Exam 3 study guide
Exam 3 study guide ARTH1001
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Drake Lundstrom on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARTH1001 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Erin Hackmann in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 186 views. For similar materials see History of Art 1 in Art History at The University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 03/15/16
Exam three study guide: Section 1: Vocabulary review Aniconic: Against icons, images, and idols. Apse: Semicircular recess in a church. Think of a rectangle with a half circle hanging off of the end, and the half circle is the apse. Arcade: A series of arches with each counterthrusting the next, like the roman aqueducts. barrel vault: A vault that is essentially a very deep arch. central plan: A form of architecture with a definite center, and each wall equal distant from the center. Codex: An early form of book that was the first experiment of pages being bound together. Coffer: A series of sunken panels in the form of a square, rectangle, octagon, or something else. Used heavily in the dome of Haga Sofia. composite order: A column order made of a mix of other column orders. Dome: A circular vault, looks like part of a sphere. Drum: the upright part of a building on which a dome is raised. engaged column: A column partially built into a wall. Forum: the marketplace or public place of an ancient Roman city serving as the center for public business groin vault: Also known as a double barrel vault, it is produced with the right angle intersection of two barrel vaults. Icon: Literally, and image. Refers what is typically a painting representing Christ, Mary, saints, or so on. Iconoclasm: A ovement in the Byzantine empire that declared all icons to be heresy and destroyed many of them. Illumination: Lighting longitudinal plan: A rectangular plan for a building. Mihrab: A niche in a wall that signifies the direction of mecca to pray towards. Minaret: A tall slender tower of a mosque that the summons to a prayer is called from. Mosque: Muslim house of prayer Nave: Central part of a church. orant figure: a representation of a female figure, with outstretched arms and palms up in a gesture of prayer, in ancient and early Christian art. Pendentive: A joining piece between a square room and a circular dome. Peristyle: Building surrounded by columns Pseudoperipteral: Building that looks like it is surrounded by columns, but in reality, they are engaged columns and just part of the wall. qibla wall: A wall that marks the direction in which muslims should pray. Rotunda: A building with a circular ground plan, often covered by a dome. Syncretism: Symbols being reused in different context to deepen meaning. Transept: A transverse section, of any building, which lies across the main body of the building. Often used by early Christians to make their buildings look like crosses. tuscan order: Ultra simple column order, even simpler than doric. verism: Ultra realism, with imperfections and the like emphasized. Voussoir: A wedge shaped element, often stone, used in building an arch or vault: Section 2: Art piece review Pont du Gard: Roman Used concrete An aqueduct that delivered over 100 gallons of water per day per inhabitant Multiple levels of arches to distribute weight. Example of Arcade Temple, perhaps dedicated to Portunus: Roman art Worship was done outside the temple, and a cult statue was housed inside. Strongly influenced by greek/eutruscan styles. Example of a Pseudoperipteral building and engaged columns. Greek traits: Frieze, ionic order, columns wole way around Eutruscan traits: Clear frontality, closed sides, on a platform Augustus of Primaporta: Roman art Strong, powerful, eternally young. The first emperor of Rome, born to the name Octavius Shows him as a warrior, an orator, a general, and related to the gods with images of victory carved on his breastplate. Cupid and the like symbolize the divinity. Imperial Procession, south side of the Ara Pacis: Roman Art Very Roman, in the sense that it portrayes a real event There are children portrayed, which is very rare Ideal roman family Peristyle Garden, House of the Vettii, Pompeii: Roman art. Surrounded by pillars Essentially an outdoor living space. Colosseum: 70-80 CE Roman art Also known as the Flavian Amptheater Three levels of seating Every level has a different order of columns, with higher up being fancier. Historically important, as it was built on land returned to the people from the holdings of Emperor Nero. Was possibly home to mock naval battles The Arch of Titus: Roman art Arches were built to honor Roman Triumphs This one honored the capture of Jerusalem Large inscription at the top, and the arch is covered in reliefs. Central Hall, Basilica Ulpia: Roman art Used for government, military, and other secular purposes. Built from a longitudinal plan Heavily influenced later Christian churches. Clerestories on the second floor, and a statue that oversees legal proceedings. Column of Trajan: Roman art Commemorative monument and the tomb of an emperor. A statue of the emperor was on top of the pillar, but was later replaced with a saint. The column is decorated with a long, spiraling, continuous frieze of the Drastian war. Pantheon: 110-128 CE Roman art Temple for all Roman gods The burnt temples was torn down and replaced. The front looks greek, but the rotunda behind it is very Roman Built with using layers of different roman cement. Dome of the Pantheon: Roman art Filled with statues of gods, and later saints The Coffers help reduce the weight of the dome The pantheon was often used as a measuring stick for later architectural achievments Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius: Roman art Statues of emperors on hourses were common. This statue survived because the Christians mistook it for a statue of Constantine Beards were more greek than roman This is one of the few statues that shows the strain of leadership. Plan of the Baths of Caracalla: Roman art Opened to please the public Heavily decorated with running and heated water Complex was huge, covering 50 acres Used for many things, not just bathing. Essentially a country club. Arch of Constantine detail: Roman art Edit of Milan, 313, grants religious freedom to all This is about the triumph were Constatine won all of Rome. Every inch is covered in reliefs, many copied from earlier pieces. Wall with Torah Niche: Jewish art Very unusual for Jewish art, since it shows depictions of people Used to teach about the faith God is only ever represented as a pair of hands in jewish art. The Good Shepherd, Orants, and the Story of Jonah: Early Christian An example of Syncretism: The borrowing of images and themes and putting them into a new context Christians borrow the image of a men holding the sheep over his shoulder An illegal image, hid from the public eye Jacopo Grimaldi, Interior of Old St. Peter’s, 1619 copy of an earlier drawing: Early Christian After the edict of Milan, churches start to be created Based off of the bascilica ulpia The Good Shepherd, Oratory of Galla Placidia: Early Christian Christ does not yet have beard Christ starts to acquire imperial attributes, as Christianity becomes the official religion in 380 Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus, Church of Hagia Sophia: 532-537 CE Byzantine art Huge church, built in 5 years, a monumental achievement Symbolizes the power of Christianity and the Byzantine empire Interior of the Church of Hagia Sophia: Byzantine art It has a central and longitudinal plan Heavily decorated with gold, including on many of the mosaic stones. Got turned into a mosque A pendentive dome, flowting dome Christ Enthroned, Flanked by Angels, St. Vitalis, and Bishop Ecclesius: Byzantine art Christ is being offered a tiny version of the building. It does not seem t fall in a real world setting, and he is portrayed as above the people as a ruler, rather than among the people and a teacher. All about perfection and creating the ideal. Emperor Justinian and His Attendants: Byzantine art Hierarchical scale, halo and crown as leader of both church and state. Gifts are being presented to Jesus Rebecca at the Well: Byzantine art Shows a story with a continuous narrative, where all parts of the story are shown at once Symbols like the water nymph are distincylu pagan The Kaaba, Mecca: Islamic art Used for polytheistic worship until Muhammed returns and turns it back towards Islam People walk around it while worshipping Exterior of Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem: 691 CE Islamic art built to commemorate the assertion to heaven on the night journey It was a religious and political statement built to show up the many beautiful churches of the west Interior is also very elaborate, and pieces are taken from other building and churches A sacred site Islam is still new at this point Prayer Hall, Great Mosque, Cordoba, Spain: Islamic art The last Umeag flees to spain, creates new ruling class there Huge building, testament to presige. A key political statement. They used stacked columns to increase height of recycled arches Polychrome and horseshoe arches Dome in Front of the Mihrab, Great Mosque, Cordoba: Islamic art Used the 8 pointed star symbolic of Islam Niche over the wall that points to mecca Flower shaped dome Dome on squinches Muhammad Ibn al-Zain, Baptistery of St. Louis: Islamic art Don’t know who it was commissioned for. Very expensive, and madeof high class materials, such as mother of pearl Every inch is filled, the fear of empty space It is unusual that it has inscriptions of people on it. Page from the Qur’an: Islamic art Almost the opposite of biblical manuscripts, no illustration. Kufic script Caligrofers are the highest artist in muslim society Sinan, Mosque of Sultan Selim: Islamic art Sinan is the architect, the greatest ottoman architect An imperial mosque Influenced by the Hagia Sofia. Tries to surpass it. Only imperial mosque could have the 4 minarets like this. Section 3: general review Extra credit: the five pillars of islam: o Declare Allah to be one true god o Pray to Mecca five times a day o Give alms to poor o Fast during Ramadan o Embark on the hajj pilgrimage. Roman art: o Verism, Roman art is ultra realistic during the republican period o Romans had lots of aqueducts, and used arches, domes, and vaults which distribute weight better than post and lentils. o Art was used as propaganda and to show the emperor’s power. o Popei was important since it ended up preserving the city very well. Also, it shows how Roman cities are laid out in a grid like pattern o The roman empire did not have religious freedom at first, so mystery religions were practiced in secret so that the members were not killed o 313 the edict of Milan gives religious freedom for all. o Art under Constantine gets more stylized, less realistic. Early Christian art o Still illegal to be Christian, so heir art is hidden in caticombs Byzantine empire o Only Christianity is legal o Christ is more and more emperial o Iconoclast controversy Icons are considered idol worship and are destroyed in mass Islamic art o There are no portrayals of people, mostly just geometric patterns to symbolize the order of god o Symbols, like the 8 pointed star, are religious and very important o Tries to outshine Christian architecture
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