absences Temperature scales 0 Celsius centigrade melting point of water is 0 C and the boiling point is 100 C 0 Fahrenheit melting point of water is 32 F and the boiling point is 212 F 0 Kelvin similar to Celsius but the coldest temperature is OK never negative Energy transfer 0 Latent heat deals with changing the state of something 0 Sublimation directly from solid to gas 0 Deposition directly from gas to solid STIHCINV39I O O O O O O O 0 HEAT ENERGY TAKEN FROM ENVIRONMENT i Non quot 39 39 Melting Evaporation f N39 v 2 it lt lce Freezing Condensation Liquid Won E HEAT ENERGY RELEASED TO ENVIRONMENT Vapor Latent heat the heat required to melt or evaporate a substance Ice in the cooler absorbs heat from the drinks Result the ice melts when the drinks stay cold When a substance freezes or condenses the latent heat is released back into the environment As water condenses to form a cloud all of the heat that went into evaporating the water is released to the air Clouds warm the air inside the cloud The amount of energy released is equivalent to a small nuke Specific heat the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of 1 gram of the substance 1 C 0 O 0 Everything has a different specific heat which is why it takes a longer time to heat up some things than it does others Water takes longer to heat and cool than dirt or pavement or air This is why people like living near the coast the water stays cool and cools down the nearby area all year round Energy transfer conduction O O O O Conduction requires contact energy transferred from molecule to molecule the act of touching something Air is not a good conductor it s a good insulator Metals are great conductors Very important at Earth s surface Energy transfer convection O O O O O Convection energy transferred by movement of uids including air Surface energy is transferred upward by convection quotHot air rises and cool air sinksquot Lava lamps are a good example of convection Rising hot air creates a convective circulation called a thermal Hot air rises Cooler wind takes its place This can happen on a global scale or on the equator or on a local scale as well The thermals rise up spread out cool down and sink again Cycle repeats itself Can cause clouds to form here Temperature and density 0 As temperature rises density falls 0 Hotter things spread out more Energy transfer advection o Advection horizontal movement of air aka wind 0 Wind transports energy It travels from a cool to warm region high to low pressure region 0 Air can rise up on its own thermals or it can get forced up Rising and sinking air 0 Air that is pushed upward will cool down 0 Air that sinks will heat up Lecture 4 Energy transfer 0 O Radiative heat heating due to electromagnetic radiation Called radiation but it s different from nuclear radiation Electromagnetic spectrum range of radiation 0 O O 0 Every color has a slightly different wavelength amount of energy Short wavelengths x rays gamma rays have higher energy long wavelengths have lower energy Xrays have so much energy that they can go through your body bones stop more x rays b c they are more dense UV rays do not have enough energy to go through your skin but they can break up the DNA in your skin Microwaves are good at exciting water they penetrate very little into what you re cooking Spectrum range of values Wavelength length of one wave lambda Solar spectrum 0 O O O O The energy from the Sun peaks at 05 um the visible portion of the spectrum The sun emits a lot of radiation in the visible it peaks in the visible We don t see UV radiation We can t see infrared radiation but we can feel the heat from it Not all radiation makes it to the surface which is a good thing The energy from the Earth peaks at 10 um in the infrared portion Thermal imaging 0 Visible spectrum is 5um but infrared thermal peaks at 10 um so the Earth doesn t emit visible light but we do emit infrared Atmospheric absorption 0 O The Sun releases energy at shorter wavelengths UV visible nearinfrared The Earth releases energy at longer wavelengths IR Earth without the greenhouse effect 0 Earth with the greenhouse effect 0 Outgoing R energy 39 J quotn I I 3 by 393 solar energy 39 g 1 y g l l 39q Outgoing IR energy IR x a IR absorbed Incoming d solar energyli em39tte g f 39 yquot7 X Becaue the atmospere acts like a blanket the Earth is so much more comfortable On average it s 59 F Enhanced greenhouse effect 0 O O 0 when the blanket gets too thickquot Adds more heat to the atmosphere As we increase water vapor C02 CH4 more and more of the heat that would go out to space is being trapped This would be advantageous for some countries like Canada and Siberia because they would have much longer growing periods What happens to incoming shortwave solar energy 0 51 absorbed at the surface Lecture 5 000 O 20 re ected from the clouds 19 absorbed by the atmosphere and clouds 6 scattered by atmosphere 4 re ected from the Earth s surface What happens to outgoing longwave terrestrial energy 0 Some goes straight through the atmosphere atmospheric window Albedo the percentage of radiation that is re ected off of a surface O 0000 O 100 means everything is re ected Snow has an albedo of 90 Overall the Earth s albedo is 30 The center regions oceans are less re ective Deserts are very re ective and hot sand can heat up and cool down very rapidly Venus has a high albedo very re ective but it s temperature is 875 Fhow Solar zenith angle the angle between the sun and a point directly overhead O O O O 0 000000 0 Zenith the point directly overhead The intensity of light reaching the surface decreases as the sun lowers in the sky Thickness of the atmosphere is important too The angle changes because the Earth is on a 235 axis and it rotates around the sun The Earth is tilted toward the Sun in the summer which means the sun is higher in the sky and the solar zenith angle is smaller The planet is closest to the Sun in the winter time but the northern hemisphere is tilted away Sumer solstice June 21 Autumnal equinox September 22 Vernal equinox March 20 Winter solstice December 21 Northern hemisphere winter Sun never rises above 6656 N latitude Fall and Spring Equinox entire planet receives 12 hours of sunlight The suns rays strike the Equator at 90 at noon Northern hemisphere summer Sun never sets above 6656 N latitude Global energy balance 340 300 Energy surplus Terrestrial energy released to space energy loss by Earth no Energy deficit Energy deficit L L L D N O Jgt I N CD 0 O O O O l l l l Solar energy energy gain for the Earth Annual average energy gains and losses Wm2 O O I 20 l l l l l i l l l i i 90 75 60 45 3o 15 o 15 30 45 60 75 90 Latitude The sun is always beaming down on the equator in the tropics 9 hot humid cloudy rainy weather Planet is always radiating heat Sun also heats up parts of it during the day Planet radiates more heat than comes in from the Sun on certain parts of the planet like in the artic energy deficit On average there is a thermal equilibrium the amount of radiation reaching the Earth the amount of radiation leaving the Earth Realistically there is a surplus of energy in the tropics and a deficit toward the poles The atmosphere and ocean currents ie the Gulf Stream transport energy from the tropics to the rest of the planet The sun heats 12 the planet at any time but the Earth is always emitting heat to space in all directions Average Annual temperatures 0 0 Further from the surface higher altitudes are colder Blue in the middle of hotter areas mountains Geography will affect global temperatures Air temperature data O 0000 Daily mean temperature is determined in one of two ways 1 Average of max and min temperatures for the day 2 Average of 24 hourly temperatures Daily temperature range difference between max and min temperatures Monthly mean temperature average of daily mean for the month Annual mean temperature average of monthly means Annual temperature range difference between coldest monthly mean and warmest monthly mean Daily temperatures 0 O O Q As the sun rises the ground warms Air in contact with ground warms too On calm days air above the surface is cooler On windy days the air is mixed so the difference in temperature between the surface and air above is smaller Nighttime temperatures 0 As the sun sets the ground cools by radiating its heat to space Air radiates some heat to the ground and the ground radiates this heat away too As the night progresses the ground and the air just above the surface cool more rapidly than the air above Radiation inversion increase in temperature above the ground Valley fog cold air is sinking down pushing up the warm air that is oating creating that temperature inversion Valley pollution temperature inversion keeps any smoke soot car exhaust from rising up so people are just breathing it inthis shortens peoples lives and traps air in the valley Burn bans b c the smoke just sits there Valley inversions at night cold air sinks into the valley pushing up the warmer air creating a temperature inversion Central valley fog O O The amount of fog has changed over time gone down significantly However lots of crops are grown here and this fog keeps things damp and cloudy In CA grapes strawberries nuts and avocadoes are grown The decrease in fog affects our growing season This coupled with the drought are hurting the economy Daily temperature changes 0 O O The higher you go the less temperature changes between day and night Larger daily temperature changes at the surface than farther away Max temp at 24 affects cultures Spain s culture was designed around this nap during the day Economies are designed around weather patterns Daily temperatures 0 0 Solar energy is most intense at noon Solar radiation gt surface radiation until later in the after noon Lowest temperature occurs shortly after sunrise when outgoing radiation gt incoming b c it s right before the sun comes up and stops the cooling Hottest part of the day amount of energy from the sun amount of energy leaving the surface Hottest place on Earth 134 F in death valley Coldest place on Earth Antarctica Role of clouds cool during the day and warm during the night Temperature latitude variations 0 Lecture 6 NYC doesn t get as much sunlight during the winter Temperatures peak in Iuly but sunlight peaks in Iune B C heat leaving the surface heat coming in from sun in Iuly Temperature surface variations 0 Florida surrounded by water Some parts are dark some are light re ectivity Green b c of vegetation Algeria sand has a lower specific heat takes a while to heat up and cool down Vegetation shades the surface releases water absorbs heat and uses solar energy for transpiration 0 St Louis inland and Azores island Same latitude same amount of sunlight but water is the great moderator of temperature 0 San Francisco and Richmond I Both on the water I SF is known for fog cold and damp then cool and damp only seasons I Richmond is hotter and muggier has seasons I Ocean currents is part of it the wind blows from west to east so SF gets the shore breeze while Richmond gets the air that crossed over the land masses I Wind patterns and oceans themselves affect the temperatures 0 Average temperature between two cities can be similar while the range in temperature is very different Temperature volcanic in uence 0 Volcanoes pump a lot of dust and ash into the atmosphere which re ect incoming solar radiation 0 Smoke from wildfires in Canada traveled all the way to Virginia Temperature wind chill o Windchill temperature the increased loss of heat by the movement of air 0 Wind chill carries the warm air away from your body so your body has to work harder to keep itself warm 0 Air has a low specific heat it can heat up and cool down quickly Meteorologicalobservations 0 Automated Surface Observing System ASOS measures cloud height visibility precipitation pressure temperature dew point wind direction wind speed and rainfall amount 0 All of this information gives us a current idea of what the weather conditions are like Radiosondes o Tells us what the weather is like higher up can even go into the stratosphere o The balloon is full of helium and keeps rising up b c it s lighter than air So when the pressure makes it pop a parachute comes out The technology inside the balloon can measure stuff when the balloon is going up or when the parachute is going back down 0 Temperature inversion when temperature rises with height called radiation inversion at the surface 0 Temperature inversion higher off the ground keeps stuff at the surface 9 poor air quality days Help for the quiz how do greenhouse gases work focus on the thermal heat energy from the surface THEY DO NOT REFLECT INCOMING SOLAR RADIATION AT ALL heat from the surface gets absorbed by these gases but the problem is that they send some of this heat back to the ground longwave thermal heat energy what does the atmospheric window have to do w greenhouse gases these gases water vapor ozone coZ absorb at diff wavelengths wavelength region 911 microns greenhouse gases don t really do anything other than this atmospheric window allows some of the heat from the surface right out to space this window is a very narrow wavelength greenhouse gases are good b c they keep the planet warm for us what is the enhanced greenhouse effect increase greenhouse gases that atmospheric window gets closed as we build up these gases this heat radiation that some of it would have normally have gone to space gets trapped and some of that goes back to the surface so we would expect temperatures to rise up a little would you rather want to walk barefoot on the grass or parking lot grass b c the parking lot is darker darker color means it will absorb more energy from sun and heat up more also the grass will heat up less bc its a little lighter and more re ective and also using some of that heat energy for vegetation would you expect a cloud to form over an acre of grass or of parking lot parking lot b c the heat re ects off it it more and heat rises and the thermal bubbles and crap form clouds to get that water vapor to make a cloud you need to get it off the ground by using heat where do u get that heat from the parking lot
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