Psych 2010 Final Exam Study Guide
Psych 2010 Final Exam Study Guide Psych 2010
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sara Notetaker on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 2010 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Brainerd in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Psych Final 12714 Chapter 11 Human Development Across the Life Sloan Development is the sequence of agerelated changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death 0 Includes both biological and behavioral changes that take place as people get older 0 Development begins with conception Conception occurs when fertilization creates a zygote a onecelled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg The prenatal period extends from conception to birth usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy Development occurs rapidly during this period and tapers off dramatically The prenatal period is divided into three phases Germinal stage rst two weeks 0 Embryonic stage two weeks to two months 0 Fetal stage two months to birth The germinal stage is the rst phase of prenatal development encompassing the rst two weeks after conception Begins when a zygote is created through fertilization Rapid cell division begins 0 The mass of cells slowly migrates along the mother s fallopian tube to the uterine cavity 0 On about the 7th day the cell mass begins to implant itself in the uterine wall 0 During the implantation process the placenta begins to form The placenta is a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother s bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother The embryonic stage is the second stage of prenatal development lasting from two weeks until the end of the second month 0 Most of the vital organs and bodily systems begin to form in the developing organism which is now called an embryo As cell division becomes more specialized the heart spine and brain emerge Very vulnerable stage because all the basic physiological structures are being formed If anything interferes with normal development during this phase the effects can be devastating The fetal stage is the third stage of prenatal development lasting from two months through birth Muscles and bones form Visual and auditory senses are functional and eyes open Rapid weight gain 0 The developing organism fetus becomes capable of movements as skeletal structures harden 0 Brain cells multiply and a layer of fat is deposited under the skin to provide insulation 0 Sometimes between 23 and 26 weeks the fetus reaches the threshold of viability the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth The mother and the developing fetus are linked through the placenta The mothers eating habits drug use illnesses nutrition and even emotions can affect prenatal development Teratogens are any external agents such as drugs or viruses that can harm an embryo or fetus Most drugs consumed by a pregnant woman can pass through the membranes of the placenta Fetal alcohol syndrome is a collection of congenital inborn problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy Microcephaly a small head heart defects irritability hyperactive and delayed mental and motor development 0 Most common known cause of mental retardation Smoking appears to increase a mother s risk for miscarriage stillbirth and prematurity and the newborn s risk for sudden infant death syndrome Motor development opment refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activity 0 Includes grasping and reaching for objects manipulating objects sitting up crawling walking and running The cephalocaudal trend is the headtofoot direction of motor development 0 Children tend to gain control over the upper part of their bodies before the lower part The proximodistal trend is the centeroutward direction of motor development 0 Children gain control over their torso before their extremities Maturation is development that re ects the gradual unfolding of one s genetic blueprint It is a product of genetically programmed physical changes that come with age as opposed to experience and learning o The driving force behind motor development is infants ongoing exploration of their world and their need to master speci c tasks Developmental norms indicate the typical age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities Temperament refers to characteristic mood activity level and emotional reactivity In a longitudinal design investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time In a crosssectional design investigators compare groups of participants of differing age at a single point in time Cohort effects occur when differences between age groups are due to the groups growing up in different time periods In the Thomas and Chess studies they identi ed three basic styles of temperament in most children 0 Easy children happy regular in sleep and eating adaptable and not readily upset o Slowtowarmup children less cheery less regular in their sleep and eating and slower in adapting to change 0 Difficult children glum erratic in sleep and eating resistant to change and relatively irritable Jerome Kagan conducted a study revealing two characteristics of children Inhibited temperament is characterized by shyness timidity and wariness of unfamiliar people Uninhibited temperament is characterized by less restrained children approaching unfamiliar people with little trepidation Attachment refers to the close emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers Separation anxiety is the emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment Harry Harlow researched the factors in why children gradually develop a special attachment to their mothers Undermined the behaviorists reinforcement explanation of attachment John Bowlby argues that there must be biological basis for attachment infants are biologically programmed to emit behavior that triggers affectionate protective response from adults In Mary Ainsworths strange situation procedure infants are exposed to a series of eight separation and reunion episodes to assess the quality of their attachments Attachments fall into four categories Secure attachment Infants use their mother as a secure base from which to venture out and explore the world Anxiousambivalent attachment Infants appear anxious even when their mother is near and protest excessively when she leaves but they are not particularly comforted when she returns Avoidant attachment Seek little contact with their mothers and often are not distressed when she leaves Disorganizeddisoriented attachment Appear confused about whether they should approach or avoid their mother Children are insecure Infants with a relatively secure attachment tend to become resilient sociable competent toddlers with high selfesteem Sigmund Freud created a theory of how individuals develop unique personalities Claimed the basic foundation of an individual s personality is rmly laid down by age 5 Erik Erikson theorized that personality continues to evolve over the entire life span A stage is a developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established 0 Assume that individuals must progress through speci ed stages in a particular order because each stage builds on the previous stage progress through these stages is strongly related to age and there are major discontinuities between stages in typical behavior Erikson split the life span into eight stages 0 Personality is shaped by how individuals deal with crises that involve transitions in important social relationships Trust versus mistrust Is my world predictable and supportive rst year of life Autonomy versus shame and doubt Can I do things myself or must I always rely on others Second and third years Initiative versus guilt Am I good or am I bad Fourth through sixth years Industry versus Inferiority Am I competent or am I useless Age 6 through puberty Identity versus confusion Who am I and where am I going Early adulthood Intimacy versus isolation Shall I share my life with another or live alone Middle adulthood Generativity versus selfabsorption Will I produce something of real value Integrity versus despair Have I lived a full life Late adulthood Cognitive development refers to transitions in youngsters patterns of thinking including reasoning remembering and problem solving 0 Jean Piaget investigated this subject intensely Jean Piaget proposed children progress through four major stages of cognitive development 0 The sensorimotor period birth to age 2 Coordination of sensory input and motor responses development of object permanence o The preoperational period ages 2 to 7 Development of symbolic thought marked by irreversibility centration and egocentrism o The concrete operational period ages 711 Mental operations applied to concrete events mastery of conservation hierarchical classi cation 0 The formal operational period age 11 onward Mental operations applied to abstract ideas logical systematic thinking Object permanence develops when a child recognizes that objects continue to exist when they are no longer visible Conservation is Piaget s term for the awareness that physical quantities remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance Centration is the tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem neglecting other important aspects Irreversibility is the inability to envision reversing an action Egocentrism in thinking is characterized by a limited ability to share another person s viewpoint o Animism is the belief that all things are living Lev Vygotsky proposed the sociocultural theory Placed enormous emphasis on how children s cognitive development is fueled by social interactions with parents teachers and older children who can provide invaluable guidance Asserted that culture exerts great in uence over how cognitive growth unfolds Language acquisition plays a crucial central role in fostering cognitive development 0 Acquire most of their culture s cognitive skills and problem solving strategies through collaborative dialogues with more experienced members of their society Lawrence Kohlberg developed a model of moral development Focused on moral reasoning rather than overt behavior 0 Found that individuals progress through a series of three levels of moral development Each of these levels can be broken into two sublevels Preconventional Level 0 Younger children think in terms of external authority 0 Punishment orientation Right and wrong is determined by what is punished o Na39ive reward orientation Right and wrong is determined by what is rewarded ConvenUonalLevek See rules as necessary for maintaining social order 0 Good boygood girl orientation Right and wrong is determined by close others approval or disapproval 0 Authority orientation Right and wrong is determined by society s rules and laws which should be obeyed rigidly Postconventional Level lnvolves working out a personal code of ethics 0 Social contract orientation Right and wrong is determined by society s rules which are viewed as fallible rather than absolute 0 Individual principles and conscience orientation Right and wrong is determined by abstract ethical principles that emphasize equity and justice Pubescence is used to describe the twoyear span preceding puberty during which the changes leading to physical and sexual maturity take place Secondary sex characteristics are physical features that distinguish one sex from the other but that are not essential for reproduction Puberty is the stage during which sexual functions reach maturity which marks the beginning of adolescence Primary sex characteristics are the structures necessary for reproduction Menarche is the rst occurrence of menstruation which re ects a series of hormonal changes in females Typically the onset of puberty Ages 1213 continuing until 16 Spermarche is the rst occurrence of ejaculation Ages 1314 continuing until 18 Neural development 0 The volume of white matter in the brain grows throughout adolescence meaning neurons are becoming better insulated with thicker myelin sheaths Synaptic pruning occurs The elimination of lessactive synapses 0 Most pronounced in the prefrontal cortex The prefrontal cortex appears to be the last area of the brain to fully mature James Marcie identi es the presence or absence of a sense of commitment to life goals and values and a sense of crisis active questioning and exploration can combine to produce four different identity statuses 1 2 3 Identity diffusion a state of apathy with no commitment to an ideology Crisis and commitment are both absent Identity foreclosure a premature commitment to visions values and roles Commitment is present while crisis is absent Identity moratorium delaying commitment for a while to experiment with alternative ideologies and careers Crisis is present while commitment is absent Identity achievement arriving at a sense of self and direction after thinking through alternative possibilities Crisis and commitment are both present Erik Erikson divided adulthood from his eightstage model of development into three stages 1 Early adulthood intimacy versus isolation Key concern is whether one can develop the capacity to share intimacy with others Middle adulthood Generativity versus selfabsorption Key challenge is to acquire genuine concern for the welfare of future generations which results in providing unsel sh guidance to younger people and concern with one s legacy Late adulthood Integrity versus despair Key challenge is to avoid the tendency to dwell on the mistakes of the past and on one s imminent death Menopause is the ending of menstrual periods accompanied by a loss of fertility typically occurs at around age 50 A dementia is an abnormal condition marked by multiple cognitive de cits that include memory impairment Fluid intelligence involves basic reasoning ability memory capacity and speed of information processing More likely to decline with age Crystalized intelligence involves the ability to apply acquired knowledge and skills in problem solving Gender differences Females tend to exhibit slightly better verbal skills than males Males tend to score higher than females on most measures of visualspatial ability 0 Females tend to score higher than males on measures of extraversion agreeableness conscientiousness and neuroticism Socialization is the acquisition of the norms and behaviors expected of people in a particular society Chapter 14 Stress Coning and Health The biopsychosocial model holds that physical illness is cause by a complex interaction of biological psychological and sociocultural factors Psychosocial factors such as stress and lifestyle play a large role in the development of many chronic diseases Health psychology is concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation prevention and treatment of illness Richard Lazarus developed a scale to measure everyday hassles Routine hassles may have signi cant harmful effects on mental and physical health Primary appraisal is an initial evaluation of whether an event is irrelevant to you relevant but not threatening or stressful Secondary appraisal is an evaluation of your coping resources and options for dealing with the stress Acute stressors are threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear endpoint Chronic stressors are threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit Con ict occurs when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression Con icts come in three types Kurt Lewin 1 Approachapproach con ict a choice must be made between two attractive goals 2 Avoidanceavoidance con ict a choice must be made between two unattractive goals 3 Approachavoidance con ict a choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects Barbara Fredrickson s broadenandbuild theory of positive emotions sheds light on how positive emotions promote resilience in the face of stress The ightor ght response is a physiological reaction to threat in which the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the organism for attacking or eeing an enemy More prevalent in males Females tend to use a quottend or befriendquot response in reacting to stress Hans Selye identi ed the concept of stress and formulated the general adaption syndrome The general adaption syndrome is a model of the body s stress response consisting of three stages alarm resistance and exhaus on 0 First stage alarm reaction An organism rst recognizes the existence of a threat 0 Second stage resistance Physiological changes stabilize as coping efforts get under way 0 Third stage exhaustion The body s resources for ghting stress are limited Endocrine system consists of glands located at various sites in the body that secrete chemicals called hormones Hypothalamus is the brain structure that appears to initiate action along the two pathways 0 First pathway is routed through the autonomic nervous system 0 Activates the sympathetic division of the ANS o Stimulating the central part of the adrenal glands These glands then release large amounts of catecholamines into the blood stream 0 Heart rate and blood ow increase More blood is pumped to the brain and muscles Respiration and oxygen consumption speed up facilitating alertness Second pathway involves more direct communication between the brain and the endocrine system 0 The hypothalamus sends signals to the socalled master gland of the endocrine system the pituitary The pituitary secretes a hormone ACTH that stimulates the outer part of the adrenal glandsljrelease corticosteroids Increase energy inhibit tissue in ammation in case of injury 0 Females stress responses tend to be milder than males stress reactions 0 Higher levels of estrogen may play a key role in toning down women s physiological reactivity to stress Neurogenesis is the formation of new neurons 0 Enhances learning and memory Coping refers to active efforts to master reduce or tolerate the demands created by stress Learned helplessness is passive behavior produced by exposure to unavoidable aversive events Catharis is the release of emotional tension Defense mechanisms are largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt 0 Shield the individual from the emotional discomfort that s so often elicited by stress 0 Accomplish their goals by distorting reality so that it doesn t appear so threatening o Denial of reality protecting oneself from unpleasant reality by refusing to perceive or face it o Fantasy gratifying frustrated desires by imaginary achievements o lntellectualization cutting off emotion from hurtful situations or separating incompatible attitudes so that they appear unrelated o Undoing atoning for or trying to magically dispel unacceptable desires or acts 0 Overcompensation covering up felt weakness by emphasizing some desirable characteristics or making up for frustration in one area by overgrati cation in another Constructive coping refers to relatively healthful efforts that people make to deal with stressful events 0 Involves confronting problems directly lt s task relevant and action oriented Based on realistic appraisals of your stress and coping resources Involves learning to recognize and in some cases regulate potentially disruptive emotional reactions to stress Burnout involves physical and emotional exhaustion cynicism and a lowered sense of selfefficacy that can be brought on gradually by chronic workrelated stress 0 Factors that tend to promote burnout include work overload struggling with interpersonal con icts at work lack of control over work responsibilities and outcomes and inadequate recognition for one s work Resilience refers to successful adaptation to signi cant stress and trauma as evidenced by a lack of serious negative outcomes Psychosomatic diseases were genuine physical ailments that were thought to be caused in part by stress and other psychological factors The Type A personality includes a strong competitive orientation impatience and time urgency and anger and hostility The Type B personality is marked by relatively relaxed patient easygoing amicable behavior The Immune response is the body s defensive reaction to invasion by bacteria viral agents or other foreign substances Chapter 13 Social Behavior Social psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals thoughts feelings and behaviors are in uenced by others Person perception is the process of forming impressions of others Illusory correlation occurs when people estimate that they have encountered more con rmations of an association between social traits than they have actually seen lngroup a group that one belongs to and identi es with Outgroup a group that one does not belong to or identify with Attributions are inferences that people draw about the causes of events others behavior and their own behavior Internal attributions ascribe the causes of behavior to personal dispositions traits abilities and feelings External attributions ascribe the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints Bernard Weiner concluded from various studies that people often focus on the stability of the causes underlying behavior 0 Stability dimension and internalexternal dimension 0 Effort mood and fatigue Unstable internal cause 0 Ability intelligence Stable internal cause 0 Luck change opportunity Unstable external cause 0 Task dif culty Stable external cause The fundamental attribution error refers to observers bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining others behavior Defense attribution is a tendency to blame victims for their misfortune so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way Individualism involves putting personal goals ahead of group goals and de ning one s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships Collectivism involves putting group goals ahead of personal goals and de ning one s identity in terms of the group one belongs to Interpersonal attraction refers to positive feelings toward another 0 Physical attractivenessleatching hypothesis proposes that males and females of approximately physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners Passionate love is complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion Companionate love is warm trust tolerant affection for another whose life is deeply intertwined with one s own Attitudes may include up to three components 1 Cognitive component beliefs ideas 2 Affective component emotions feelings 3 Behavioral component predispositions to act Explicit attitudes are attitudes that we hold consciously and can readily describe Implicit attitudes are covert attitudes that are expressed in subtle automatic responses tat people have little conscious control over The process of persuasion includes four basic elements 1 Source the person who sends a communication tends to be more successful when the source has credibility expertise trustworthiness likability attractiveness and similarity 2 Receiver the person to whom the message is sent Personality expectations initial attitude on subject strength of preexisting attitudes affect the likelihood of the receiver being persuaded 3 Message the information transmitted by the source factors that in uence the persuasiveness of the message factors include fear appeal versus logic onesided versus twosided argument number of strong or weak arguments and repetition 4 Channel the medium through which the message is sent In person on television or radio via audiotape via internet via telephone The mere exposure effect is the nding that repeated exposures to a stimulus promotes greater liking of the stimulus Leon Festinger s dissonance theory assumes that inconsistency among attitudes propels people in the direction of attitude change Cognitive dissonance exists when related cognitions are inconsistent when they contradict each other Creates an unpleasant state of tension that motivates people to reduce their dissonance usually by altering their cognitions Richard Perry and John Cacioppo proposed the elaboration likelihood model of attitude change 0 Two basic routes to persuasion 0 Central route people carefully ponder the content and logic of persuasive messages Careful processing of the information more durable attitude change 0 Peripheral route persuasion depends on nonmessage factors such as attractiveness and credibility of the source or on conditioned emotional responses Minimal processing of the information less durable attitude change Normative in uence operates when people conform to social norms for fear of negative social consequences Informational in uence operates when people look to others for guidance about how to behave in ambiguous situations Obedience is a form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands usually from someone in a position of authority Bystander effect states that people are less likely to provide needed help when they are in groups than when they are alone Two factors appear to contribute to reduced individual productivity in larger groups 0 Reduced efficiency resulting from the loss of coordination among workers efforts 0 Social loa ng is a reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups as compared to when they work by themselves Group polarization occurs when group decision strengthens a group s dominant point of view and produces a shift toward a more extreme decision in that direction Groupthink occurs when members of a cohesive group emphasize concurrence at the expense of critical thinking in arriving at a decision Group cohesiveness refers to the strength of the relationships linking group members to each other and to the group itself Major Theorists and Researchers 0 Solomon Asch Conducted classic research on conformity that showed people tend to conform more than one might expect 0 Ellen Berscheid and Elaine Hat eld Conducted pioneering work on the nature of love distinguishes between passionate and companionate love 0 Leon Festinger Theorized attitude change is often fueled by cognitive dissonance Fritz Heider The rst to describe how people make attributions to either internal causes or external causes Irving Janis Groupthink occurs when cohesive groups emphasize concurrence at the expense of critical thinking in arriving at decisions Stanley Milgram Conducted a study of obedience Philip Zimbardo Attitude change is often fuels by cognitive dissonance
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