Exam #3 Study Guide
Exam #3 Study Guide Psych 2010
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sara Notetaker on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 2010 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Brainerd in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Exam 3 Study Guide Dr Brainerd39s Introductory Psychology Class Chapter 12 Personalitv Theorv Research and Assessment 0 Personality is a relatively consistent pattern of thoughts emotions and behavior 0 Behavior Tasks for personality researcher 0 Description both average person and researcher are interested in describing what an individual39s personality is like Talking to parents asks about someone you give description of personality funny hard working really nice 0 Development how did the person become a certain way Know what is meant by the term quotpersonality traitquot A durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations Know and be able to de ne Gordon Allport39s classi cation of personality traits Cardinal Central Secondary 0 Cardinal Traits most powerful powerful traits that show up in every aspect of person39s life 0 Traits that are so powerful they pervade your personality with every single thing that you do 0 May not necessarily have one 0 Central Traits what we consider normal personality traits 810 describes a person 0 show up consistently in your behavior 0 Secondary Traits behaviors that are not often seen Need to know person well 0 Consistent traits but you don39t see them that frequently 0 Very hard to compare individualsmake comparisons Know how factor analysis is used to differentiate personality traits Correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables Know the two tasks that researchers and regular people attempt to do with personality 1 describe it 2 explain how it develops Know and be able to de ne the traits of the Fivefactor Model of Personality summarized in Fig 121 1 extroversion 2 neuroticism 3 openness to experience 4 agreeableness 5 conscientiousness Know which are considered to be good traits for happiness relationships and employment McCrae and Costa 5 universal traits OCEAN o Agreeableness o Conscientiousness constraint 0 Openness to experience 0 Extraversion positive emotionality Outgoing sociable upbeat friendly assertive Neuroticism negative emotionality Anxious hostile selfconscious insecure vulnerable O 0 There is a positive and negative end to each trait Openness closely tied into intelligence 0 High artistic clever curious Low shallow simple unintelligent Conscientiousness 0 High cautious deliberate dependable obey rules and laws 0 Low carless disorderly forgetful 0 Important trait in hiring someone get to work on time obey rules reliable Extraversion 0 High active assertive dominant 0 Like people interact easily 0 Happy 0 Romantic relationships 0 Low quiet reserved shy o intravert Agreeableness 0 High affectionate cooperative friendly 0 Low cold cruel unfriendly Neuroticism unstable unpredictable behavior want to be low 0 High anxious emotional moody 0 Low calm contented unemotional Strong Predictors of Happiness 0 Love and Marriage 0 Work 0 Personality Extraversion High selfesteem Optimism Poor Predictors of Happiness 0 Money 0 Age 0 Parenthood 0 Intelligence and Attractiveness Know Freud and his theory very well 0 Performed psychoanalysis o Psychodynamic theories include all the diverse theories descended from the work of Freud which focus on unconscious mental forces Know the factors which must be considered when evaluating Freud Victorian Era very old theory work in private practice WWI impacted his life 0000 Know the structures of the personality their function and their interaction with each other 0 Id the primitive instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle 0 Primaryprocess thinking Primitive illogical irrational fantasy oriented Houses the raw biological urges eat sleep defecate etc Operates according the pleasure principle which demands immediate grati cation of its urges QQQ Ego the decisionmaking component of personality that operates according to the reality principle 0 Wants us to have fun but careful 0 Secondaryprocess thinking relatively rational realistic and oriented toward problem solving 0 Considers social realities society s norms etiquette rules and customs in deciding how to behave 0 Guided by the reality principle which seeks to delay grati cation of the id39s urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found To stay out of trouble the ego often works to tame the unbridled desires of the id 0 Strives to avoid negative consequences from society and its representatives Punishment by parents or teachers 0 Superego ego ideal and the conscience 0 The moral component of personality that incorporates socia standards about what represents right and wrong 0 Emerges out around 35 years old 0 Ego ideal rewards Conscience punishes 0 Id becomes too strong person is amoral impulsive uses others lies and gets in trouble 0 Old name Psychopath 0 New name Antisocial Personality Superego becomes too strong person is overly controlled guilty unhappy and rigid 0 Old name neurotic 0 New name anxiety disorder Con ict Based System II 0 Id and Superego are constantly at odds with each other 0 The ego tries to keep both of them happy which is an impossible task 0 Sometimes the Ego just runs out of energy and must get help by using a Defense Mechanism Know the levels of awareness as summarized by Figure 122 o Conscious consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time 0 Ex this moment conscious may include hungry tired of reading etc o Preconscious contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be retrieved 0 Ex your middle name what you had for supper last night an argument you had with a friend Unconscious contains thoughts memories and desires that are well below that surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great in uence on behavior 0 Ex forgotten trauma from childhood hidden feelings of hostility toward a parent repressed sexual desires Know the reason that defense mechanisms are used Defense mechanisms largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt Ego becomes overwhelmed by the id and the superego Know the four features that defense mechanisms have in common 1 Initiated and controlled by the ego 2 Use is unconscious 3 Distort reality 4 Helpful at rst and become highly destructive with passage of time Know the de nition and be able to recognize an of ANY of the defense mechanisms summarized in Table 121 Repression keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious o A traumatized soldier has no recollection of the details of a close brush with death Projection attributing one39s own thoughts feelings or motives to another 0 A woman who dislikes her boss thinks she likes her boss but feels that the boss doesn39t like her Displacement diverting emotional feelings usually anger from their original source to a substitute target 0 After parental scolding a young girl takes her anger out on her little brother Reaction formation behaving in a way that is exactly that opposite of one s true feelings o A parent who unconsciously resents a child spoils that child with outlandish gifts Regression a reversion to immature patterns of behavior 0 An adult has a temper tantrum when he doesn39t get his way Rationalization creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior 0 You deny a painful truth and substitute a less painful excuse Ex get bad grade blame teacher s test was too hard 0 A student watches TV instead of studying saying that quotadditional study wouldn39t do any good anyway quot 0 Identi cation bolstering selfesteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group 0 An insecure young man joins a fraternity to boost his selfesteem Know the psychosexual stages and the causes and results of xation in each 0 Stage one Oral 01 mouth sucking biting weaning from breast or bottle 0 Result obsessive eating or smoking later in life 0 Stage two Anal 23 anus expelling or retaining feces toilet training 0 Result excessive punishment produces feeling of hostility toward quottrainerquot women 0 Stage three Phallic 45 genitals masturbating identifying with adult role models coping with Oedipal crisis 0 Oedipal complex children manifest erotically tinged desires for their oppositesex parent accompanied by feelings of hostility toward their samesex parents Male desires affection and attention from mother 0 Electra complex quotdaddy s little girlquot Female desires affection and attention from father 0 Must identify Son becomes as much like the father as he possibly can Takes on language behavior mannerisms o Learns how to behave in a masculine fashion Daughter becomes as much like the mother as she possibly can 0 Copies behavior mannerisms sayings o Learns to behave in traditional female role 0 Stage four Latency 612 none sexually repressed expanding social contacts o If you toilet train your child too seriously you39ll xate that child in that stage of development o If you are too lineate on your child you ll also cause xann 0 Stage ve Genital puberty onward genitals being sexually intimate establishing intimate relations contributing to society through working Know how xation occurs and the personality type that develops Know Freud39s explanation xation and real reasons that Dr B covered in class 0 Fixation you mess up a stage and you get stuck in the stage for life 0 Ex Too little or too much oral and you will be stuck in the stage 0 Occurs during the Oedipus and electra complex When xated in Oedipus stage 0 quotsuper malequot annoylingly ballsy When xated in Electra stage 0 quotsuper femalequot exaggerate feminine behaviors 0 Regression you might successfully go through all the stages then something traumatizing happens and you go back to an earlier stage Have to get into the unconscious to fix freud39s ways of doing so 0 Hypnosis too slow 0 Free association 0 Dreams Manifest content Freud interested in latent content of dream Know Jung and his major concepts including Analytical Psychology personal unconscious collective unconscious archetypes and introversionextroversion 0 Analytical psychology approach many followers because of con icts with Freud 0 Personal unconscious houses material that is not within one s conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten o Collective unconscious a storehouse of latent memory races inherited from people39s ancestral past 0 Archetypes emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning 0 Introversionextroversion Know Adler and his major concepts including Individual Psychology inferiority complex striving for superiority overcompensation and birth order Know the three major criticisms of the psychodynamic approach to personality summarized on page 501 Poor testability inadequate evidence and sexism Know the general views of the Behavioral Approach to personality Normal or Abnormal o In touch with reality o Is the behavior deviant Statistically rare Inappropriate for role Upsetting to others 0 Is the Beh Maladaptive 0 Personal Distress Know Skinner and his views Personality is a collection of response tendencies that have been operantly conditioned by reinforcers and punishers Know Bandura and his social cognitive theory He believed in operant conditioning but added idea of observational learning self ef cacy and reciprocal determinism Walter Mischel believed that the situation determines personality We behave very differently in church than we do at a beach party Know the general views of the Humanistic Approach to personality Know Carl Roger39s views including the self self concept congruenceincongruent and conditionalunconditional love Know Abraham Maslow and his views Pay particular attention to Maslow39s hierarchy of needs Know the needs and their order in the hierarchy Know the criticisms of the humanistic perspective Poor testability unrealistic view of human nature inadequate evidence Know the general views of the Biological Approach to personality Know Eysenck39s views including extroversion neuroticism and psychoticism Know the goals of Behavioral Genetics and Personalitv and understand the role of the heritability estimate Know the Evolutionarv perspective Know the three criticisms of the biological approaches found on page 516 Note there is a good summary of the different personality approaches on pages 520521 Know the Terror Management Theory of Personality and its implications 517518 Know very well the tests and information listed on the Personal Application on pages 524527 Know the names the format and the general category of each personality test listed Omit critical thinking section Know the practice questions and the end of the chapter Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders Know the role of the medical model in mental illness Know the questions listed in class which can be used to determine the difference between normal and abnormal behavior and the criteria of abnormal behavior found in your on pages 578577 In touch with reality deviant behavior maladaptive behavior personal distress Know the 5 classi cation axes used to diagnose and classify psychological disorders Good summary on Figure 143 0 Axis 1 Clinical disorder mental disorders person experiencing depression pyromania citeophomeia 0 Axis 2 Personality Disorder long term maladaptive patterns of behavior 0 Know major classi cations not details of antisocial 0 Axis 3 General Medical Medical problems related to disorder 0 Ex cancer depression 0 Axis 4 SocialEnvironmental Stessors 0 Axis 5 Global Functioning How well done in last year or 100 personality excellent D 110 barely functioning Know the general characteristics of the Anxiety Disorders 0 Phobias irrational fear of object or class of objects generally greek to describe 0 Agoraphobia debilitating quotfear of market placequot more and more uncomfortable of going out in crowds o more and more homebound responds well to treatment Social Phobias afraid to be in situations where can be laughed at or observed by others 1 public speaking restroom use Simple Phobias afraid of object or class of objects Germs shakes bugs spiders dark Has to be irrational intense disruptive to your life Not genuine uncomfortable Knowing how got it not helpful in curring it o ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder 0 Recurrent thoughts cant get out of mind 0 Panic Attacks 0 O O O 0 Common More frequent in women 75 Very rapid onset of uncontrollable terror Can recover quickly Choking dizziness light headed sweating Fear of dying losing control chills numbing o Generalized Anxiety Disorder 0 O 0 00000 In a constant long term state of anxiety free oating anxiety the anxiety is not attached to anything Christmas time stresses about what to get always have something stressed about Restlessness keyed up and on edged Mind go blank irritability muscle tension dif cultly falling asleep dif culty staying asleep long term 3 months individual prone to self medicate trouble sleeping or worrying may take drugs to help 0 Post traumatic Stress Syndrome 10 o Returning from war 0 After Katrina or horrible re Know the names and symptoms of the speci c disorders that fall under this category including phobias social phobias agoraphobia obsessive compulsive disorder generalized anxiety disorder and panic attack Know the etiology or suspected causes of anxiety disorders Know the general characteristics of the Somatoform Somatization LT history man ydifferent complaints Conversion Disorder Actual loss of physical function Gain or Bell Indifference Hypochondriasis excess concern with heatlh and worry about wellness Know the names and symptoms of the speci c disorders that fall under this category including somatization disorder conversion disorder and hypochondriasis Know the etiology or suspected causes of these disorders Know the general characteristics of the Dissociative disorders Amnesia Fugue Dissociative Identity Disorder 0 Old Multiple Personality Know the names and symptoms of the Dissociative Disorders including amnesia fugue and the Dissociative Identity disorder Know the etiology or suspected causes of these disorders Know the general characteristics of the Moods Disorders Dysthymic Disorder chronic mild depression 0 Lack happiness feel like they can hardly move Major Depressive Disorder Unipolar Mood disorder 0 Continuous daily symptoms Feelings of sadness hopelessness and discouragement Loss of pleasure in people and activities Movements and minds are slow Chemical imbalance in brain doesn39t respond to therapy 0000 0 Symptoms Appetite loss or sometimes gain Insomnia sometimes hypersomnia Restlessness or agitation Lack of energy tiredness or fatigue 11 Mental slow down loss of concentration Inability to have positive happy thoughts Manic Disorder 0 Feeling too good Very sociable Impulsive Racing thoughts and ideas Hyperactivity Delusions of grandeur Behavior sprees OOOOOO Bipolar Disorder periods of alternating depression normal behavior and manic behavior 0 718 of the population will experience a Mood disorder at some point in their life Know the names and symptoms of the speci c disorders that fall under this category including major depressive disorder mania unipolar disorder bipolar disorder dysthymic disorder and cyclothymic disorder Know the etiology or suspected causes of these disorders Schizophrenia Delusions and Irrational thoughts person thinks they39re someone they39re not Loss of adaptive behavior Hallucinations seeing hearing feeling things that aren39t there Emotional abnormalities totally off the wall or showing no emotions o 4 types of Schizophrenia o paranoid type bizarre feelings of persecution feel that people are doing secret experiments on them neighbors are spying on them 0 catatonic type 0 disorganized type 0 undifferentiated type 12
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