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by: Aashika Kushwaha


Aashika Kushwaha
GPA 3.6
American National Government and Politics
Dr. Iliyan Rumenov Iliev

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American National Government and Politics
Dr. Iliyan Rumenov Iliev
Study Guide
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aashika Kushwaha on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POLS 1101 096 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Iliyan Rumenov Iliev in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see American National Government and Politics in Political Science at University of Texas at Dallas.


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Date Created: 09/20/15
Ch 1 We don t like what the gov does to us taxes giving us tickets Want them to protect us FDA food born illnesses security Compatible with liberty equality and democracy Government formal institution through which a land and its people are ruled help and protect its citizens military Government affects our daily lives FDA approval of our food roads we drive on healthcare street lighting etc Politics con icts and struggles over the leadership At times we still don t trust gov because we are forced to pay taxes Although weakening the gob would lower the economy and national security Political ef cacy belief that ordinary citizens can affect what gov does for the ppl by the ppl Increase sense of political ef cacy by 0 Increasing knowledge in politics 0 Participate VOTE 0 Effective participation requires knowledge Need to know limits Democracy functions best when citizens are informed about the gov Digital citizenship ability to participate in society online Advantages more likely to be interested in politics and to discuss politics with others More likely to vote and participate in other wys in elections Forms of government Main two questions about government that must be answered in a country 1 Who governs 2 How much government control is permitted Autocracy nation governed by a single individual Oligarchy governed by wealthy merchants military of cers and land owners Democracy gov in uence by the people Constitutional governments liberal governments governments that have substantial limits ex Constitution limits US gov Authoritarian gov Limiting government limiting gov dates back to the middle class bourgeoisie that tried to limit the upper class that ran the government placed constitutional limits on governmental power limits for the need to protectectiondefense of their own intersts ohn Locke advocates of representative institution gradual increases in voting rights white males rich poor white males colored males women Power having a share Representative government elect people ot represent what institutions rights policies of concern to be heard by the fed gov Democracy quotWe the peoplequot People vested in the people Direct Democracy everyone makes their own rules bad one bad pizza Pluralism pattern of struggles among interests Some ppl want one thing but others don t makes it hard for gov to make laws Twentieth Century increased immigration into the United States mix of ethnicities US becomes more of a Melting Pot 4 of pop is over that age of 65 ppl move from rural settings and small towns to large cities urban cities diverse economic groups 13th Amendment abolishes slavery 14th Amendment citizenship to people of the states and country that were born within country borders or were naturalized 15th Amendment African American men can vote 16th Amendment abolishes poll tax requirement So poor white males could vote 17th Amendment Direct election of senators 18th Amendment Prohibition of alcohol 19th Amendment Women suffrage American Political Culture Political Culture values beliefs attitudes that hold the people of United States at the time of the founding Union Liberty personal freedom and economic freedom Limited government government is limited by a formal document such as the Constitution Designed to prevent tyranny and give the people their own rights and liberties Bill of Rights Laissezfaire capitalism allowed very little room for national government to regulate trade or restrict the use of private poverty even in the public interest let the quotinvisible handquot take care of things Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith Eguality The Declaration of Independence declares as its rst quotself evident truth that quotall men are created equalquot Equality of opportunity each person should be given a fair chance to go as far as his or her talents will allow Political equality means that memebrs of the American political community have the right to participate in American politics with equal terms Plessy vs Ferguson quotseparate but equal Example White have water fountains Colored Separate water fountains They both get the same things they are just separated and can be punished for using something that isn t labeled for them Brown vs Board of Education Overturned quotseparate but equal Colored children were being bullied and segregated in the mixed schools Democracy ppl rule Popular sovereignty idea of placing power in the hands of the people Majority Rule with minority rights wishes of the majority determine what government does however Bill of Rights make sure minority get rights Ch 2 Framers of the Constitution stated that the purpose of the government was to promote justice to maintain peace at home to defend the nation from foreign foes to provide for the welfare of the citizen and above all to secure the quotblessings of libertyquot for Americans During the rst half of the 18th Century Britain ruled the American 13 colonies caused French and Indian War Britain allied with Native Americans and Americans allied with Native Americans Each group fought against each other for land British navy brought in supplies and taxed them Stamp Act tax on commerce Sugar Act tax on sugar and molasses Tea Act tax on tea Boston Tea Party Sons of Liberty lead by Samual Adams rebelled against the British by dumping tea in the water resulted in the First Continental Congress boycott British goods begin process of nding a way to declare independence from Great Britain Continental Congress Thomas jefferson Benjamin Franklin Roger Sherman john Adams Robert Livingston Declaration of Independence 1776 Included rights that the people wanted life liberty pursuit of happiness Articles of Confederation Adopted by the rst Continental Congress in 1777 US rst written constitution No fed gov no single currency states take care of them self no taxing no army The Second Founding Compromise to Constitution Goal Revise the Articles of Confederation ended up forming the Constitution Bill of Rights army taxing national gov set currency etc Annapolis Convention improve and reform Articles of Confederation Shay s Rebellion rebellion against Massachusetts gov by the farmers because they were poor and could not pay taxes that Massachusetts gov had set The Constitutional Convention After local rebellion Constitutional Convention gave up on trying to revise Articles of Convention and began to write what later became the Constitution A marriage of Interest and Principle Framers though about creating a government that would promote commerce protect property and protect political interests Virginia Plan System of representation in the national legislature based on the population of each state or the proportion of the state s revenue contribution to the national gov or both New jersey Plan more representation by the smaller states than by the larger states so the small stats opinions about regulations isn t overlooked Great Compromise House of Reps are represented according to pop of the states Bigger state more representation Senate equal representation by all states regardless of size ThreeFifths Compromise At time of the compromises slavery still existed The people did not consider the slaves as part of the population although that meant that the more wealthy white families that could own slaves weren t going nto be represented by the amount of slaves they owned The government agreed that for voting for representatives for the House of Representatives they would considered 3 slaves from ve states to be considered as one person for representation purposes Separation of Powers The government divided its power in three branches legislative judicial and executive Legislative makes laws judicial interprets the laws Executive carries out the laws Checks and Balances Each branch has a way to overlook and limit the powers of the other branches so that the government doesn t become too powerful Electoral College electors from each state that meet to vote for government of cials such as the president Bill of Rights First ten amendments that state the rights that every citizen has prevents gov from becoming too powerful Federalism Division of power between higher governments and lower governments Expressed Powers powers of the gov that are states in the Constitution More favored by the Federalists Elastic Clause Necessary but Proper 10th Amendment Powers not stated in the Constitution Congress can make laws that are absolutely necessary without having to follow exactly what the Constitution says US Government Checks and Balances Can override Presidential veto I f I May rule that Presidential Control appropriations Executive action is unconstitutional Ratify treaties Declare war Refuse Presidential appointments Inn peach and remove the President from of ce Judges appointed by the President serve for life The President is the quotCommandersinsonief wi39Io can veto bills a resommend legislation 2 call special sessions of Congress President appoints judges to ll vacancies President can grant reprieves and pardons lulu Interprets laws and I may declare laws unconstitutional Can refuse judicial appointments Authority to impeach judges Can create lower courts Can propose constitutional ammendmennts to overrule Supreme Court deeisions public domain by wpchpartcom 10 Founding Fathers believed that the country would be successful if the th government followed the Constitution that defended all of the nation s interests by means of the amendments Federalists AntiFed didn t want a powerful gov because they believed in states rights and personal liberties Ch 3 Unitary System central gov makes all of the decisions and lower gov have little independent power Expressed Power Powers of the national gov that are listed in the Constitution Implied Power Powers necessary but proper that the Congress can make that the Constitution doesn t state speci cally as long as it Amendment States powers reserved powers Police Power health safety welfare morals of the citizens Concurrent Powers powers business or practice a trade regulating hared by the states and the federal government Ex Chartering banks granting or denying licenses to engage in a business trade regulate the quality of products or the conditions of labor and levy taxes If there are direct con icts of law btw the federal and state levels the issue will most likely be resolved in favor of national supremacy Full Faith and Credit Clause states are obligated to recognize other states policies Ex accepting another states right of interracial marriage in the past Loving vs Virginia Case Privileges and Immunities one state should be entitled to similar treatment in other states One state cannot discriminate against a person from another state lnterstate compacts agreements must be approved by Congress quotNo State shall without the Consent of Congress enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State quot Home Rule a guarantee of noninterference in various areas of local affairs But local governments enjoy no such recognition and have no protected standing at all in the federal Constitution Local gov normally only need to get approval by their state to do anything Dual Federalism Two levels of gov with fed gov ruling above state gov Each have speci c powers Very limited mixed powers LAYERED CAKE Cooperative Federalism used during New Deal powers of the federal gov and state gov are shared MARBLE CAKE Commerce Clause federal government control over the economytrade interstate McCulloch vs Maryland quotnecessary but properquot Congress establishing a national bank Gibbons vs Ogden trading by steamboat Chiefustice John Marshall Established supremacy of national gov lnterstate commerce regulated by national gov The New Deal lncreased federal involvement in the economy after the Great Depression FDR starts projects to help the economy Supreme Court makes an exception to let FDR involve directly wo speci c laws in the economy Federal Grants Grantsinaid Congress appropriates money to state and local governments in the condition that the money is spent for a particular purpose de ned by Congress such as nancial assistance to poor children Categorical grants federal grantinaid where the national gov determines the purposes for what the money can be used for quotStrings attachedquot Block grants use of federal grantinaid is determined by the state quotNo strings attached Proiect grants state and local governments must submit proposals to federal agencies about what they will be using the grant for Formula grant used a formula to distribute funds the project grants made funding available on a competitive basis Federal agencies would give grants to the proposals they judged to be the best In this way the nat l gov acquired more control over which state and local governments got money how much they got and how they spent it Regulated federalism Congress gives money to the states and local gov if they agree to spend it for purposes Congress speci es Preemption regulation formerly overseen by state or local governments No federal involvement Unfunded Mandates Federal gov tells sl gov that they need to spend money on something mandatory but they don t give sl gov money to fund these mandatory projects Ex Medicaid mostly paid by the states but is mandatory because of the Affordable Care Act Devolution transferring responsibility for policy New Federalism push for block grants so states can fund their own projects such as job training community development and social services President Nixon Redistributive programs programs designed primarily for the bene t of the poor using block grants Federalism since 2000 political polarization btw Republicans and Democrats hard to make decisions because Republicans and Democrats normally disagree with each other Federal control also increased ex NCLB Affordable Care Act Congress can make any law if there are bene ts If there are bene ts for the community they are allowed to tax Which is why if you don t have health insurance the gov will tax you under the Affordable Care Act People were against the gov for a long time and still are regarding samesex marriages which isn t a problem as of 2015 and the use of marijuana for medicalnonmedical purposes Ch 4 Today we take our rights for granted because of the Bill of Rights Liberties and protections that are guaranteed to us Habeas corpus State in Article 1 Section 9 government is prohibited from depriving a person of liberty without an open trial before a judge During the rati cation of the constitution the anti federalists told Thomas jefferson that they would not approve of the Constitution unless some rights were delegated to the states that the federal gov couldn t take away jefferson agreed and added what because the Bill of Rights Amenet ment i Amend ment 2 Amend ment 3 Amend I39l39IEl39lii 4 Amendment 5 tment meet 6 ismendment T tment ment 3 nmenement Qt Selective Amendment iii were oneThey non of the Bill of Rights Uta citizens have freedem ef religienj speech pn essi assemitter and petition IJtS citizens have the right tn keep and bear arms or seen guns The government they not terse thS eitizens to shelter emitters in their hemes tits eitizens ere ipf t t from unressenehle searches of a person39s property The getternment may net terse Ute eitizens 39te testify against themselves in court L5 Eitizeyns have the right ts a fair and speedy triai U145 eitizens have the right te e trial by iury LLB citizens are peertented from steel anti unhsusi punishment 1115 citizens may heme rights that ate not listed in the Censtitutien Incorporation a mend ments selcected one by made sure that amendments Pewere net given to the federal government by the Eenstitutien belong to the state or in the neonate applied as limits throught the 14th Amendment on the states Establishment Clause idea that quotno lawquotcan establish a speci c religion One speci c religion could not be forced upon anyone You can practice any religion you choose in America Lemon Test Rule by which religious schools had to go by 1 has to have a secular purpose 2 should not advance any one religion 3 did not entabgle gov and religious institutions in each other s affairs Vgggggg


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