Study Guide+ Notes for Exam 1
Study Guide+ Notes for Exam 1 CHMY 141N - 00
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Corymarie Notetaker on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHMY 141N - 00 at University of Montana taught by Mark Cracolice (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see College Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
CHMY 141 Study Guide Exam 1 LESSON 1 How Do Scientists Use Algebra to Reason and Calculate Quick Overview 0 Direct Proportionalities when two variable quantities are related so that the increase or decrease at the same rate d OCt by adding a constant it becomes an equation dkt 0 Solving for proportionality constant gives you the units of measurement kdt o Inverse Proportionalities when two variables are related so that when one increases the other decreases at the same rate d OC1t dkt 0 Multiple Proportionalities when one quantity is proportional to each of two or more other variables it is proportional to the product of those variables 0 Quantity Algebra a problem solving method that emphasizes algebraic cancellation of units in calculation set ups quantity value x unit 0 Problem solving procedure 1 from the problem statement identify the given quantity numerical value and unit and the unit of the wanted quantity 2 use conversion factors to change the given quantity units to the wanted quantity units 3 calculate the answer and make sure it makes sense LESSON 2 How Do Scientists Express Ratios and Measured Quantities Quick Overview 0 Ratio the value of the part quantity divided by the value of the whole quantity a relation between two values 0 Another way to express a ratio is by a decimal number dividing the ratio fraction or as a percentage multiplying the decimal number by 100 0 Weight measure of the attractive force an object experiences in a gravitational field 0 Mass measure of an object39s resistance to change in state of motion Large Units From Unit Small Units From Unit Metric Prefix Metric Symbol Multiple Memc Pr9fix MGtriC SymbOI MUItiple tetra T 1 Oquot12 deci d 1OA1 giga G 10quot9 mega M 10quot6 hecto h 10quot2 deca da 10 have highlighted ones memorized and know that 1cmquot31mL LESSON 3 What is Science 0 Hypothesis proposed explanation for a pattern found in nature 0 Experiments a purposeful manipulation of the natural world that seeks to test a hypothesis 0 Scientific Method 1 question about the natural world 2 make measurements qualitative and quantitative 3 look for a pattern a mathematical relationship 4 propose a causal hypothesis based on unobservable causal entities 5 test hypothesis with experiments 0 Pressure is directly proportional to force and inversely proportional to area PFIA o The relationship between the volume and pressure of a gas was discovered by Boyle o Boyle s Law relationship between the volume and pressure of a fixed quantity of a gas at constant temperature V1P1V2P2 0 Law a statement that summarizes a pattern found in nature 0 Kinetic Molecular Hypothesis matter is composed of minuscule particles that are in continuous motion Heat is the cumulative effect of the kinetic energy of motion of the submicroscopic particles 0 Charles s Law volume is directly proportional to temperature when in degrees of Kelvin 0 Kinetic molecular hypothesis supports Boyle s law and Charles s law so it is now called the kinetic molecular theory 0 Combined Gas Law PIVI PZVZ T1 T2 LGSSOl l 4 How Do Scientists Make Report and Work With Quantitative Measurements 0 Precision reproducibility of results ex all darts in the same area of the board 0 Accuracy closeness to the correct value ex all darts in the bullseye 0 Significant Figure Convention expression of the accuracy of measured quantities The last number of measurements is the uncertain digit 0 Significant Figures 1 zeros between the decimal point and the first nonzero digit simply serve to locate the decimal point not significant 2 exponential notation must be used to express a measured quantity that ends in a zero before the decimal point 3 Round off the sum or difference to the highest valued column that has an uncertain digit 4 When multiplyingdividing the result must be rounded to the same number of significant figures as the smallest number of significant figures that is being used 5 When addingsubtracting and multiplyingdividing apply each rule separately 0 Density expresses the relative heaviness of a substance DmN massvolume USCS 1 in 1 lb 1 gal Metric 254 cm 4535923 9 37854117 L USCSUSCS length Need To Know These Mass Volume LESSON 5 How Do Scientists Classify Matter Petrochemical substance that is made from petroleum or other closely related substances such as coal or natural gas Petroleum one of the three major natural substances extracted from the surface of the earth that serve as the starting point for numerous manufactured products Physical Change appearance and physical state change while the substance itself stays the same Chemical Change where one substance is destroyed and a new one is formed Matter physical materials that have mass 0 Liquid flow take shape of their container constant volume 0 Gas variable shape and volume 0 Solid definite shape and volume Pure Substance properties are distinct and and the composition is fixed Compound can be decomposed into simpler substances made of 2 elements Elements cannot be decomposed into simpler substances Mixture combination of two or more substances that does not have a fixed composition 0 SolutionsHomogeneous mixtures same throughout appearance and composition is the same throughout the sample 0 Heterogeneous mixture varies throughout the sample LESSON 6 Is Matter Continuously Divisible 0 Law of Conservation of Mass the total mass of substances that undergo a chemical transformation is equal to the total mass of the products of that change discovered by Lavoisier 0 Law of Definite Proportions any individual compound is made of the same invariable ratio of more elementary substances by mass discovered by Proust 0 Law of Multiple Proportions the amounts of one that completely reacts with a fixed amount of the other are in a ratio of small whole numbers Compares the amount of one reacting substance with a fixed amount of the other 0 Dalton s Atomic Hypothesis 1 matter is not infinitely divisible the smallest particle is the atom 2 Atoms exist permanently 3 All atoms of the same element are identical and are unique from any other elements atoms 4 Atoms of one element may combine with atoms of another element creating compounds 5 Atoms may combine in more than one ratio yielding distinctly different compounds 0 Relative Atomic Masses comparison of the atom39s mass to that of a carbon atom LESSON 7 How are Electricity and Matter Interrelated 0 Law of Combining Volumes when two gases combine the volume ratio in which the gases react are always a ratio of small whole numbers discovered by GayLussac o Avogadro39s Hypothesis equal volumes of gases contain equal number of molecules discovered by Avogadro o Plum Pudding Model thought up by Thompson to explain what the atom looked like He thought it was made of a positively charged cytoplasm that contained spheres of a negative charge 0 Rutherford performed a gold foil experiment where he shot alpha particles through gold foil lf Thompson were right about the atom the particles should ve gone straight through but some were deflected at angles greater than 90 This experiment lead to prove the plum pudding model wrong and that the atom is made of mostly empty space with a dense center 0 Nuclear Model of the Atom suggests that the atom has a dense positively charged nucleus the nucleus contains most of the weight of the atom and the rest of the atom is mostly empty space The space outside the nucleus is lightly populated with electrons where the charge of the atom is balanced LESSON 8 What is the Nucleus Made of Proton the positive particle of the nucleus of an atom discovered by Rutherford by bombarding nitrogen with alpha particles which produced Hydrogen Neutron neutrally charged particle of the nucleus of an atom discovered by Chadwick who beamed alpha particles through beryllium and discovered a no charge particle Isotopes atoms of the same element that have different masses due to the addition of a neuron or the loss of a neuron Nuclear Symbol Used to write isotopes of elements Top number next to the element symbol is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons mass number the bottom number written next to the element symbol is the number of protons atomic number Atomic Mass Unit u is exactly 112 the mass of a carbon12 atom ls used to define the atomic mass of an element the average mass of all atoms of an element as they occur in nature Periodic Table how chemists organize information about the elements look on page 89 for more details and a picture 0 Periods horizontal rows 0 GroupsChemical Families vertical columns I Main group elements representative elements group 121318 I Transition elements transition metals group 312
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