Exam #4 Study Guide
Exam #4 Study Guide Psych 2010
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sara Notetaker on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 2010 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Brainerd in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Exam 4 Study Guide Dr Brainerd s Intro Psych Class Chapter 11 Human Development Across the Life Span Know and be able to list the main characteristics of each prenatal stage of human development Germinal Embryonic and Fetal Stage 0 Germinal First face of prenatal development takes place during first 2 weeks after conception 0 Placenta structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into fetus from mother s bloodstream and bodily waste to pass out the mother 0 Embryonic Second stage of prenatal development lasts from about 2 weeks to end of second month 0 Most vital organs are formed 0 Fetal Stage Third stage of prenatal development lasting from 2 months until birth 0 Muscles form and bones harden 0 Age of Viability age at which a baby can survive premature birth about 2226 weeks Know the effects and importance of the following on the child s health and wellbeing 0 Maternal Nutrition amp Emotions 0 Maternal malnutrition causes baby to be more likely to have health problems for the rest of hisher life 0 Maternal Drug Use and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 0 Maternal Drug Use drugs used by mother pass thru placenta to baby and cause many birth defects and health problems 0 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome collection of inborn problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy 0 Maternal Illness amp Exposure to Toxins 0 Many illnesses contracted by mother can be transmitted to newborn 0 AIDSHIV can pass from mother to newborn in birth 0 Fetal Origins of Disease Know terms 0 Less parental health care for lowincome group causes many problems for the baby the general patterns of infant motor development including the following Cephalocaudal Trend Headtofoot direction of motor development Proximodistal Trend CenterOutward direction of motor development Developmental Norms The median age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities The Effects of Cultural Variations different cultures develop specific motor skills faster Know the different types and characteristics of infant temperament including the methods by which these effects are measured Longitudinal Study Study one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time Crosssectional Study Study compare groups of participants repeatedly over a period of time Cohort Effect Occurs when differences bn age groups are due to the groups growing up in different time periods Know the importance of the role causes effects of motherchild attachment Know the following related terms 0 Attachment refers to the close emotional bonds of affection that develop bn infants and their caregivers 0 Separation Anxiety Emotional distress seen in many infants which happens when they are separated from people who they have formed an attachment with Know Mary Ainsworth categories of childmother attachment 0 Secure Attachment use mother as secure base to venture out 0 AnxiousAmbivalent Attachment resistant attachment anxious when mother leaves or is present 0 Avoidant Attachment child doesn t care if mother is present or leaves Be aware in cultural differences in these patterns of attachment 0 A 0 ttachment development norms are same across culture but type of attachment varies across culture Understand that Erikson s Theory of development is a series of psychosocial crises Don t worry about the individual stages but do understand the implications of STAGE THEORY 0 Personality is shaped how one deals with 8 psychosocial crises in the 8 stages of life Know Jean Piaget s theory of cognitive development very well Pay attention to the terms in both bold print and italic All children go thru 4 stages of Cognitive Development 1 Sensorimotor Period 0 Object Permanence when a child recognizes objects that continue to exist even when they are no longer available 2 Preoperational Period 0 Conservation Awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance 0 Centration Tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem neglecting other important aspects 0 Irreversability Inability to envision reversing an action 0 Egocentrism Thinking characterized by a limited ability to share another s point of view 0 Animism The belief that all things are living 3 Concrete Operational Period 4 Formal Operational Period Be sure that you can define the following terms recognize examples of each term and know the cognitive stage with which it is associated Be Aware of Lev Vygotsly s view of cognitive development which stresses the importance of culture and language in cognitive development 0 Vygotsky s Sociocultural Theory 0 Zone of Proximal Development Gap bn what a learner can accomplish alone and what a learner can achieve with guidance from more skilled partners 0 Scaffolding when the assistance provided to a child is adjusted as learning progresses Know the different stages of Laurence Kohlberg s theory of moral development and the type of moral thinking that characterizes each stage 0 Kohlberg Stage Theory Children make bad choices based on reasoning in stages and not behavior moral reasoning Know and understand the following terms associated with the transition to adolescence 0 Pubescence 2 year span preceding puberty during which the changes leading to physical and sexual maturity take place 0 Primary Sex Characteristics Structures needed for sexual reproduction 0 Secondary Sex Characteristics Physical features that distinguish one sex from other but that are not essential for reproduction 0 Puberty Stage during which sexual functions reach maturity which marks the beginning of adolescence 0 Menarche First occurrence of menstruation Pay particular attention to the neurological changes which are still occurring during adolescence and even through the midtwenties in the brain Pay particular attention to the prefrontal cortex of the brain 0 Spermache First occurrence of ejaculation 0 Prefrontal cortex last to mature in adolescence The Search for Identity including 0 Diffusion Refusing to chart a life course 0 Foreclosure Premature commitment to visions 0 Moratorium Delaying commitment to play with different ideas 0 Achievement Arriving at a sense of selfdirection Know the Featured Study on Adolescent Risk Taking and Peer In uence p 456 Understand and be able to explain the adjustments and changes that occur in adulthood including The Empty Nest Syndrome is BS Parents love you but now that you re gone they have an extra room in the house time alone and more spending money Know the physical and mental changes that occur with adulthood and aging 0 Adulthood 0 Personality development I Personality in adulthood experiences both stability and change 0 Midlife Crisis a difficult turbulent period of doubts and reappraisal of one s life 0 Erikson s view of Adulthood I Intimacy vs Isolation I Generativity vs SelfAbsorption I Integrity vs Despair Know and understand the material on the physiological neural and cognitive changes that occur when a person ages 0 Aging takes toll on speed of memory first but ability remains throughout age Know the Personal Application the Personal Understanding Gender Differences Omit the Critical Thinking section Are Fathers Essential to Children s Well Being Know the practice questions and the end of the chapter Chapter 14 Stress Coping and Health Understand the basic principle of the biopschosocial model of illness 0 Biopyschosocial Model physical illness caused by an interaction of biological psychological and sociocultural factors Note the changing nature of illness in the USA since 1900 in Fig 141 Pay particular attention to heart disease and cancer Understand the neurological basis of stress as explained in class 0 Stress any circumstance that threatens or is perceived to threaten one s well being and that thereby tax one s coping skills 00 Has a cumulative nature Depends on how one interprets a situation Acute Stressors Threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear endpoint Chronic Stressors Threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit Be particularly aware of the role of the Fight or ight response in this process as discussed in class 0 A physiological reaction to a threat in which the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organisms for attackingf1ght or eeingflight the enemy Understand the role of primary and secondary appraisal in the effect of stress fig 142 Be able to define and recognize examples of the different types of stress 0 Frustration In any situation when in which the pursuit of some goal is thwarted 0 Con ict When 2 or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression 0 O O Approachapproach choice must be made bn 2 attractive goals Avoidanceavoidance choice must be made bn 2 unattractive goals Approachavoidance choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both unattractive and attractive aspects 0 Changes 0 O O O Catastrophic events Life Changes significant alterations in one s living circumstances that require readjustment Holmes and Rahe s Social Readjustment Scale Table 141 Hassles 0 Pressure 0 0 Pressure to perform in a certain way or level set by self or others Pressure to conform to certain standards Note that stress or arousal is not always bad and sometimes increase a person s level of performance ie the inverted Ushaped function discussed in class Note the predictable relationship between task performance task complexity and the level of stress shown in Figure 147 Understand the physiological response to stress as summarize in fig 149 0 Positive and negative emotions are emitted by stress 0 Positive emotions play a key role in helping people bounce back from stressful events 0 Emotinal arousal helps perform noncomplicated tasks better and faster for a period of time but doesn t help perform complicated tasks better Know the role of brain body pathways including the following terms 0 Hypothalamus O Pituitary gland 0 Autonomic Nervous System 0 Adrenal medulla 0 Adrenal cortex 0 Catecholamines amp corticosteroids Know Hans Selye s General Adaptation Syndrome and its stages 0 A model of the body s stress response consisting of 3 stages 0 Alarm Shock or CounterShock 0 Resistance 0 Exhaustion Know the behavioral responses to Stress including 0 Giving up and blaming oneselfLearned helplessness Albert Ellis and his view of catastrophic thinking 0 Aggression Striking out at other 0 Catharsis Indulging oneself 0 Defensive coping Unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt 0 Some aren t bene cial small illusions are bene cial big one s aren t Know and be able to recognize different types of defense mechanisms that may be used to cope with stress Table 142 gives a good summary 0 Constructive Coping relatively healthful efforts that people make to deal with stressful events 0 1 Confront problems directly Evaluate your options so you can solve your problems 0 2 Appraise your stress and coping resources reasonably 0 3 Learn to recognize and inhibit potentially disruptive emotional resources to stress 0 4 Make efforts to endure your body is not especially vulnerable to possibility of damaging effects of stress Be able to define and recognize examples of impaired performance burnout and psychological disorders Know how stress produces positive effects 0 Burnout physical and emotional exhaustion cynicism and a lowered sense of selfefficacy that can be brought on gradually by chronic workrelated stress 0 Stress disrupts attention and memory 0 Stress can also promote personal growth or selfimprovement 0 Stress can force people to develop new skills reevaluate priorities learn new insights and acquire new strengths Be able to define and recognize examples of psychosomatic disease 0 Physical ailments that were to be caused by stress and other psychological factors Know the characteristics that make up the Type A and Type B personality 0 Type A Personality with 3 Elements 0 1 Strong competitive orientation 0 2 Impatience and Time urgency 0 3 Anger and Hostility 0 Type B Relatively relaxed patient easygoing amicable behavior 0 Anger and hostility in Type A leads to heart disease Know Suzanne Kobossa s Hardy Personality if covered in class The 3 C s Control Commitment Challenge Know the Featured Study on the Link Between Depression and Heart Disease p 581 Understand stresses link to physical illness and disease Some of these problems are summarized nicely in table 143 0 Immune response Body s defense reaction to invasion by bacteria or other foreign substances 0 Stress ages immune response organisms 0 Healthimpairing behavior 0 Smoking opens up possibility for many health problems 0 Bad diets puts one at more risk for heart disease hypertension etc 0 Lack of exercise increases stress and susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases Recognize the role of social support optimism and conscientiousness in dealing with stress 0 Social Support Various types of aid and succor provided by member s of one s social networks 0 Optimism General tendency to expect good outcomes 0 Conscientiousness Tendency to have selfdiscipline and be careful in actions Know the Personal ApplicationImproving Coping and Stress Management Omit the critical thinking application Know the practice questions Chapter 13 Social Behavior Ignore the really creepy picture on the first two pages of this chapter Understand the process of personal perception and the effect of the following in uences Physical attractiveness Stereotypes including the definition of stereotypes and the examples listed in the text 10 Know how the illusionary correlation helps to support and maintain stereotypes Understand the evolutionary natures of the ingroup and outgroup distinction Understand the process of attributions and the importance of the attributions that we make in the everyday world Be able to define and recognize examples of Internal and external attributions Stable and unstable attributions The actorobserver bias and the fundamental attributions error Defensive Attributions The selfserving bias The difference between individual and collective cultures and how that difference affects attributions that people make Know the general geographic distribution of each type of culture Be able to name define and recognize the important variables in close relationship including Interpersonal attraction Physical attractiveness Matching Hypothesis Similarity Attitude alignment Proximity if covered in class Reciprocity if covered in class 11 Romantic Ideals and how they can be met by lowering standards or by charitable evaluation Be able to name define and recognize the different types of love listed in the section on the mysteries of love Know the general time period of their development andor decline as summarized in Figure 134 Passionate love Companionate love Also know the relationship and intimacy commitment and passion Remember that much of the effect of passionate love is brought about by major dopamine release that activates pleasure centers all over the brain Know and be able to explain the Hazen amp Shaver 1987 study concerning the relationship between the person s childhood up bring and their adult attachment style summarized in Figure 134 We may be doomed to relive our childhood relations with our romantic partner Secure Avoidant Anxious ambivalent Be aware of the role that culture plays in expectations in romantic relationships and that the importance of romantic love differs greatly among cultures Know the terms associated with the evolutionary perspective on attractions including Facial symmetry Waist to hip ratio Mate poaching 12 Know what is meant by the term attitude Be able to name define and recognize the components that make up each attitude Cognitive component Affective component Behavioral component Be able to define and recognize Explicit and Implicit attitudes Understand that the correlation between a person s attitude and a person s behavior is weak at best A person who is an environmentalist may litter in certain circumstances Know about persuasion or trying to change attitudes Be able to define identify and explain how source factors message factors and receiver factors play a role in attitude development and attitude changes You may omit all the Theories of Attitude Change on pages 537538 except Leon Festinger s Theory of Cognitive Dissonance Understand the mechanism behind this theory and the attitude changes that result Be able to describe both the methodology and the results of Solomon Asch s study of conformity Be able to describe both the methodology and the results of Stanley Milgram s study of obedience Realize that this study suggests that 65 of your classmates would electrocute you if I demanded that they do so This is the featured study on p 541 Know it well Know why Milgram s study was considered to be controversial and even unethical Be able to describe both the methodology and the results of Phillip Zimbardo s Stamford prison study Be able to relate this experiment to the recent atrocities committed at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq From the section of behavior in groups be able to define and recognize examples of 13 The Bystander Effect Social Loa ng Group Polarization Group Think Group Cohesion Know the Personal Application Understanding Prejudice You may omit the critical thinking application Know the questions on the practice test 14
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