Exam 1 Review
Exam 1 Review MLIT1003 005
Popular in Basic Course in the Arts: Music Lecture
Popular in Music
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brinkley Castro on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MLIT1003 005 at University of Arkansas taught by Nikola Radan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 387 views. For similar materials see Basic Course in the Arts: Music Lecture in Music at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Music Lecture Exam 1 Review Need to Know 0 Bring a scantron for the exam form no 4521 0 Structural Elements of Music Sound Rhythm Melody Harmony Musical Texture Musical Forms 0 Styles Middle Ages Renaissance Baroque Classical 0 20 audio and 30 theory multiple choice questions This means you must know what different pieces sound like and what style or period they may be from Refer back to the lecture slides to listen to these different pieces Sound 0 Pitch The relative highness and lowness that we hear 0 Tone A sound that has a definite pitch 0 Dynamics Degrees of loudness and softness Emphasizing a tone by playing it more loudly than other tones around it is called accent o Pitch Range The distance in pitch between any two tones is called interval The distance between the lowest and highest tones that a voice or instrument can produce is called range Tone Color The quality of a musical note or sound or tone that distinguishes different types of sound production such as voices and musical instruments Another name for tone color is timbre Tone Color Descriptive Words I B ght I Dark I BrHHant I hAEHOMI I l ch Rhythm The flow of music in time Beat At the heart of a rhythm is the concept of beat or pulse Reguar recurrent pulsation that divides music into equal units of time The speed of beat is known as tempo Popuar beats in music are associated with various forms of forward movement EX jogging running hopping galloping marching etc Meter The organization of beats into regular groups A group containing a fixed number of beats is called measure Duple meter 2 beats per measure The first or stressed beat of the measure is known as the downbeat The unstressed beat is called the upbeat Accent A note is emphasized most obviously by playing louder than the notes around it Syncopation When an accented note comes where we normally would not expect one the effect is known as syncopation PolyRhythm or CrossRhythm when 2 different rhythmical patterns are superimposed one up on another Melody The Western Music Scale has 12 notes 12 notes tone music scale is called chromatic Measuring how high or low a note is called pitch The distance between two notes is called interval A note in a blues scale which is flattened is called a blue note Diatonic Scale Major and minor Pentatonic Scale Five tone scale Harmony Harmony refers to the way chords are constructed and how they follow each other A chord is combination of three or more tones played simultaneously Chord progression is the life blood of all western harmony harmony that doesn t stay static it moves around Hidden notes in sound are called harmonics The simplest most basic chord is the triad which consist of three tones The bottom tone is called the root The other 2 are a third and afifth above the root Major triad There are 12 major triads Happy music Minor Triad 12 minor triads Halfstep lower in pitch from a major triad The mood of the chord is somber A triad built on the first or tonic note of the scale is called the tonic chord The triad built on the fifth note of the scale is called the dominant chord A triad built on the forth note of the scale is called the subdominant A tone combination that is stable is called a consonance A tone combination that is unstable is called a dissonance Musical Texture Musical Texture refers to the way how layers of melodic rhythmic and harmonic materials are woven together in composition Monophony singleline texture or melody without accompaniment Unison single melodic line at the same pitch by more than one instrument or voice Polyphony manyvoiced Two or more melodic lines combined into a multivoiced texture Polyphonic music often contains imitation Repeating same melodic idea from an instrument or a voice to another Homophony texture with principal melody and accompanying harmony Musical Form Form refers to the larger shape of the composition Four techniques that create musical form Repetition creates a sense of unity Contrast provides variety Variation gives a work unity and variety at the same time lmprovisation piece created spontaneously in performance Types of Musical Form Th reePa rt Ternary Form ABA or ABA TwoPart Binary Form A B I Usually compositions in twopart form repeat both parts A A B B Strophic Form I Repeating the same music for each stanza of the poem AAAAAA The Building Blocks of Form Theme main melodic idea Thematic Development expansion of a theme CaIIandresponse soloist and group response Movement complete independent division of a largescale work Musical Styles n music style refers to a characteristic way of using melody rhythm tone color dynamics harmony texture and form Middle Ages 450 1450 Gregorian Chant Chant I 3000plus surviving melodies I Oral transmission I Early notation neumes I Scale patterns modes PIainchant I Unadorned and unaccompanied consisting of a single unaccompanied melody line a musical texture called quotmonophonyquot quotonesound Gregorian chant scales are called church modes or just modes Characteristics The Dark Ages I Music is useful only if it reminds us of divine and perfect beauty I Music is a servant to religion I Cloister Monastery convent I Secular MusicThe first survived secular songs in the 12th and 13th centuries are by the French nobles called troubadours and trouverse The High Middle Ages I Development of polyphony I The mass ordinary consist of texts that remain the same from day to day throughout the church year Composers and Samples 0rganum I Medieval music that consists of Gregorian chant and one or more additional melodic lines I A twopart polyphonic composition in which a plainchant is heard in one part while the other part decorates and embellishes that plainchant I A polyphonic composition in which the word of God is present in one voice while the hand of man celebrates and elaborates the word of God Ars Nova I New Art I Much of its music is secular nonreligious I The music is of extraordinary often daunting polyphonic complexity with rhythmic systems carried to incredible extremes new classifications of consonance and dissonance and new compositional genres Music of Hildegard of Bingen 1098 1179 I In 1150 founded convent in Germany I Known for miracles and prophecies I Works include collections of visions and prophecies music and scientific writing Renaissance 1450 1600 o Genres Sacred Music I The motet is a polyphonic choral work set to a sacred Latin text I The mass is a polyphonic choral composition made up of five sections Medieva time I Credo ut intelligam Understanding can only come through belief Renaissance time I Intelligo ut credam Belief can only come through understanding Peope then spoke of a rebirth or renaissance of a human creativity The dominant intellectual movement which was called humanism focused on human life and its accomplishments 0 Characteristics Word painting musical representation of specific poetic images Texture I Mainly polyphonic I Homophonic music is also used especially in light music like dances A choral music without accompaniment is called a cappella Rhythm more gentle flow than a sharply defined beat Melody usually moves along a scale with few large leaps 0 Historical Figures Martin Luther I Increased into a separation of the church I His discovery of the print machine I Protestant s Music Reforms What was sung in church to be sang by the whole congregation not just by the priest or by a choir Community songbook Luther wrote many of them His one of the most famous hymns is quotA Mighty Fortress Is Our God Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott Catherine di Medici I Secular Music Giovanni Perluigi da Palestrina I Saved music in the Catholic Church I Was one of the finest 16th century composers I Despite Palestrina s sixvoice polyphony each new syllable is heard by itself in a single vocal part so that it doesn t have to compete against any other new syllables in any other vocal parts Iohn Farmer c 15701603 I Active in 15905 in Dublin I Organist and master of choirboys at Christ Church I Published one collection of 4voice madrigals I Word painting musical representation of specific poetic images Iohn Dowland 15631626 I Leading composer of lute songs Flow My Tears Baroque 1600 1750 0 Characteristics Unity of Mood I One basic mood joy grief and agitation were represented at the time Rhythm I Unity of mood in baroque music is conveyed by continuity of rhythm Melody I Melody also creates a feeling of continuity I An opening melody will be heard again and again in the baroque piece I There is a continuous expending unfolding and unwinding of melody Dynamics I Continuity of dynamics I When dynamics shift the shift is sudden I This alteration between loud and soft is called terraced dynamics Texture I Music is predominantly polyphonic Words and Music I Baroque composers used music to depict the meaning of specific words I Haven might be set to a high tone and hell to a low tone I Rising scales represented upward motion descending scales depicted the reverse I Descending chromatic scales were associated with pain and grief Chords and Bass I Chords created through improvisation I Accompaniment to the strings is called the basso continua With the left hand the keyboard player plays the bass part which is also performed by the cellist or bassoonist I The bass part with numbers figures is called afigured bass The Baroque Orchestra I The orchestra is based on instruments of the violin family I At its nucleus were basso continuo and upper strings I Woodwind brass and percussion inconstant I Trumpets and timpani only when the music was festive Forms I A movement is a piece that is part of a larger composition I Each movement has its own themes I Both three part form A B A and two part form A B Genres Cancerta Grassaan important form of orchestral music in the late baroque period I A small group of soloists is opposing against a larger group of players called the tutti all I Most often there are three movements 1 fast 2 slow 3 fast RitarneIIa farm the first and last movements I In ritornello form the tutti opens with a theme called the ritornello refrain The Baroque Sonata I Sonata a composition in several movements for one to eight instruments I Composers often wrote trio sonata The sonata consist of four short movements 1 Fast 2 Fast 3 San 4 Fast Solo Concerto A solo concerto is a piece for a single soloist and orchestra The Fugue One signature of baroque music is the fugue Afugue is a polyphonic composition based on one main theme called a subject The form of fugue is extremely flexible Different melodic idea accompanying the subject is called a countersubject Transitional sections called episodes are in between the subjects Composers Antonio Vivaldi 1678 1741 A highest musical figure of late Italian baroque Italian violinist and composer quotThe red priest Conservatorio del Ospedale della Pieta Venice Prolific composer George Frideric Handel 1685 1759 International career Germanborn Studied and composed in Italy London and the Royal Academy of Music Italian opera seria oratorios Diatonicism Tone color Fortyplus operas Expanded role of chorus Prolific composer of instrumental music Oratorio performed by solo voices chorus orchestra no staging or costumes Handel Messiah quotHallelujah Chorus Orchestral suites Music for the Royal Fireworks Water Music Suite in D Major II 0 Royal party on the Thames River in London July 17 1717 o Twentytwo numbers 0 Performed without continuo o Divided into three suites Johann Sebastian Bach 16851750 German composer organist educator Culminating figure of the Baroque style Career in northern Germany Musical family Organist and composer Devout Lutheran Secular and church patrons during career Bach created masterpiece in every baroque form except opera He fused technical mastery and emotional depth Bach s music is unique in its combination of polyphonic texture and rich harmony Several melodic lines of equal importance often occur at once Bach used complex and dissonant harmonies more creatively than his contemporaries Melodies can be complicated unpredictable and highly embellished but unity of mood is created by a persistent rhythmic drive Bach often created sacred music simply by rearranging instrumental pieces or works originally written for secular text Bach liked to illustrate religious or pictorial ideas through musical symbolism Sometimes Bach composed music to demonstrate what he could do with a specific musical form Classical 1750 1820 Characteristics Contrast of Mood Fluctuating mood I Dramatic turbulent music might lead into a care free dance tune I Mood may change gradually or suddenly excitement and depression Rhythm I Flexibility of rhythm adds variety to classical music Expanding Musical Ideas I Theme musical idea building block I Thematic development meIodic outline rhythm varied extension contraction repetition harmony progression I IV V Iargerforms provides clarity coherence and logic motive melodic or rhythmic fragment of a theme sequence a motive repeated at higher or lower level Melody I The most tuneful and easiest to remember I The themes may have a folk or popular flavor I Tend to sound balanced and symmetrical Dynamics and the Piano I Use of gradual dynamic change crescendo and decrescendo Texture I Basically homophonic The End of the Basso Continuo The Classical Orchestra I Strings lst violins 2nd violins violas double basses I Woodwinds 2 flutes 2 oboes 2 clarinets 2 bassoons I Brass 2 French horns 2 trumpets I Percussion 2 timpani Forms I Instrumental compositions of the classical period usually consist of several movements I Sonataform refers to the form of a single movement I A sonata form movement consists of three main sections the expositions the development the recapitulation I Often followed by a concluding section the coda Italian for tail Cadenza I 3 Movements I Fast Slow Fast I Cadenza a special unaccompanied showpiece for the soloist often appears in each of the movements Genres Chamber music is designed for the intimate setting of a room chamber in a home or palace rather than for a public concert The string quartet I Most important chamber music genre of era I Instrumentation two violins viola cello Composers Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 17561791 I Austrian composer pianist violinist I Father was a musician I Child prodigy I Patronage system I Archbishop of Salzburg I Freelance musician at age twentyfive I Mozart s Requiem Mass for the dead Mozart s last composition left incomplete Four vocal soloists 4part chorus and orchestra o expanded use of low brass organ Dies irae Day of Wrath o thirteenthcentury Latin poem 0 last portion completed by Mozart o vision ofJudgment Day Ludwig van Beethoven I Piano Sonata in CSharp Minor Elements of a development section Deicate singing melody Continuous triplet patter Modified song form I The Fifth Symphony Rhythmic idea quotthree shorts and a long dominates entire work Tonaity shifts from C minor to C major
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