Test 1 Study Guide!
Test 1 Study Guide! CLP4143
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Marcinak on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CLP4143 at Florida State University taught by Jesse Cougle in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
CHl Test 1 Study Guide Ch 14 1 De ning Psychological disorders a A psychological disorder must cause dysfunctiondistress behavior varies from cultural norms Atypical behavior i Dysfunction breakdown in behavioral emotional and cognitive function that interferes with everyday life ii Atypical behavior Deviates from average iii Varies from cultural norms or violates them iv Causes impairment 2 Diagnosing Psychological disorders a b c It is controversial to whether or not diagnoses are harmful They help practitioners and scientists communicate about a disorder Etiology is the study of origins 3 Mental Health Professionals a Clinical psychologists and counseling psychologists earn a PhD EdD or PsyD to prepare them to conduct research into the causes and treatment of psychological disorders and to diagnose assess and treat these disorders Psychiatrists earn an MD to investigate the nature and causes of psychological disorders often from a biological point of view to make diagnosis and offer treatments Psychiatric social workers usually earn master39s degrees in social work and develop expertise in collecting information relevant to the social and family situation of the individual with a psychological disorder and treat disorders that family problems are causing Psychiatric Nurses either have masters or PhD to care for and treat patients with psychological disorders Marriage and family therapists and mental health counselors earn a masters and are employed to provide clinical services under the supervision of a doctoral level clinician 4 ScientistPractitioner Framework a Involves the interaction between clinical work and science Health professionals taking the scientific approach to their clinical work Mental health practitioners may function as a scientistpractitioner in one or more of three ways ii iii Consumer Keeping up with the latest scienti c development and using the techniques in the eld Evaluator Evaluated their own assessments and treatment procedures to see whether they work Creator Conduct research that produces new information about a disorder or treatment 5 History of Mental Illness Three major models a Supernatural Theories i ii iii iv Not commonly used today Divine interventions demons sins Treatments were harsh and illogical Re ection of the battle between good and evil b Biological Theories i ii Physical disease cured by medicine or surgery Breakdown of bodily systems c Psychological Theories 1 ii iii iv v Mental disorders are a result of trauma or maladaptive behaviors Therapy is the treatment Asylums Moral therapy treated institutionalized patients as normally as possible in a setting that encouraged and reinforced normal social interaction This provides them with normal social opportunities Shock therapy Attempted to provide warm nurturing environment 6 Psychological Theories a Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud Problems are fueled by unconscious desires therapy brings this to light to resolve the issues It is therapeutic to recall and relive a traumatic event because it releases emotional tension this is known as catharsis i ii iii iv vi vii Promotes tolerance listened to patients for extended periods of time instead of giving them orders Id The source of our strong sexual and aggressive feelings operating based on the pleasure principle Ego Ensures we act realistically Superego Moral principles Dream interpretations Free association Patients spoke for themselves rather than repeating the analyst Resistance when a patient directly or indirectly resists treatment viii iX Transference Unconscious tendency to assign past feelings to therapist in the present Most principles have been discredited now because the theories were not testable b Behavior Therapy 1 ii iii iv V vi Classical Conditioning A neutral stimulus is paired with a response until it elicits the same response Operant Conditioning Using reinforcement or punishments to shape behavior Systematic desensitization Individuals were gradually introduced to something they feared until the fear was extinguished Also known as behavior therapy Very testable tactics Very effective with anxiety disorders Only treats symptoms not underlying causes c Humanistic Therapy i ii iii iv v vi Positive setting goals for the future Selfactualizing All of us could reach our highest potentials if we had the freedom to grow Clientcentered therapy Carl Rodgers 1 Active listening gives the person the chance to develop Gives very little interpretations 2 Unconditional positive reward acceptance of most of the client39s feelings and actions Mental illness derives from attempting to gain others positive regards Selfawareness and acceptance will lead to a cure Directive therapy was found to be more effective for most problems d Cognitive Therapy 1 ii iii iv v1 vii CH2 Helps people develop alternative ways of thinking and behaving to reduce psychological distress Thoughts intervene between events and emotional reactions Identify negative behavior Socratic questioning to challenge maladaptive behavior Clients must have a certain level of intelligenceinsight Depression is triggered by life events Internal beliefs determine how you turn out l Behavioral Genetics The study of the genetics of personality and abnormality a Genetics is responsible for 50 of our personality b Genetic factors contribute to alll disorder but only account for half of the explanation i Genes in uence certain disorders Genetic contribution can not be studied without enviormental factors c The Old Biological Paradigm Abnormal body processes cause psychopathy i MedicalDisease Model d Most disorders are related to abnormalities in genes Researching Genetics i Family History Studies Tracing family history to see if a certain disorder runs in the family ii Twin Studies 1 Help determine the role of genetics to disorders 2 Concordance rate Probability that one twin has a disorder if the other one has it as well A higher concordance rate means there is a genetic component Environment can play a role as well 3 Twin studies of twins separated at birth help determine genetic vs enviormental factors iii Children39s behavior tends to be related to biological parents over enviormental factors Parents do in uence manners values etc iv Brain Structure Abnormalities Location in brain damage in uences specific psychological problems v Neurotransmitter The messengers that carry impulses between neurons 1 Disorders result from neurotransmitter receptors being insensitive or too much little neurotransmitter in the synapse 2 Major neurotransmitters a Serotonin Regulates our behaviors moods and thought processes b Dopamine Pleasure seeking behaviors c Norepinephrine Keep blood pressure and heart rate down vi Neuroscience and Psychopathology l Placebos psychotherapy stress and early development are all in uenced by psychosocial 2 The relationship between brain and behavior is bidirectional Diathesis Stress Model A theory that eXplains behavior as both a result of biological and enviormental factors Diathesis Genetic predisposition to a disorder Stress Enviormental load put on an organism Individuals inherited tendencies to eXpress certain traits and these are activated under conditions of stress r6999 g Vulnerability is the tendency or diathesis Biological Vulnerabilities Genes brain anomalies biochemistry Biological Stress Onset of disease exposure to toxins Social Vulnerabilities Maladaptive upbringing Chronic exposure to stress Social Stress Major loss traumatic event Psychological Vulnerabilities Unconscious con icts poor skills maladaptive cognition Psychological Stress Perceived loss of control violation of trust 3 Genes and Environment a Reciprocal GeneEnvironment Model Genes shape how we create our environment We have inherited predispositions to certain activities Our genetic tendencies shape the enviormental risk factors that trigger genetic vulnerability Epigenetics Stress nutrition or other factors can affect an epigenome which is passed on to the next generations until the stress factor disappears then it will fade Ie Florida Hurricane Study and Child abuseanxiety Psychosocial in uences on Brain Structure i An effect does not imply a cause ii Placebo effect When you think you are receiving a treatment and your condition improved even though you did not receive the treatment Enduces patients positive expectation for change iii Some people respond better to psychological treatment while others respond better to drugs iv The Structure of the neurons themselves can be changed by learning and experience during development v The plasticity of the central nervous system helps us readily adapt to our environment vi Structure and function of the nervous system play major roles in psychopathy They are also in uenced by social factors 4 Behaviorism 999 Focused on tangibility Learning reinforcement and punishment cause normal and abnormal behavior Many people with fears do not remember where they acquired the fear from Operant Conditioning Shaping behavior by giving rewards for good behavior and punishment for bad behavior Conditioned little Albert to have a fear of fuzzy animals Originally he was just conditioned to fear white rats but stimulus generalization occurred to make him fear all fuzzy animals 5 Learned Helplessness and Prepared Learning a Prepared learning We have became highly prepared for learning about certain types of objects or situations over the course of evolution because this knowledge contributes to the survival of the species Our genetic endowment in uences what we learn We learn fears and phobias selectively b Learned Helplessness When animals encounter conditions which they have no control over you give up trying to cope People become depressed if they think they have no control over the stress in their lives even if it appears to others that they do 6 Global Assumptions a Most negative emotions and maladaptive behaviors are a result of dysfunctional global assumptions b Types of Thinking Errors i Should Statements ii Dichotomous thinking iii Mind Reading iv Fortune Tellers v Catastrophizing CH3 1 Diagnoses A label attached to a set of symptoms that tend to occur together Determining if the symptoms meet the criteria provided in DSM 5 a Assessment The process of gathering information about symptoms and their causes b To make a diagnosis we must know i Current symptoms ii Recent events iii History of psychological problems iv Family history of disorders v Coping c Psychological and neurological factors i Physical Examination ii Drugs iii Cognitive Functioning iv Intellectual Ability d Differential Diagnosis There are several different possible disorders a person can be suffering from The differential diagnosis is specifying which one they are actually suffering from e Social Cultural Factors i Social Resources ii Sociocultural background iii Acculturation Adapting the culture you are surrounded by ValidityReliability a Reliability Consistency i TestRetest If you administered the same test multiple time the results would be the same ii InterRater The degree of agreement between raters b Validity Accuracy i Face Validity Does the test measure what it is supposed to measure ii Concurrent Validity How well the results correlate with previous studies iii Standardization The process by which a certain set of standards or norms is determined for a technique to make it39s use consistent across different measurements Psychological Tests Standardized Procedures that measure performance symptoms and personality traits a Mental status exams organize information obtained during an interview i Appearance Overt behavior attire appearance posture expressions ii Thought Processes Rate of speech continuity of speech content of speech iii Mood and affect Predominant feeling state of the individual and feeling state accompanying what the individual says iv Intellectual functioning Type of vocabulary use of abstract and metaphors V Sensorium Awareness of surroundings in terms of person time and place b Clinical Interview A few open ended questions 0 Structured Interview Series of questions with concrete criteria d Neuropsychological Impairment Evaluations Used to detect neurological impairment indicated by speci c cognitive and finemotor deficits i BenderGestalt Test e Brain Imaging Used to detect structural damage 1 CT ii MRI iii PET iv Pen and Pencil test f Intelligence Testing Diagnose mentally retarded and those with brain damage IQ does not intelligence because IQ tests do not sample all forms of intelligence i Craniometry Bigger brains greater intelligence NOT TRUE i j Symptom Questionnaires A quick assessment of a wide variety of symptoms They do not make diagnosis on there own but aide in them Personality Inventories Questionnaires to assess people39s typical way of feelingbehavingthinking i Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Based on empirical approach the collection and evaluation of data No room for interpretation of responses Individual responses are not examined but a researchers look for a pattern that line up with certain disorders It is very reliable and informative but does not change how patients are treated 1 Validity Scale a Can not say When subject is evasive or indecisive b Lie L Subject presents themself in idealized manner c Frequency F Subject is confused anXious or trying to fake symptoms a high score means the pro le is invalid d Correction K Subject is defensive and attempting to obscure symptoms Projective Tests Assume people when presented with information will interpret it in a way that represents their conscious or unconscious concerns i Rorschach inkblot test comprehensive system both early test designs to test and diagnose psychological disorders ii TAT Thematic Appreciation Test Acting out a story with picture cards This identifies emotions and con icts SelfMonitoring Targeting problem areas and specific types of behaviors Event triggers 4 DSM The Holy Book of Psychology Has everchanging diagnostic criteria a First was published in 1952 and relied more on psychoanalytic techniques Very vague and lacked precision and reliability Third and Fourth used multiaXial system which was 5 criteria behavior was evaluated with DSM 3 relied on precise definitions of disorders more specific criteria DSM 4 included ICDlO codes for all matters related to health i Clinical Disorders ii Personality Disorders and Intellectual disability iii General Medical Conditions iv Psychosocial and enviormental problems v Global Assessment of functioning DSM 5 was published in 2013 and uses more specific observable criteria to diagnose the severity of disorders It also focuses more on how long the symptoms have been present Uses dimensional assessments of severity or intensity for individual disorders as well as crosscutting dimensional symptoms measures It focuses on reliability and ignores validity at time It also uses some de nitions from past decades Divided into three sections i Section 1 introduces the manual and describes how best to use it ii Section 2 presents the disorders iii Section 3 provides description of the disorders that need further research before the diagnosis is of cial d It is used in legal and insurance decisions CH4 1 Generation of Hypothesis Testable predictions a They come from theoretical models clinical observations results of previous research b They can never be proved only disproved or supported c They must be testable 2 Measuring Key Variables a Operationalize all the variables b Levels of measurement i Nominal Categorical A label not a measurement ii Ordinal Has order iii Interval Has order and equal intervals iv Ratio Has an absolute zero order and equal intervals Measurements must have high reliability and validity Independent variable is manipulated Dependent variable is recorded wrung Confounding variables are alternative variables that could be in uencing your results 3 Research Designs a Case Studies Extensive observation on one subject Very time consuming results may be the result of something else the participant is doing confounding variables b Descriptive Research Design Describes a behavior or type of subject but is not concerned with relationships between subjectsvariables c Correlational Research Design Statistical relationships between variables Nothing is manipulated Correlation represents strength and direction of relationship Correlation does not equal causation i Directionality problem Which variable caused Which Which came rst ii Third Variable problem Another variable could be causing the manipulation iii Spurious correlations Two things correlate but have nothing to do with each other Experimental Research Design Manipulate the IV and record the effects on the DV to attempt to determine causation 1 ii iii iv Internal Validity How con dent are you that the IV is causing the change in the DV You can control for threats to internal validity Also known as confounds External Validity To what degree can the results be extemalized to the public Efficacy randomized controlled variable Effectiveness Real world Clients Group Experimental Designs 1 Single Blind 2 Double Blind 3 Matched Control Group 4 Placebo 5 Randomization
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