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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: AJ Ponte

Exam 1 Study Guide PSYCH 1000 - 01

AJ Ponte
GPA 3.94
General Psychology
Ines Segert

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About this Document

Chapters 1 through 3 are covered in this study guide for the exam. Yes there is a lot of information on these pages, but it captures all the key elements my professor said would be on the exam. Lec...
General Psychology
Ines Segert
Study Guide
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by AJ Ponte on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 1000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Ines Segert in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 290 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 09/20/15
Psychology 1000 Study Guide Exam 1 Chapter 1 Material What is Psychological Science 0 The study through research of mind brain and behavior Use evidence not beliefs opinions or personal experience 0 Verify facts 0 Eliminate bias Your quotgut feeling can be wrong Think critically Not let your emotions in uence you Ignore what we don t like or what doesn t t the situation Look at all possible data even that that contradicts our hypothesis What is thinking critically It is systematically evaluating information to reach a conclusion supported by evidence Scienti c Foundations NatureNurture Debate 0 Are psychological characteristic biologically innate or are they acquired through education experience and culture MindBody Debate 0 Are mind and body separate and distinct or is the mind simply the physical brain s subjective experience Schools of Psychology 0 lntrospection o Wilhelm Wundt founded modern experimental psychology 0 A systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts 0 Structuralism 0 Edward Titchener 0 An approach based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into basic underlying components 0 Functionalism 0 An approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose or function of mind and behavior 0 Addressed the purpose of behavior 0 William James Psychology 1000 Study Guide Exam 1 Stream of consciousness a term coined byJames describes each person s continuous series of everchanging thoughts 0 Charles Darwin I Theory of evolution 0 Gestalt 0 Max Wertheimer o Emphasized patterns and context in learning 0 Based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is different from the sum of its constituent elements 0 Two people can look at the same thing and see two different things 0 Unconscious Con icts o Sigmund Freud Freud developed psychoanalysis a method that attempts to bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious awareness so that con icts van be revealed 0 Unconscious processes are not readily available to awareness but nevertheless in uence behavior 0 Behaviorism 0 John B Watson 0 Emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing observable behavior 0 Behavior is changed by its consequences 0 Stimuli and responses 0 Cognitive 0 George A Miller 0 Emphasizes mental activity 0 Study of mental functions such as intelligence thinking language memory and decision making 0 Cognitive neuroscience the study of the neural mechanisms underlying thought learning perception language and memory 0 Social Psychology 0 Kurt Lewin 0 Highlights how situations and other people are powerful forces in shaping behavior 0 Personality psychology the study 0 Advancements in Psychology 0 Humanistic Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow 0 People can come to know and accept themselves in order to research their unique potentials 0 Behavior is affected by both nature and nurture Psychology 1000 Study Guide Exam 1 Latest Developments in Psychology 0 Biology 0 Brain Chemistry 0 Neuroscience 0 Genetics 0 Now able to observe the brain in action and map the human genome 0 Evolution 0 The brain has evolved in response to our ancestors problems of survival 0 Culture 0 Provides adaptive solutions 0 Cultural norms in uence thought process and behavior Psychological 0 Levels of analysis Biological brain systems neurochemistry genetics Individual perception and cognition behavior Social Interpersonal behavior and social cognition I Cultural thoughts actions behaviors in different cultural groups 0 Lots of sub elds clinical psychology industrial psychology etc 6 types of bias that hinder our ability to think critically 1 Coincidence a surprising cooccurrence that we as humans deem as meaningful 0 Ex An athlete will wear the same pair of socks for every game because they believe that is what allows them or helps them to perform well 0 Superstition or a quotlucky charmquot o In this type of bias we do not examine the accuracy of events does wearing the same pair of socks actually make you win No 2 Selective recall remembering only facts and events that are unusual or that were personally enhancing or t the narrative o This type of bias prevents systematic examination 3 Con rmation bias only accepting facts that t and discounting those that are contradictory 0 quotCherry pickingquot or selectively choosing of information that will prevent attempts to falsify your hypothesis 0 Ex Good lawyers wi quotcherry pickquot to insure their client will win 4 Affective bias judgements based on emotions Psychology 1000 Study Guide Exam 1 0 Ex A judge being stuck in bad traf c on the way to work will be angry and impatient therefore is more likely to give harsher sentences than if they were not in traf c that morning 0 Mood will in uence decisions and these in uences can be unconscious 5 Availability bias judgements based on things that easily come to mind 0 Ex People are less likely to go into the ocean after quotSharkweekquot based on the heavy attention to shark attacks that week than if it wasn t quotSharkweekquot even though the chance of you being attacked by a shark will continue to remain the same regardless if it is quotSharkweekquot or not 0 Overestimate how likely an event will be based on the frequency it is talked about on the media or otherwise 0 Creates faulty conclusions 6 Gamblers bias the idea that odds are xed depending on recent events 0 People are bad at guring probability or in other words understanding the true probability of an events occurrence 0 Ex If a woman has ve daughters and gets pregnant one more time thinking it has to be a boy this time based on odds is incorrect The chance that she will have a boy or girl is still 5050 regardless of the fact that she has already had ve girls 0 Ex The game roulette Douglas Bicland39s claim of facilitated communication for Autistic children 0 Facilitated communication is when a trained helper guides the hand of an autistic individual in order for them to type what they want to say 0 Spread rapidly throughout all schools and facilities without being tested Speculations consisted of o If the helper was simply guiding the hand or actually typing for the autistic individual 0 How did these individuals learn how to spell if they cannotread 0 Children lost focus quickly showing they were not really aware of what was going on o A double blind test was conducted many years later to determine if facilitated communication actually worked Results showed it did not Psychology 1000 Study Guide Exam 1 Bicland claimed you had to believe it worked in order for it to work making his theory not falsi able Qhapter 2 Material Scienti c Method theory hypothesisl research support or refute 6 Steps to success Form a hypothesis Conduct a literature review Design a study Conduct the study Analyze the data Report the results P P FP NE De nitions to know Theory A model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future events Theories are based on empirical evidence Hypothesis A speci c testable prediction narrower than the theory it is based on Research A scienti c process that involves the careful collection of data Goals of Research Describe what is the phenomenon Explain why does it occur Predict when or how it will occur Controlapply what causes its occurrence Psychology 1000 Study Guide Exam 1 What de nes a good theory 0 One that generates a testable hypothesis o Is falsi able ndings can either support or contradict theory o Is parsimonious 0 New facts can be incorporated without having to change the theory 0 Explains many observations under one simple theory Types of Psychological Research Designs Descriptive Observing and noting the behavior of people or animals to provide a systematic and objective analysis of behavior Case study intensive examination of unusual people or organizations 0 Ex Temple Grandin and James Holmes 0 Problem with case studies 393 they consist of a small population size which in turn makes it hard to apply the ndings to the general public oz Can be subjective researchers may only record what supports the theory Naturalistic Observation passive observation where subjects are not aware they are being watched 0 Ethics are not violated in these types of studies if done in a common public area Observational active involvement by researcher 0 Ex Festinger Studyljl in ltrating the doomsday cult to understand why they do what they do 0 Advantages oz They take place in real world settings so real results are involved 393 Useful in early stages like when developing a hypothesis 0 Problems 393 Inconsistent oz Hawthorn Effect subjects behavior changes when they know they are being observed oz Ethical issues Self Report used to gather large amounts of data 0 Survey questioner interview etc 0 Advantages oz Fast and easy to gather lots of information 0 Problems Psychology 1000 Study Guide Exam 1 393 You don t know if people took the survey truthfully or seriously 0 Types of Self Report bias oz Individuals will respond with what is socially desirable oz See themselves as quotbetter than averagequot therefore answers are false oz Selective recall 0 Developmental Designs two types 0 Longitudinal a study of the same people over a long amount of time oz Advantages Provide information about age related changes in behavior overtime in the same people 0 Control for individual differences 393 Problems 0 Expensive May loose subjects overtime if they decide they do not want to be a part of the study any longer 0 CrossSectional a study of many people at one time of all different ages oz Advantages Cheap and faster than longitudinal 393 Problems 0 Differences in subjects may be due to life experiences rather than age Ethical Problems with Observational Studies 0 Subjects may be deceived in order for the researcher to report the real response they are looking for rather than the one they tell the subject they are looking for or if it is possible the subject can easily gure out how they are supposed to respond 0 Lack of informed consent if the observation is not done in a common public place 0 Privacy concern Researcher may lose objective while observing Correlation Design What is correlation It is showing or exploring an association between two variables but NOT cause and effect Examples of Correlation studies Psychology 1000 Study Guide Exam 1 0 Study time vs GPA Cell phone use vs GPA Type of school private public etc vs GPA Types of correlation 0 Positive correlation both variables change in the same direction 0 Ex As a student increases time spent studying their GPA will increase as well 0 Negative correlation as one variable increases the other decreases 0 Ex As a student s cell phone use increases their GPA will decrease Correlation as a number 11 0 no correlation no association 1 or 1 perfect strong correlation The stronger the correlation the stronger or more accurate the prediction of the other variable will be Correlation is NOT cause and effect 0 We can only predict while using correlation studies Cannot say quotthis causes thisquot we can only say this may happenquot Correlation only allows us to predict one variable if we know the other variable Problems with Correlation Studies Directional Problem we can t determine which if any variable comes rst 0 Ex Does frequent cell phone use lead to bad grades or do bad grades drive a student to use their cell phone more 0 Third Variable Problem an unmeasured variable may be the cause of change in both the measured variables 0 Ex Anxiety could be the cause of both bad grades and extensive cell phone use Psychology 1000 Study Guide Exam 1 Experimental Design What you39ll need 0 Control variables 0 Comparison group control group 0 Identify the O O O 0 Theory Hypothesis Independent variable the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter Dependent variable the variable that is measured effected by the independent variable Experimental group the treatment group that receives the independent variable Control group the comparison group that does not receive the independent variable Example of an experimental design Theory cell phone use effects the attention and ability to focus of an individual Hypothesis if a student uses a cell phone frequently then the student s GPA will decrease Independent Variable cell phone Dependent Variable grades GPA Experimental Group students with cell phones Control Group students without a cell phone Critical step for creating groups use random assignment If random assignment is not used the groups will not be balanced and create confounding variables Random Sampling vs Random Assignment researchers use random sampling when everyone in the population has an equal chance to participate in the study they use random assignment when all participants Psychology 1000 Study Guide Exam 1 have an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent variable What is a confounding variable It is anything other than the independent variable that effects a dependent variable This happens when groups differ in something other than the independent variable for example income gender education etc Another result of failure to randomly assign groupsl Selection Bias 0 Selection bias is when a researcher purposefully puts certain individuals into groups to insure results will support their hypothesis 0 Ex Putting students who already have bad grades into the experimental group with frequent use of cell phones to see if their grades will decrease Balanced unbiased groups and a control group all created from random assignment are vital for all experimental studies Quasi Experiment Design 0 When it is impossible or unethical to manipulate variables 0 No random assignment use preexisting groups Observer Bias Problems Observer may interpret behavior so that it is consistent with hisher expectation or hypothesis 0 Ex Rosenthal Effect 0 HOW TO PREVENT THIS BIAS use a double blind test neither the researcher nor the subject know exactly who is getting what until the end Data Analysis and Evaluation 0 Internal validity the degree to which the effects observed in an experiment are due to the independent variable and not confounds Psychology 1000 Study Guide Exam 1 0 External validity the degree to which the ndings of a study can be generalized to other people settings or situations 0 Construct validity the extent to which variables measure what they are supposed to measure 0 lnferential Statistics o Is difference due to chance 0 Does the difference re ect the impact of the individual variable 0 Results determine unlikely to be due to chance are statistically signi cant The bigger the sample size the better chance to gain a statistically signi cant result Chapter 3 Material Basic Brain Structures and Functions 0 Brain stem 0 The top of the spinal cord forms the brain stem which is involved in basic functions such as breathing and swallowing Cerebellum o The bulging structure connected to the back of the brain stem 0 Essential for movement and controls balance Subcortical Structures 0 They play a key part in psychological processes because they control vital functions like the hypothalamus relay of sensory information the thalamus memories the hippocampus emotions the amygdala and planning and the production of movementthe basal ganglia Cerebral Cortex o The lobes Occipital sight Parietal touch I Temporal hearing Frontal personality 0 Gyri quotbumpsquot on surface of brain 0 Sulci quotvalleysquot on surface of brain Corpus Callosum 0 Connections between the left and right sides of the brain 0 Allows communication between the halves Phrenology o A theory used to determine mental traits and personality traits Psychology 1000 Study Guide Exam 1 The theory was relating correlating bumps on the skull with parts of the brain that control certain personality characteristics so if the aggression part of your brain was bumping out of your skull you therefore are characterized as aggressive Very popular theory but never tested scienti cally Techniques to Study the Brain Correlational Techniques observe behavior while measuring brain activity Recording Techniques EEG useful for looking at seizures lntracranial Recording Electrodes record where neurons re 0 Invasive 0 Ex Looking at what LSD does to the brain Imaging 0 MRI scans no activity recorded but excellent measure of structure of the brain 0 Functional MRI activity structure but there is a lag time in recording signal 0 PET Scan uses a radioactive substance to produce an activity related image however creates a weak measure of structure Experimental Techniques precisely manipulate speci c areas of the brain by touch 0 Only technique that provides cause and effect TMS magnetic eld manipulates brain activity in a speci c brain region lntracranial Stimulation manipulate the brain and activate speci c regions Deep Brain Stimulation plant an electrode in the brain to treat things like Parkinson s or depression Phantom Limb Sensation that a missing organ is still attached to your body and func onal Often associated with intense pain Neurons in the brain are trying to reorganize themselves To alleviate pain people will put a mirror on the opposite side of their missing limb so their brain sees it and the neurons think it s there Because of the somatosensory cortex you could touch a person s right cheek who has an amputated right arm and they would feel that touch sensation on their phantom limb Psychology 1000 Study Guide Exam 1 Gender Differences Male Female Larger brain size Smaller brain sized Unilateral only use the left side of Bilateral use both the right and left their brain for language sides of their brain for language Use spatial related regions of the Use language related brain regions brain to solve complex problems of the brain to solve complex problems Plasticity 0 A property of the brain that allows it to change as a result of experience drugs or injury 0 Ex Hemispherectomy taking out one half of the brain but almost fully recovering due to the other half making up for the loss of the other Jodie s Hemispherectomy o Constant seizures around age three 0 Doctors took out her right side of her brain completely 0 Almost 100 mental and physical recovery besides her left arm 0 Cameron s Hemispherectomy 0 Same as Jodie s just more recovery Neurogenesis 0 New neurons are produced in some brain regions everyday 0 Ex In the hippocampus 0 London Taxi Drivers 0 Have larger hippocampi 0 Only found in the part associated with spatial memory Psychology 1000 Study Guide Exam 1 0 Not found in London bus drivers Genes and Behavior 0 Behavioral Genetics the study of how genes and environment interact in uence psychology activity Genotype an organism s genetic makeup this never changes 0 Phenotype an organism s observable physical character this is always changing o Genetics nature and environment nurture both in uence phenotype o Caspi Study Proves that both nature and nurture can work together to affect human behavior Behavioral Genetic Methods 0 Twin studies I Monozygotic twins identical twins Dizygotic twins fraternal twins 0 Adoption studies Compare the similarities between biological relatives and adoptive relatives Individual Case Studies Phineas Gage He was a railroad builder 0 His tamping rod went through his cheek and out his skull His personality changed but he physically recovered o Gage became very childish and could not make plans 0 This was the rst study to show that the brain is linked to personality Broca39s area 0 left hemisphere speech production Wernicke39s area 0 left hemisphere processes the understanding of language Neglect Syndrome Psychology 1000 Study Guide Exam 1 0 People with this syndrome don t pay attention to what is in their left visual eld Happens after a stroke that damages the right side of their brain 0 Ex Someone looking in a mirror will only shave half of their face because that is all that they observe a The individual is not blind they just do not observe If you were to point it out to them they would realize and understand they neglected those items 0 Even from memory an individual would only draw half of an object Disorders associated with the occipital lobe o Blindsight Unconsciously seeing An individual cannot understand or quotseequot and object in front of them but they would be able to know it s there and walk around it o Alexia Unable to read but you can still write and speak Takes away your brains ability to match letters with sounds Parts of a Neuron and their Function Den drite Axon 39I39Ermin al bulton I Some bell bod5r Nucleus Axon Myelin sheath Dendrites branchlike extensions of the neuron that detect information from other neurons Cell Body the site in the neuron where information from thousands of other neurons is collected and integrated Axon a long narrow outgrowth of a neuron by which information is transmitted to other neurons Terminal buttons at the ends of axons small nodules that release chemical signals from the neuron into the synapse Psychology 1000 Study Guide Exam 1 Synapse the gap between the axon of a sending neuron and the dendrites of a receiving neuron the site at which chemical communication occurs between neurons Myelin sheath a fatty material made up of glial cells that insulate some axons to allow for faster movement of electrical impulses along the axon Nodes of Ranvier small gaps of exposed axon between the segments of myelin sheath where action potentials take place Electrical Signaling Resting membrane potential the electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active 0 Action potential the electrical signal that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons Chemical Signaling o Neurotransmitters chemical substances that transmit signals from one neuron to another


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