Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide Psych 2010
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sara Notetaker on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 2010 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Brainerd in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Test Two Knowledge Check List Psychology 2010 Chapter 6 Learning Realize the importance of learning for humans since unlike many animals spiders amp fruit ies we have few instincts and even important behaviors such as sex must be learned 0 Learning shapes personal habits personality traits personal preferences and emotional responses Be able to define and differentiate between habituation and adaptation involves a decrease and cessation of behavior 0 Learn to not pay attention to a repetitive end stimulus 0 Without habituation we would be too distracted to learn Orienting Response 0 BehavioralPsychological response to an unexpected stimulus Startle Response 0 Physical response to an unexpected stimulus 39 Ex ex muscles jumping being startled Some stimuli are much are to habituation Intense ie loud Plane taking o Unpredictable Unexpected and without pattern Occur at night Everything scarier at night bc disoriented involves a decrease in sensitivity of sense organ not able to smell aftershave after 10 minutes 0 Bodies physically adapt or get used to a situation Realize why any other learning would be impossible without these basic types of learning 0 We wouldn t be able to focusconcentrate to learn things if we couldn t grow to ignore things Understand be able to identify examples of and be able to diagram classical conditioning You should be able to do this with Pavlov s study Classical Conditioning the Little Albert study LA was not afraid of rats in beginning but was afraid of scary gong noise Paired rats with gong noise and now he is afraid of anything that has white fur such as rabbits dogs fur coat santa mask and other everyday examples such as the Beemans gumcigarette example Know the names and the function of the Neutral Stimulus 0 Does not originally produce the response of salivation Unconditioned stimulus 0 Evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning 0 Meat powder Conditioned stimulus 0 Previously neutral stimulus that has through conditioning acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response 0 the tone of the meat powder machine Unconditioned response 0 An unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning O Salivation bc of SMELL of meat powder Conditioned response 0 Learned response to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning O Salivation bc of SO UND that meat powder machine makes Be able to de ne and recognize examples of the following classical conditioning phenomena Extinction 0 The gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency 0 Occurs in classical conditioning when conditioned stimulus is consistently presented ALONE 0 Ex When Pavlov would continue to only present the tone of the meat machine to the dogs it gradually lost its capacity to elicit the response of salivation Spontaneous recovery 0 The reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of non exposure to the conditioned stimulus 0 Ex After a period of nonexposure to the tone when Pavlov presented it to the dogs again some salivated but it was much weaker than before Renewal Effect 0 If a response is extinguished in a di erent environment than where it was acquired the extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place 0 One of the main reasons why conditioned fears and phobias are so di icult to extinguish permanently Generalization 0 Occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus 0 Adaptive given that organisms rarely encounter the exact same stimulus more than once 0 Ex Woman who had bridge phobia bc father scared her on old bridge but fear was generalized to ALL bridges 0 The more similar new stimuli are to the original CS the greater the generalization Discrimination 0 Occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does NOT respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus 0 Organisms can gradually learn to discriminate bn an original CS and similar stimuli if they have adequate experience with both 0 Development usually requires that the original CS continue to be paired with the US and the similar stimuli not be paired with the US 0 The less similar new stimuli are to the original CS the greater the likelihood of discrimination Higherorder Conditioning 0 A conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus 0 Ex Pair a red light with the tone of the meat powder machine the dog will eventually start to salivate to a red light stimulus Operant Conditioning is one of the most important sections in the text 0 A form of higher learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences 0 Ex Studying so that you don t fail consequence Governs voluntary responses Organisms tend to repeat those consequences that are followed by favorable consequences Know Thorndike s Law of Effect 0 Response with positive ejfects are more likely to be repeated 0 Response with negative ejfects are less likely to be repeated Know the changes that Skinner made when he defined reinforcement by its effect on behavior 0 Operant conditioning and reinforcements 0 When an event after a response ajfects tendency to repeat that response 0 If you have to use punishment you fail Be able to define and recognize examples of the following types of reinforcement Positive Reinforcement O Occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus Primary Reinforcers I Events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs 0 Ex food water warmth sex and perhaps a ection Secondary Reinforcer 0 Events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers 0 Ex money good grades attention attery praise and applause Backup Reinforcers 0 Any reinforcer that makes a secondary or generalized reinforcer e ective Generalized Reinforcer 0 Special case of secondary reinforcerslearnedunlimited backup reinforcers to go with Escape Conditioning 0 Organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation 0 Ex rat runs out of shuttle box if shock is on oor Avoidance Conditioning 0 Organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occurring 0 Ex Rat runs at sight of light if conditioned that light comes on right before oor is shocked Be able to de ne and recognize examples of the following operant conditioning phenomena Shaping 0 Repeatedly reinforcing closer and closer approximations of a desired response until the desired response is achieved 0 Necessary when an organism does not emit the desired response on its own 0 Ex training animals to perform special tricks Extinction 0 Gradual weakening and disappearance of a response tendency because the response is no longer followed by reinforcers 0 Begins whenever previously available reinforcement is stopped 0 Resistance to extinction may occur if an organism continues to make a response after delivery of reinforce has been terminated Generalization 0 Responding to a new stimulus as if it were the original 0 Reacts to discriminative stimuli 0 Ex cat runs into kitchen bc thinks can openers always signal cat food Discrimination 0 Would occur if cat responded only to can opener and not blender Know how people are punished even if their parents are total not punishers Natural consequences of your behavior 0 Gravity being hurt bad grades etc Other punishing agents 0 Being criticized for your clothes probably wont wear same clothes that often anymore Know when Dr B considers punishment to be appropriate 0 Stop bad behaviors in the bud 0 Eliminate dangerous behaviors like aggression to parent or sibling Be able to de ne and recognize examples Intermittent Schedules of reinforcement 0 FixedRatio Schedule 0 Reinforcer is given after a fixed number of non reinforced responses 0 Salesperson receives bonus for every fourth gym membership sold 0 VariableRatio Schedule 0 Reinforcer is given after a variable number of non reinforced responses 0 Rat is reinforced for every tenth lever press on average but exact number of responses required for reinforcement varies from one time to the next 0 FixedInterval Schedule 0 Reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed O Rat is reinforced for first lever press after a 2 minute interval has elapsed and must wait 2 more minutes before being able to earn the next reinforcement 0 VariableInterval Schedule 0 Reinforcer is given for first response after variable time interval has elapsed 0 Person repeatedly dials a busy phone number getting through is the reinforcer For example a xed ratio5 Lisa is paid a set amount of money when she completes sewing five shirts Know their rate and pattern of response Summarized in Figure 617 Be sure that you know the difference between negative reinforcement 0 Occurs when a response is STRENGTHENED because it is followed by the removal of an aversive unpleasant stimulus 0 Ex turning shock o when rat presses lever Punishment 0 Occurs when an event following a response WEAKENS the tendency to make that response 0 Ex rat gets shocked when it presses lever Be able to define and recognize examples of situations that suggest evolutionary in uence on conditioning Preparedness 0 Involves speciesspecific predispositions to be conditioned in certain ways and not others Phobias 0 Seligman believes that preparedness can explain why certain phobias are vastly more common than others Conditioned Taste Aversion 0 Aromataste of certain foods cause uneasiness in people who have had bad experiences with such foods Latent learning amp cognitive maps 0 LL Learning that is not apparent from behavior when it first occurs Edward Tolman 0 CM Mental representation of a spatial layout Signal Relationships 0 Strength of a conditioned response depends on the percentage of trials in which the CS and US are paired 0 A good signal is one that allows accurate prediction of the US 0 Robert Rescoria ResponseOutcome Relationships Superstitious Behavior Understand the concept of Observational Learning 0 Organisms responding is in uenced by the observation of others models 0 Ex Driving Know Bandura s 4 basic processes in observational learning 0 Attention 0 Pay attention to another s behaviorconsequences to learn through observation 0 Retention 0 Must store a mental representation of what you have witnessed in your memory 0 Reproduction O Enacting a modeled response depends on your ability to reproduce by converting your stored mental images into overt behavior 0 Motivation 0 You will not reproduce a response unless you are motivated to do so 0 Depends on whether or not you think it will pay o Know the Featured Study on the power of modeling Know and understand The Illustrated Overview of the Three Types of Learning on pages 262263 Know the Personal Application Achieving SelfControl Through Behavior Modi cation Know the Critical Thinking Application on Manipulating Emotions Know the practice questions and the end of the chapter Chapter 7 Human Memorv Be able to de ne and recognize examples of the threefour memory steps as outlined in class as summarized in Figure 72 Remember that Dr B considers so read carefully about the role of attention on page 275 Attention 0 Focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events 0 Encoding 39 Forming a memory code 39 Crucial process in memory 0 Structural emphasizes physical structure of stimulus 0 Phonemic emphasize what a word sounds like 0 Semantic emphasizes meaning of verbal input 0 Storage 39 Maintaining encoded information in memory over time 0 Retrieval I Recovering information from memory stores Know the levels of processing as summarized by Figure 75 amp 76 Know how encoding may be enriched including the methods of Elaboration 39 Linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding 39 Enhances semantic encoding 0 Ex When reading that phobias are caused by classical conditioning you apply this idea to your own fear of spiders which helps you remember that phobias are caused by CC Visual Imagery 39 Creation of visual images to represent words 39 It s easier to form images of concrete objects than abstract objects 0 Ex Juggler vs Truth I DualCoding Theory holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes since either can lead to recall SelfReferent Encoding 39 Deciding how or whether information is personally relevant 0 Ex Screen had lists of adjectives and people remembered most the adjectives that described themselves Motivation to Remember I When M TR is high at time of encoding bc info is perceived to be important people are more likely to exert extra e ort to attend to and organize information in ways that facilitate future recall Know the names the components and the function of the Atkinson and Shiffrin Model as outlined in Figure 79 I Atkinson and Shijfrin proposed that memory is made up of 3 information stores Sensory memory can hold large amount of info just long enough for a small portion of it to be selected for longer storage Shortterm memory that has a limited capacitylO20 seconds and unless aided by rehearsal its storage duration is brief Longterm memory can store an apparently unlimited amount of info for indeterminate periods Know the capacity duration and pertinent facts about each type of memory Know the Alan Baddeley view of the working memory I Working memory includes 4 components a phonological loop a visuospatial sketchpad a central executive system and an episodic bu er Know about flashbulb and the LTM I FB unusually vivid and detailed recollections of the circumstances in which people learned about momentous newsworthy events I LTM Unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time Know about the organization and representation of memory Speci cally know and recognize examples of Clustering and Conceptual Hierarchies I Multilevel classification system based on common properties among items Schemas I An organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event People are more likely to remember things that are consistent with their schemas than things that are not Semantic Networks I Nodes representing concepts joined together by pathways that link related concepts The length of each pathway represents degree of association bn 2 concepts 10 O Shorter pathways imply stronger associations Connectionist Network and Parallel Processing Models I Assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks In section on Retrieval Getting Information out of memory know about Cues to aid retrieval the context of the event reconstruction of memories and reality monitoring Know Herman Ebbinghaus and his forgetting curve I Studied himself I Invented Nonsense Syllables consonantvowelconsonant arrangements that do not correspond to words I Wanted to work with meaningless materials that would be uncontaminated by his previous learning I Developed a Forgetting Curb on which he plotted how rapidly we forget things Be able to define and recognize examples of recall and recognition tests as discussed in class I Recall measure of retention requires subjects to reproduce info on their own without any cues 0 Essay questions or fillintheblank questions 0 Ex Who is current US secretary of state 0 Ex What movie won the Academy Award for best picture last year I Recognition measure of retention requires subjects to select previously learned info from an array of options 0 Ex Multiple choice true false and matching questions Be able to define and recognize examples of the following explanation of human forgetting Ineffective coding I Info in question may never have been inserted into memory in the first place I Also called pseudoforgetting 0 Usually attributed to lack of attention Decay Theory I Attributes forgetting to the impermanence of memory storage I Forgetting occurs bc memory traces fade with time 11 Interference Theory I People forget info bc of competition from other material I Proactive Interference O Occurs when previously learned info interferes with retention of new info I Retroactive Interference O Occurs when new info impairs the retention of previously learned info Retrieval Failure I When people remember things that they were unable to recall at an earlier time I Obvious during struggles with the tipofthetongue phenomenon Encoding specificity principle I The value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code Transfer appropriate processing I Occurs when initial processing info is similar to type of processing required by subsequent measure of retention Motivated Forgetting I People often keep embarrassing unpleasant or painful memories buried in their unconscious Repression I Keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious I Sigmund Freud s word for MF Know what is meant by the term recovered memories I Return of one s longlost memories or traumas that may have happened as childrenyoung adults Know the argument for and against these memories and the general conclusion about the validity of such memories I Support many largely accept recovered memories of abuse as face value 0 44 believed that recovered memories are always or usually genuine I Against Many have expressed skepticism about the upsurge in incidence of recovered memories 0 Believe that people have been persuaded to believe they had been abused bc of how they behave now Know and understand the processes and structures involved with the Memory Trace 12 Know the role of Neural Circuitry in Memory Know the brain structures in the Anatomy of Memory Know and recognize examples of Retrograde and Anterograde Amnesia I Retrograde involves loss of memories for events that occurred prior to onset of amnesia I Anterograde involves loss of memories for events that occur after onset of amnesia Declarative and Procedural Memory I Declarative handles factual info 0 Contains recollections of words definitions names dates faces events concepts and ideas I Procedural Houses memory for actions skills conditioned responses and emotional responses 0 Riding a bike typing and tying ones shoes Semantic and Episodic Memory I Episodic made up of chronological recollections of personal experiences I Semantic contains general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the info was learned 0 Dogs have 4 legs Christmas is Dec 25quotquot Phoenix is in Arizona Retrospective and Prospective Memory I Retrospective remembering events from the past or previously learned info 0 Ex Trying to remember who won superbowl last year I Prospective remembering to perform actions in the future 0 Ex remembering to walk the dog call someone etc Know the Personal Application Improving Everyday Memory I Mnemonic devices strategies for enhancing memory I Overlearning continued rehearsal of material after you first appear to have mastered it I Serialposition e ect occurs when subjects show better recall for items at the beginning and end of a list than for items in the middle Know the practice questions and the end of the chapter 13 Chapter 9 Intelligence and Psychological Testing Know the de nition of and be able to recognize examples of Mental ability tests including 0 0 Intelligence tests measure general mental ability Aptitude tests assess specific types of mental abilities measure potential more than knowledge Achievement tests gauge a person s masteryknowledge of particular subject like en ish test etc Personality tests measure various aspects of personality including motives interests values attitudes Understand the following characteristics that make up a successful psychological test 39 Standardization uniform procedures used during administrationscoring of a test 39 amp Norms provide info about where a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to other scores on that test I Reliability measurement consistency of a test testretest reliability for less reliable psych tests 39 Validity ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure 0 Content Validity refers to degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it s supposed to cover a test that asked questions about material that hadn t been covered would lack content validity CriterionRelated Validity estimated by correlating subjects scores on test with scores on an independent criterion of trait assessed by test Construct Validity extent to which evidence shows that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct Know the basic history of intelligence testing as presented on pages 341343 Be sure that you know the following people by name and their contribution to intelligence 14 O GaltonHereditary Genius demonstrated intelligence is governed by heredity coined nature V nurture invented correlation and percentile test scores 0 BinetMental Age in intelligence testing a score that indicates a child displays the mental ability typical of a child of that actual age 0 TermanStandfordBinet amp IQ intelligent quotient child s mental age divided by actual age multiplied by 100 Made it easier than Binet to compare children 0 WechslerWAIS Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale required nonverbal reasoning and swapped out IQ for normal distribution Know the various types of questions on the WAIS Fig 96 Know how to compute an IQ score if you are the mental age and chronological age of a child Table 91 Know the views on the structure of intelligence Including The role of factor analysis correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables If a bunch of variables correlate with each other usually a single factor is in uencing them factor analysis helps solve mystery Charles Spearman s little g used factor analysis to examine correlations among tests of specific mental abilities and that their core factor is g general mental ability L L Thurstone s multiple mental abilities had a different view seven independent factors make up intelligence primary mental abilities word uency verbal comprehension spatial ability perceptual speed numerical ability inductive reasoning memory g divided into Fluid reasoning ability memory speed of info processing and Crystalized Intelligence ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills in problem solving 15 Know the importance of the normal distribution and its effect on the classi cation of intelligence and retardation levels Figure 97 Average intelligence 50th percentile 100 deviation IQ score 0 deviations from mean Severely retarded 01th percentile 55 deviation IQ scored 3 deviations from mean Be able to define Mental retardation refers to subnormal general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in adaptive skills originating before age 18 and its implications summarized in Table 92 Range from a somewhat self supporting individual who may graduate high school to someone with no speechtoilet trained abilities Be able to define Giftedness above average in heightweightstrengthhealthadjustmentmental health iq 150 and understand its implications not nerds but PROFOUNDLY gifted iq 180 sometimes socially introvertedisolated I giftedness doesn t mean eminent giftedness exceptional intelligence commitment creativity I high intelligence doesn t foster genuine greatness Heredity and Environment in Intelligence Be able to name explain and recognize examples of Heredity s contribution to intelligence Know and understand the following sources of evidence for heredity I Twin Studies if identical twins are more similarly intelligent than fraternal intelligence is genetic I Adoption Studies if adopted kids still resemble biological parents in intelligence genetic I Heritability Estimatesparticularly the Heritability Ratio estimate of proportion of trait variability in a population that is 16 determined by variations in genetic inheritance heritability can be estimated in any trait ie Height heritability estimates for intelligence range from 80 to 40 Be able to name explain and recognize examples of the environment s contribution to intelligence Siblings raised together have higher intelligence correlation than siblings raised apart Peers left behind in disadvantaged homes have less IQ improvement than children removed to better environments Generational changeknow the Flynn Effect IQ has steadily grown across generations due to industrialized world means IQ dependent on environment Understand the nature of the interaction between heredity and the environment Class heredity amp environment all in uence intelligence Not either0r but how they react together to a ect intelligence Know how the reaction range fits into this explanation genetic make up puts upper limit on intelligence even in perfect environment amp vice versa The biological correlates of intelligence brain size intelligence Not highly correlated Know Sternberg s Three Factors of Intelligence Practical intelligence Analytical intelligence and Creative intelligence Know how Howard Gardner tried to expand intelligence into nonacademic areas Know his 8 types of intelligence Logicalmathematical linguistic musical spatial bodilykinesthetic interpersonal intrapersonal naturalist Know the personal application Understanding Creativity l7 Omit the Critical Thinking Application Know the practice questions and the end of the chapter 18
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