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Study Guide Questions and Answers for Chapters 3-4

by: Madeleine Morini

Study Guide Questions and Answers for Chapters 3-4 PSYCH 1000 - 04

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > Psychlogy > PSYCH 1000 - 04 > Study Guide Questions and Answers for Chapters 3 4
Madeleine Morini
GPA 5.01
General Psychology
Ian Zimmerman

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About this Document

Here are Chapters 3-4 Study guide answers for Zimmerman's Psych 1000 class!
General Psychology
Ian Zimmerman
Study Guide
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madeleine Morini on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 1000 - 04 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Ian Zimmerman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 148 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 09/20/15
Chapter 3 Biopsychology Study Guide Q s amp A s Theory of evolution by natural selection Organisms better suited for their environment Will survive and reproduce Chromosomes Long strands of genetic material DNA DNA deoxyribonucleic acid Helixshaped molecule made up of nucleotide base pairs Gene Control or partially control Visible characteristics like eye color Allele Specific version of a gene Dominant allele Will always result in the phenotype having the dominant traiteX Brown eyes are a dominant trait therefor a person with brown eyes either has the genotype Bb or BB 39B39 being the dominant allele Recessive allele Will only result in the phenotype if they are homozygous ex Blue eyes are a recessive trait therefor a person With blue eyes can only possess the genotype bb 39b39 being the recessive allele Genotype Genetic makeup of that individual Phenotype Individual39s inherited physical characteristics Nervous system Path that neurons send info between brain and body Neurons Info processors for tasks of the nervous system Resting potential State of readiness Where the charge is negative How is a neuron39s electrical charge changed from negative to positive We encounter stimuli that sends signals from our organs to neurons and the signal reaching the neuron carries ions that make the neuron39s charge positive Action potential Electrical signal that typically moves from the cell body down the axon to the axon terminals When does an action potential occur When the positive charge of the neuron reaches a certain level an electrical impulse travels down the neuron referred to as an action potential Allornone phenomenon An incoming signal from another neuron is either sufficient or insufficient to reach the threshold of excitation What effect do more intense stimuli have on neurons Produce higher firing rates How do signals travel across neurons Terminal buttons release chemicals across synapse to adjacent neuron39s dendrites N eurotransmitters Chemical messengers that transmit info through the nervous system What happens to neurotransmitters remaining at a synapse They are pumped back into terminal buttons by process called reuptake Psychotropic medications Drugs that treat psychiatric symptoms by restoring neurotransmitter balance 7 Major neurotransmitters discussed in class and what psychological processes and behaviors they are involved with 1 Acetylcholine movement and memory 2 Dopamine mood sleep and learning 3 Glutamate memory and learning 4 GABA brain function and sleep 5 Norepinephrine vigilance and higher awareness 6 Serotonin Sleep and mood 7 Endorphins Reduce pain and higher mood Agonist Chemicals that mimic a neurotransmitter at the receptor and strengthens its effects Antagonist Blocksimpedes the normal activity of a neurotransmitter at the receptor Central nervous system CNS Consists of the brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system PN S Connects CNS to the rest of the body 2 Divisions of PN S and what they control 1 Somatic nervous system voluntary activities info to and from the CNS 2 Automatic nervous system involuntary organs and glands 2 Divisions of the automatic nervous system and what they do 1 Sympathetic nervous system prepares body for stressful activities 2 Parasympathetic nervous system returns body to normal resting state Fight or ight response Allows the body access to energy reserves and heightened sensory capacity so that it might fight off a threat or run away to safety Electroencephalogram EEG Produces a graphical display of the brain39s electrical activity Computerized tomography CT Involves taking a number of Xrays in a particular section of a person39s body or brain Postron emission tomography PET Displays a picture of brain activity at given moment Functional magnetic response imagine fMRI Displays brain activity over time by tracking blood ow and oxygen levels Transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS Disrupts brain activity to measure effects on functioning Cerebral cortex Surface of the brain What brain structures are included in the hindbrain 3 and what do they control 1 Cerebellum balance coordination movement and motor skills 2 Medulla Breathing heart right and blood pressure 3 Pons Regulate brain activity during sleep What brain structures are included in the forebrain 3 and what do they control 1 Hypothalamus Regulates temperature hunger thirst and sexual behavior 2 Hippocampus Creation of new memories 3 Amygdala Emotions formation of emotional memories What are brain hemispheres There are 2 and they are symmetrical halves of the brain that control opposite sides of the body Lateralization Specialization of function in each hemisphere regarding differences in language ability Frontal lobe Involved in reasoning motor control emotional and language Parietal lobe Processing info from the body39s senses Temporal lobe Associated With hearing memory emotion and some aspects of language Occipital lobe Includes the primary Visual cortex which is responsible for interpreting incoming Visual info Endocrine system Consists of series of glands that produce chemical substances known as hormones Chapter 4 States of Consciousness Study Guide Q39s amp A39s Consciousness Individual39s subjective experience of internal and external stimuli What39s the problem of other minds and why does it exist Difficulty perceiving consciousness in others and it exists because we can39t really determine if other people have consciousness because we never know if other people are acting 4 Properties of consciousness 1 Intentionality ability to direct consciousness 2 Unity combine sensory info into a coherent conscious experience 3 Selectivity capacity to include some objects in consciousness but not others 4 Transience tendency of consciousness to change focus 3 Levels of normal consciousness 1 Minimal consciousness lowlevel awareness 2 Full consciousness fully aware of and can report our mental state 3 self conscious completely focused on ourselves What do we know about whether animas can be selfconscious Used to believe animals were not selfconscious however we have discovered types of primates have recognized their features when presented in a mirror May be other suggestions of selfconsciousness made by elephants dogs etc Dynamic Unconscious Active system consisting of desires and forces and the struggle to control those forces How do we keep unacceptable thoughts in the unconscious and what39s way they can often slip out Repression keeps unacceptable thoughts in the unconscious Sometimes they slip out when we are put in situations that trigger our unconscious ex Politician saying quotsexquot on accident when speaking about his other candidate Cognitive unconscious Mental processes that we39re not aware of that in uence behavior How did research show that cognitive unconscious can be 39smart39 We see this in subliminal advertising Biological Rhythm Internal rhythms of biological activity eX Menstrual cycle Circadian Rhythm Biological process operating on a 24 hour basiseX pattern of daily temperature uctuation Homeostasis Tendency to maintain a balance optimal level within the biological system main center for this is the hypothalamus Generally speaking what are the effects of sleep deprivation Associated with obesity high blood pressure high levels of stress hormones and lowered immune functions REM sleep Rapid eye movements and high level of brain activity N REM sleep Subdivided into 4 stages distinguished by Characteristic patterns of brain waves Stage 1 sleep and its brain waves Transitional phase occurs between wakefulness and sleep period of drifting to sleep where there39s lowered muscle tension and core body temperatureAlpha waves and theta waves Alpha waves Relatively low frequency high amplitude patterns of electrical activity waves that become synchronized Theta waves Even lower frequency higher amplitude brain waves than alpha waves Stage 2 and its brain waves Body goes into state of deep relaxation and mostly theta waves with random burstsSleep spindle and Kcomplex Sleep spindle Rapid burst of high frequency brain waves that may be important for learning and memory Kcomplex Very high amplitude pattern of brain activity that may in some cases occur in response to environmental stimuli Stages 3amp4 and their brain waves Deep sleepslowwave sleep because theses stages are characterized by low frequency high amplitude waves Delta waves Heart rate and respiration slow dramatically 4 Sleep disorders covered in class 1 Insomnia Difficulty fallingstaying asleep 2 Sleep apnea When breathing ceases during sleep 3 Somnambulism When a person walks around during sleep 4 Narcolepsy Sudden onset of sleep Unconscious wish ful llment theory Dream content represents unconscious desires Manifest content Dream39s actual content storyline Latent content Dream39s underlying hidden meaning Activationsynthesis model Random electrical energy in the brain that activates memories we experience as dreams Dreamsforsurvival theory We reconsider and reprocess important info during sleep Psychoactive drugs Changes our consciousness by changing levels of chemicals in our brain 4 Important drug use terms 1 Addiction Compulsive desire to use a drug 2 Tolerance Need to take larger doses to achieve the same effect 3 Dependency Need to take to prevent Withdrawal symptoms 4 Withdrawal Painful physical and psychological symptoms that occur after drug use cessation Physical dependence Changes in normal bodily functions and the user Will experience Withdrawal from drug upon cessation of use Psychological dependence Emotional rather than physical need for the drug and may use drug to relieve psychological stress What do depressants do and how do they produce their effects They reduce central nervous system CNS activity and they do this because they are GABA agonists 3 Common depressants 1 Alcohol 2 Benzodiazepines 3 Barbiturates 2 Theories discussed in class that attempt to explain the effects of alcohol Expectancy Our expectations about alcohol in uence its effects Alcohol Myopia Makes us focus on prominentconspicuous information What do opioids do and how do they produce their effects They relieve pain and they do this because they are endorphin natural morphine agonists 5 Common opioids 1 Opium 2 Heroin 3 Morphine 4 Methadone 5 Codeine What do hallucinogens do and how do they produce their effects They alter sensations and perceptions and they do this differently based on the drug 4 Common hallucinogens and how thy produce their effects 1 LSD Serotonin agonist 2 Mescaline Serotonin agonist 3 PCP Glutamate antagonist 4 Ketamine Glutamate antagonist What does a cannabis do and how does it produce its effects Produces euphoria and wellbeing though it can exacerbate negative emotions and does this because it is an anandamide agonist What do stimulants 0d and how do they produce their effects They increase CNS actiVity and they do this because they are dopamine and norepinephrine agonists 3 Common stimulants 1 Caffeine 2 Cocaine 3 Methamphetamine Hypnosis State of extreme selffocus and attention in which minimal attention is given to external stimuli Meditation Act of focusing on a dingle target to increase awareness of the moment


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