Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide KIN 2332
Popular in Motor learning and control
Popular in Kinesiology
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Delia Navarro on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 2332 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by BOYLE, JASON B in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Motor learning and control in Kinesiology at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Motor Learning and Control Notes Chapter 1 Thursday August 27 2015 How humans acquire movement skills How movement skills are controlled Motor Skills Make life possible Underlie human existence lmportance of effective instruction Acquiring Knowledge Concerning Motor Skills Experience and tradition gt Sometimes rst and only method of acquisition gt Basis of knowledge Practice Most important variable in learning Study of human movement and stability Neural behavioral environmental and synergistic quotThe study of functions to activate and coordinate the muscles and limbs involved in the performance of a motor skillquot Process involved in acquiring motor skills quotProcess by which capacity to produce motor skills is changed as a result of ahd 01 the in uence that the I0ay a partquot 339 MOTOR LEARNING IS ABSTRACT 339 MOTOR LEARNING CANNOT BE MEASURED MOTOR LEARNING IS INFREED BASED UPON A CHANGE IN MOTOR SKILLS 339 MOTOR LEARNING IS NOT OBSERVEABLE MOTOR PERFORMANCE CAN Motor Learning and Control Notes Chapter 2 September 3 2015 What is a skill Is a skill learning domain speci c Skilled Behavior Skill domain 1 Cognitive Skills 2 Perceptual Skills 3 Motor Skills Cognitive Skills Measurement of success Knowledge and Cognitive Abilities Perceptual Skills Measurement of success sensing when and how to act Motor Skills Measurement of success Quality of movement What is a skill There are 1 Skills 2 Skills purpose driven and voluntary 3 Motor Skills Characteristics and Abilities Response 0 Action or motor skill MOVemerit Ability Abilities vs Skills The study of Motor Skills 3 Components 1 The Person a Individual attributes 2 The Task a Goals movement demands and perceptual demands 3 The environment a Environment in which a person executes the skill Four 4 common amp essential characteristics of Motor Skills IMotor equivalence a Ex holding a phone w shoulder 2 Motor variability a Different Neural pathways each time 3 Motor Consistency 4 Motor Modi ability September 3 2015 Four Problems in the study of Motor Skills 1 Degrees of freedom selection of organization pattern b Independent variation c Complexity of the problem 2 Perception a Skill execution coordination movements coupled with sensory information b Alteration of perception 3 The serial order timing problem a Ordering and timing of sub elements are controlled b Linear chaining one response initials another 4 The skills acquisition problem a Skills exhibit motor variability and motor consistency b Series of sub problems i Nervous system control ii Is there upper limit iii Individual differences Classi cation of Motor Skills One Dimensional 1 Stability of the environment 2 Temporal predictability 3 Movement precision Stability of environment Context a person performs and the objects acted upon gt Closed motor skill Open Motor Skill Temporal Predictability lDiscrete Motor Skills gt Continuous Motor Skills gt Serial Motor Skills Movement Precision lfine Motor Skills gt Gross motor skills Motor Learning and Control Notes Chapter 3 The Neurological Bases of Human Movement September 10 2015 0 Brain 0 Receptors o Senses o Muscles Interplay of the nerves 0 Coordination The Communication of Information Cellular Bases Nervous system divisions 0 Central Nervous System 0 Peripheral Nervous System 0 Cells of the Nervous System 0 Neurons gt Neurons o Sensory Pathways 0 Motor Neurons o Interneurons gt Neural Impulse transmission of signal gt Synapse Two neurons never touch 0 Synaptic cleft gt Synaptic transmission Perception Two perceptual systems I 1 Somatosensory System a Receptors Cutaneous Proprioceptors b c Muscle Spindles state of contraction of a muscle d Golgi tendon organ GTO monitors tension on tendons e Vestibular apparatus global senses of body s movement deals with balance Cutaneous Receptors Found epidermis or dermis f Types of receptors i Pressure touch ii Heat and Cold iii Pain iv Chemical Stimuli 2 Visual Perception Information about external world a Eyes ione source of information i Photoreceptors Rods Cones H Fovea I Focal visual system o Neural tracts from the fovea I Ambient visual system 0 Information about location of objects 0 Neural pathways from retina39s periphery The Brain LThe brain stem aConnects spinal cord with upper brain LControls essential autonomic functions Medulla Regulation of respiration blood pressure and heart rate Pons quotCrossoverquot of information a Integration of signals from lower boy b Afferent signals from vestibular apparatus 2 Cerebellum a Routing of neural messages b Planning and evaluating of motor activities c Learning of motor skills d Coordination of Cognitive function timing e 3 Cerebrum a Two large hemispheres b Basal ganglia collection of cells i Planning and execution of motor skills ii Controlling motor set iii Coordination of voluntary movements 4 Hippocampus a Consolidation of memories into permanent stores a b 4 lobes i OccipitalTo see ii Temporal hearing language reading understanding iii Parietal iv Frontal Makes us us where the drama is 6 Somatosensory Cortex a Width is proportional to sensitivity of body part mirror ne and gross motor skills b Homunculus 7 Motor Cortex a Skeletal muscle contraction Motor Learning and Control Notes Chapter 4 Theoretical Perspectives September 15 2015 Hypothesis Educated guess based on pervious observation My Summarize a signi cant group of hypothesis Law Generalizes large body of scienti c observations Statements relates to observations about speci c phenomenon of interest Two major theoretical approaches for motor skills Closed control system Open control system Cognitive Based Theories Motor program o quot a procedural memory comprised of the rules commanding muscular activity for producing speci c skillsquot Broad View 0 Structure that is centrally located CNS 0 Hierarchical arrangement of elements 0 Suf cient to explain learning and control of movements skills Top down system of control Sensory Perlceptual Stage De 39sionmaking Stage Pr ramming Stage Response Output l Spinal Cord Muscles Action Perceptual Stage Decision Making Stage Programming Stage Response Output lPerceptuaI Stage o Sensory information 0 External physical and internal bodily environments Selection of Sensation Perception Decision Making Stage 0 Memory Programming Stages Appropriate motor program retrieved Posture change made Timing of muscle activation prepared Sensory systems oriented Action initiated when appropriate 0 Slow deliberate movements 1 OOOOO 0 Advantages 1 Appropriate with performing unpracticed skills 2 Movements can be corrected while they are being made 3 More precise and accurate movements 0 Disadvantages 1 Attention demanding 2 Too time consuming No monitoring of feedback 0 Motor programs are Feedback forward not feedback 0 Advantages 1 Quicker movements prestructured 2 Greater amount of attention available for other tasks o Disadvantages 1 Not appropriate for skills unpracticed Adams39 closed loop theory 1 Memory trace Selected an initiate desired action 2 Perceptual trace Evaluates correctness of action executed gt Theoretical implications Speci city of practice The best learning experiences are those that most closely approximate the movement components and environmental conditions of the target context Problems with Adams theory gt How is a speci c motor act performed for the rst time F gt A speci c neural tract would have to be stored for each unique scenario Schmidt s Schema Theory Motor programs are general in nature 0 Generalized motor program GMP 1 Invariant features sequencing written in the same sequence each time a Relative timing timing for each unique segment stays constant b Relative force EMG activity remains constant 2 Variant Features a Overall duration time to complete the movement can be altered b Overall force we can increase or decrease the size of the movement c Muscle selection different Muscles can activate to accomplish a task Schema Learnind h Modern Dynamical Systems Theory Dynamical Systems Systems in motion or that change over time Linear vs Nonlinear action 0 Two essential amp cooperating features 1 Emergence 2 Self Organization gt Basic common premises systems are always constrained New patterns are organized around attraction Attractors and Phase Shifts Attractors or attractor states preferred states or patterns of stability Kelso and Schoner experiments Phase shifts are spontaneous Strength of attractor states Basins Learning from dynamical systems perspectives Structure learning environment Promote exploration of state space Develop deep basins of attraction
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