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Key words for Midterm 1

by: Cassidy Zirko

Key words for Midterm 1 Chem 141

Marketplace > University of Montana > Chemistry > Chem 141 > Key words for Midterm 1
Cassidy Zirko
College Chemistry 1
Mark Cracolice (P)

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College Chemistry 1
Mark Cracolice (P)
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassidy Zirko on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 141 at University of Montana taught by Mark Cracolice (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see College Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Montana.


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Date Created: 09/20/15
Key Terms for Midterm 1 Chapter 1 0 Algebra Thought of as arithmetic in which letters are used to represent variables 0 Variables quantities that may have different values which can appear in equations 0 Equation represent a mathematical relationship among the variables 0 Direct proportionality two variable quantities are related in such a way that when one is manipulated by a constant so is the other 0 Proportionality Constant 0 Inverse Proportionality two quantities that are related in such a way that when one is increased by a certain number the other decreases by the reciprocal of that value 0 Multiple Proportionality who one quantity is proportional to each of two or more variables then it is proportional to the product of those variables 0 Quantity Algebra A way to use conversion factors to fine the final answer 0 Given Quantity the values or value that the problem gives you 0 Wanted quantity the unit you are trying to solve for 0 Conversion factor using a direct proportionality in a quantity algebra problem solving procedure and is expressed in a fraction form Lesson 2 0 Ratio The value of the partial quantity divide by the value of the whole quantity 0 Percentage no associated with a specific number 0 Percent reference a specific number 0 PPM parts per million 0 Ppb parts per billion 0 Weight measure of the attractive force it experiences in a gravitation field 0 Mass measure of resistance to change in a state of motion 0 Kilogram standard unit of mass in metric system 0 Gram base unit of kilogram g 0 Meter distance that light travels in a vacuum 0 Measuring volume determine the height width and length and then using the correct formula to find the space than an object takes up Lesson 3 0 Hypothesis proposed explanation for a pattern found in nature 0 Unobservable Casual Entity refers to invisibility of an entity that is the underlying cause of something or some pattern in nature that is known or inferred to exist 0 Experiment purposeful manipulation of the natural world that wants to test a specific hypothesis 0 Law statement that summarizes the pattern found in nature 0 Mercury Barometer measure the atmospheric pressure 0 Kinetic Molecular Hypothesis matter is composed of miniscule particles that are in constant motion 0 Extrapolate To extend beyond the range of the data 0 Charles Law as volume increases temperature increases and as volume decreases temperature decreases as long as the pressure remains constant 0 Theory a hypothesis that is found to explain broad group of related events 0 Force push or pull on an object 0 Pressure the force per unit of area 0 Casual hypothesis a proposed explanation for a pattern detected by nature 0 Boyle s Law As the volume increases pressure decreases and as the volume decreases pressure increases as long as the temperature remains constant Lesson 4 0 Precision reproducibility of the results 0 Accuracy a measure of closeness to the correct value 0 Signi cant gure convention universally agreed upon custom about expressing the accuracy of measured quantities 0 Uncertain Number last digit in a number 0 Rounded off a way to correctly represent the uncertainty of the measurement that they are based on 0 Calibration Testing a measure device with a known standard 0 Absolute terms the amount of one thing weighs is exactly the same as the same amount of another thing 0 USCS the United States Customary system used for measurement 0 Quantitative problems those problems involving quantities calculators are usually used when solving these types of problems 0 Algorithm step by step procedure to solve a problem 0 True problem no algorithm can be applied Lesson 5 0 Petrochemical substances that is made from petroleum or other close related substances 0 Petroleum one source which forms petrochemical 0 Matter describes physical materials in general 0 Liquid form takes the shape of a container fairly constant volume over temperature ranges Indefinite shape definite volume 0 Properties something matter has which helps categorize it 0 Solid constant shape constant volume 0 Gas variable shap and volume Water a clear colorless odorless tasteless substance found almost everywhere on earth essentially to life support Petrochemical era the period of time in which petrochemical are used to manufacture products that are central to all aspects of life Generally agreed to have started in the 1940 s and is accelerating and continuing today Mixture sample of matter that is made of two or more pure substances who properties depend on amount of parts Pure substance one kind of matter with distinct and unique physical and chemical properties Compound a pure substances that can be broken down into two or more pure substances by a chemical change Physical properties measure and detectable by senses Physical change new form of the same substances Chemical properties list of chemical changes possible Chemical change old substances destroyed new substance formed Homogeneous uniform appearance and composition throughout Heterogeneous visibly different phases andor different composition in a sample of matter Distillation process of separating the components of a mixture based on boiling points and collecting the gas components that end up separated Cracking reaction of a substances is transformed or cracked into another Lesson 6 Law of Conservation of Mass the mass of the reactants in a chemical change is equal to the mass of the products Law of definite proportions the percent by mass of each of the elements that make up a compound is definite fixed or invariant Law of multiple proportions when the same two elements can combine to form more than one compound the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other are in a ratio of small whole numbers Molecule the smallest piece of a substances that retains the identity of that substance Atomic Theory provide support for and intertwines with the kinetic molecular theory Symbols of element the letter representation of the elements in the periodic table Relative atomic mass scientists use a relative scale to express the weight of atoms Daltons Da used by biochemists for relative atomic mass Atomic mass units u used by scientists who investigate the physics of chemistry Lesson 7 Law of Combining Volumes volume ratio in which gases reacted were always a ratio of small whole numbers Avogadro s hypothesis equal volumes of gasses contain equal number of molecules Insulators dont carry current except under extremem conditions Plum pudding model atom was made up of large sphere of positive charge that contained many small negatively charged particles as needed to have the total charge of the atom be zero Electrons negatively charged particles Oil drop experiment pair of electrically charged plates to provide uniform electric field oil drop fell into space between plates rose and fell based on electrical potential Planetary Model of the Atom idea that electrons orbited the nucleus like planets Lesson 8 Proton the first subatomic particle has a positive charge Neutron a neutrally charged subatomic particle Atomic Number the number of protons that an element has Z Isotope atoms of the same element that have different masses different number of neutrons Mass Number A total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus Nuclear Symbol the way an isotope is represented 0 Atomic mass units u recognized unit that the masses of atoms are expressed in 0 Atomic mass of an element average mass of all atoms of that element as they occur in nature 0 Periodic Table elements with similar properties are in the same column or row 0 Periods horizontal rows 0 Groupschemical families vertical columns Lesson 9 Molecule the number of atoms of the element in the smallest particles of the substances Compounds made of atoms or ions of different elements Metalloids semiconductors that border the stair step line on a periodic table Binary Molecular Compounds compounds formed by two molecules or a metalloid an a nonmetal Ions when an atom gains or loses one or more electrons Cations Atoms loses and electron and remains with a positive charge Anion when there is a gain of an electron and the element has a negative charge Ionic Compounds attraction of oppositely charged particles that cause a compound to stick together metal ionnonmetal ion Monatomic anions named with element modified with ide and followed by ion Transition Metal Ions have the charge written in roman numerals following the name and then followed with ion Acid molecular compound that reacts with water to yield a hydrogen ion and an ion 0 Oxoacid Acid that contained a hydrogen a nonmetal and oxygen that has all of the


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