BSC 101 Helms Exam 1 Study Guide
BSC 101 Helms Exam 1 Study Guide BSC 101
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Daniel Hemenway on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 101 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Helms in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 324 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
BSC 101 Helms Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 Biology The scientific study of life 12 Organisms Share Many of the Same Characteristics While organisms may seem to very different they still share many of the same characteristics ie Blue Whale and E coli They share essentially the same atomic makeup the same molecular structure and both reproduce sexually but the bacteria can also reproduce asexually Hierarchy of Life in increasing size Atoms and Molecules Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Organisms Populations Communities Ecosystem Biosphere Organisms Must Constantly Acquire Energy Producers Algae1 and Phytoplankton2 do more than Plants3 Use photosynthesis to convert energy from the sun into chemical energy sugars Consumers count on producers for energy They consume producers in order to obtain energy Decomposers break down waste to recycle the nutrients Cellular Respiration The process in which organisms break down certain nutrients to create ATP Aerobic CR requires the presence of Oxygen Bacteria and some consumers can do Anaerobic CR no oxygen ATP Energy within cells as a result of cellular respiration Organisms use DNA for the instructions to life DNA The information storage system of heredities packaged as chromosomes Chromosomes contain DNA and DNA contains Nucleotides ATCG s Genes are the blueprints of heredity to make proteins which leads to our phenotype what we look like DNA is the universal genetic code Organisms sense and respond to change Homeostasis the process in which an organism senses adjusts and maintains conditions in its internal environment within a range that favors survival and reproduction Example Sweating to maintain body temp goose bumps BSC 101 Helms Exam 1 Study Guide Populations of organisms adapt and evolve over time Adaptation A change in a structure in order to be better suited for the environment Evolution Genetic changes in populations over time generations 13 Organisms are Complex Interactive Systems at All Levels of Organization Atoms in living systems rarely exist alone they are constantly interacting and form bonds that make molecules The bonds that hold molecules together may be strong or weak it depends on the type of bond Covalent Bonds Strong is the sharing of electrons Ionic Bonds Weak opposite charges attract between atoms The way atoms interact in a molecule gives the molecule determine the shape of the molecule and shape is everything H20 The atomic interactions and bonds result in Covalent bond sharing electrons Oxygen keeps electrons closer to itself than the Hydrogen Negative Charge OZ Positive Charge H The charged ends of the water molecule influence how water molecules interact Water on Hydrogen bond Can interact with up to 4 other HZO bonds Water39s stickiness is an important chemical property that allows it to flow through blood vessels or move up the trunk of a tree It also gives water its ability to absorb large amounts of heat which makes it an ideal way to cool the body as it evaporates Macromolecules or biomolecules Carbohydrates DNA and RNA Proteins Lipids Organic Molecules compounds Carbon and Hydrogen part of support structure Carbohydrates Organic compounds made of sugar Sugar starch glycogen cellulose DNA and RNA Nucleic Acids Chains of nucleotides joined by sugar phosphate bonds BSC 101 Helms Exam 1 Study Guide Proteins Large molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acids Muscle fibers collagen enzymes carriers hormones Lipids Fatty oily or waxy molecules with a hydrocarbon backbone Fats phospholipids cholesterol and waxes Cells are divided into two basic groups Prokaryotic Much simpler ancient no specialization of function no true nucleus Bacteria and Archaea Eukaryotic quotTrue Nucleus Complex internal structures specialized compartments Animals Fungi Plants Protists 14 The Unity and Diversity of Life Are Explained by Evolution Evolution occurs by natural selection Natural selection is a mechanism of evolution because it allows for differential survival and reproduction Environment drives the need to adapt to survive Evolution is marked by common descent the unity of life refers to showing connection of life from common ancestry Natural selection is an explanation that accounts for biological diversity from common ancestry 15 Biologists Use Evidence to Answer Questions about the Living World Scientists attempt to define experiments that are measurable and to produce and reproduce data Two types of approaches Observations watching and recording Experiments testing and manipulating variables Scientific Method Opinions What we think about based on subjective experience Prediction Expected observations in a particular experiment Hypothesis Plausible explanation of how something works or why someone would make a particular prediction Must be testable Theory Strong as it gets broad explanation based on lots of evidence with little or no statements refuting it Law Description of something consistently observed mathematical BSC 101 Helms Exam 1 Study Guide Science is driven by curiosity and questions Limitations in studying the natural world Cannot investigate supernatural Cannot examine the philosophical meanings of life Realm of values and ethics Observable characteristics morphology the idea of being able to compare forms or structures of distantly related organisms When a trait has the same structure across distantly related organisms this is because it s a homologous trait Homologous structures are similarities in anatomical traits that result from common ancestry Fossil Evidence Layers of gravel sand and mud accumulate embedding and preserving fossils Positional Dating of fossils BottomDeepest are the oldest while TopShallowest are the newest Radiometric dating determines when the radiometric clock started and therefore the age of the rock layers associated with the fossil can be determined Comparative embryology Similarities across distantly related organisms Vertebrates passed through similar developmental patterns Chapter 2 Evolution and the Diversity of Life 21 Archaeopteryx and the Evolution of Birds Earth s landmasses were united in a single continent that we call Pangea Pigeonsized primitive bird quotArchaeopteryxquot had a mix of a reptile and bird characteristics Was the transitional animal between reptile and bird Archaeopteryx provides us with how one species evolved to another 22 The Diversity of Life is Cataloged and Classified by Evolutionary Relationships Taxonomy about classification identifying and naming to know about relatedness Can tell similarities in DNA Blueprint through species Taxonomic Hierarchy Qomain Kingdom Ehylum Class Qrder Eamily genius Species Species Fundamental units of evolution and diversity what changed during evolution can interbreed Evolutionary Tree Graphical summary of data of who is related to who BSC 101 Helms Exam 1 Study Guide Speciation events are sometimes labeled along the tree to show when they evolved 3 Domains of Life Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Bacteria Unicellular Prokaryotic cell structure no nucleus no membrane bound organelles cell wall ribosomes Archaea Other prokaryote live in extreme conditions unicellular no nucleus prokaryotic cell structure Eukarya Organisms with eukaryotic cell structure True Nucleus membrane bound organelles 4 Groups Animals Fungi Plants Protists Animals Heterotrophs Can t make own food do photosynthesis Invertebrates No backbone and Vertebrates backbone 23 Animals plants fungi and protists are classified in the domain eukarya Plants Includes Nonvascular vascular nonseed seed Autotrophs Photosynthesis Make own food have cell walls made of cellulose and evolved from green alga protest Sugar must still be broken down during Aerobic Cellular Respiration Animal and plant cells are both eukaryotic and share similar structures True Nucleus membrane bound organelles mitochondria Plants also have cell walls made of cellulose vacuoles Chloroplasts Fungi Heterotrophs do not do photosynthesis decomposers have cell walls made of chitin cells are more similar to animal cells Protists All Eukaryotic some can be autotrophs heterotrophs unicellular or multicellular 24 Bacteria and Archaea Are Prokaryotic Organisms Bacteria and Archaea share characteristics microscopic unicellular no internal membrane bound organelles asexual Decomposers and can be used commercially but can also cause diseases Chapter 3 Evolutionary Change and Adaption 32 Evolutionary change begins with genetic variation Populations contain individuals with different forms of genetic information called alleles different form of same gene Phenotype outward expression of alleles what we see BSC 101 Helms Exam 1 Study Guide Mutations are changes in DNA sequences Creates new allele allele can change the phenotype Adaptive Offers differential success increased fitness Fitness The ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment 1 Crossing Over Cut the number of chromosomes in half touch and exchange parts of the chromosome 2 Assortment of Chromosomes Reassembling into four different cells 3 Fertilization Male sperm meets female egg 223 x 223 Meiosis reproductive process in specialized cells that reduces the number of chromosomes in half rearranges its information to create new combinations of alleles and then splits twice to produce four cells Gene Flow Movement of alleles between population can bring out changes in variation between population 33 Natural Selection Shapes evolutionary change adaptation and fitness Selective pressure environment determines factor whether or not a trait will be adaptive or not Natural selection inherited trait those who are better adapted will survive An adaptive trait increases the organism s ability to survive Coevolution process that occurs when two or more organisms interact and exert selection pressures on each other to produce adaptations 34 New Species arise through the process of speciation Speciation process that creates a new species Reproductive Isolation when races can no longer interbreed Reproductive Barriers prevent interbreeding Premating Barriers preventing fertilization Postmating Barriers make zygote unable to develop or quotinfertile offspring Hybrid breeding between two different species Geographical barriers keeping races apart far enough away to where they cannot interbreed Temporal barriers Timing of breeding reproductive periods are different Mechanical Barriers Reproduction quotShit Don t Fit genitalia doesn t fit Behavioral barriers prevented if behavior is not exactly right Hybrid inviability zygote doesn t develop BSC 101 Helms Exam 1 Study Guide Hybrid Sterility fertilization occurs offspring is born but the hybrid offspring is infertile 35 Each species has a unique evolutionary history Some organisms don t change throughout millions of years because their selective pressures force them to remain the same Adaptive Radiation species have branched or radiated into numerous lineages each with many species There have been 5 distinct mass extinction events Local extinctions taking out one area but the organism exist somewhere else Human activities have cause many extinctions losing 200 speciesday Chapter 18 Patterns of Inheritance 181 The genetically unique human The current hypothesis on human origins is based 6 million years ago Important evolutionary features placement of skull body style pelvis rotated strengthening of lower bones larger cranial capacity Humans have 46 chromosomes 23 pairs containing 2025000 genes Offspring are genetically different than the parents because each parent gives one allele and the offspring will have 2 AllelegtGenegtProteinsgtPhenotype 182 Many traits are inherited in simple patterns Gregor Mendel father of modern genetics Before Mendel it was thought that traits from parents were blended Dominant Trait takes over recessive trait preferentially expressed Recessive Trait Not preferentially express have two copies to show the recessive trait Discovered two laws of inheritance Law of segregation each parent contributes one of the two alleles that are passed down to the offspring Independent assortment the allele pairs of different traits separate during meiosis and pass on independently of each other to the offspring Every gene has a particular location on a particular chromosome called the Locus Dominant allele is the capital letter Recessive allele is the lower case letter BSC 101 Helms Exam 1 Study Guide Punnett square potential gametes each parent can make and what that outcome may be 183 Some physical traits are expressed from more complex patterns of inheritance Humans have roughly 18000 Mendelian traits Incomplete Dominance occurs when two alleles are needed to express a trait but the dominant trait does not completely mask the recessive trait Codominance Expression of both the dominant and recessive trait in phenotype of organism Pleiotropy genetic condition where one gene controls two or more distinct and seemingly unrelated traits Polygenic inheritance many genes Trait controlled by two or more genes 184 Sex chromosomes contribute to determining gender and Xlinked inheritance patterns Karyotype the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell Pair 23 the sex determinant Sexlinked traits located on one of the sex chromosomes X chromosome roughly 1000 genes Y chromosomes roughly 90 genes Pedigree a type of family tree that geneticists use to track the history of a particular trait over several generations
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