Exam 1 Review
Exam 1 Review CRJS 316
Popular in Juvenile delinquency
Popular in Criminal Justice
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Takyra Thompson on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CRJS 316 at Old Dominion University taught by Dr. Chappell in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 274 views. For similar materials see Juvenile delinquency in Criminal Justice at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Juvenile Delinquency Exam 1 Review Sheet Chapter 1 Children in povertyeffects of The US has the worst poverty rate 22 children are in poverty level Consists of racial minority living in South Urban areas parents with low education Risk Factors 0 Familysingleteen parents broken homes 0 Povertycognitive education social health emotionalmental problems 0 Health nutrition Victimization Juvenile delinquentstatus offenderat risk youthchronic offender Juvenile Delinquencyparticipation in illegal behavior by a minor who falls under statutory age limit Status Offendersconduct that is illegal only because the child is underage Atrisk Youthsyoung people who are extremely vulnerable to the negative consequences of school failure substance abuse and early sexuality Chronic Offenderyouths who have been arrested four or more times during their minority and perpetuate a striking majority of serious criminal acts Development of childhood 350 years ago treating children as children was new thing Before that they were treated as little adults 0 High mortality rate 0 Workdiscipline o Marriages were economic arrangements 0 Punishmentdeath penalty After changes in family structure 0 laws to controlprotect children 0 urbanizationindustrialization 0 child saving movement 0 state intervention 0 mandatory education Child savers they were formed to assist children 0 created programs to service needy children and lobbied for separate legal staus for children 0 lead to formation of juvenile justice system Parens patriae o The power of the state act on behalf of the child and provide care and protection equivalent to that of a parent Status offense reform 0 Family court systemsseparate neglectedstatusdelinquent youth 0 Due process changes 0 Federal involvement Establishmentphilosophy of juvenile court 0 Parens patriae helped establish the juvenile courts 0 Rehabilitationtreatmenthelp juveniles understand their actions and help them not do it again 0 Less culpablenot blaming them for their actions Looking more into their lives to help understand their actions 0 Focus of offender 0 Simple closed process 0 Separate from adultskeep harsh and unfair treatment from the youth Travion Blount 0 He is a 15 year old who robbed a party with two older members and did not murder or hurt anyone But they collected money and marijuana form more than a dozen people without shooting or harming anyone besides one person who was hit by the other member 0 The other members got 10 and 13 years but Travion got more than life in prison 0 Was guilty of 49 counts and received 118 years Chapter 2 Prison State video 0 This video was about 4 different individuals who were chronic offenders o The point of this video was to understand that there are factors that lead to someone becoming a criminal and a chronic offender o All of the individuals where from the same area in Kentucky The area was a bad place and lead to criminal behaviors 0 An example of mental disabilitiesproblems can lead to criminal acts 0 There was a guy who had bipolar disorder and schizophrenia and he committed criminal acts because he was on an off his meds whenever he got released from jail 0 An example that life activity can also have people becoming criminals o A guy was in a war and he developed prost traumatic stress disorder and maybe more He started to do drugs and committing crimes because he did not receive the proper care after his service 0 An example that having no family support can affect an juvenile o A young girl lost her mother at a young age Not knowing how to deal and with no real family support but an aunt the young girl became angry and did not show respect to other With that she started to ght and disrespect her aunt to the point that she is up in a juvenile home 0 An example that environment and behavior can lead to a juvenile in jail o A young girl had ADHD and bipolar disorder Being that she lived in a bad area she did what she wanted and did not attend school This lead her to become a chronic offender and in the juvenile system Also her state of mind did not help her predicament She was suicidal which tells that she was not happy with herself and where she was in life Juvenile crimearrest statistics 0 There were 147 million total arrest of juveniles in 2011 0 Of that 6800 where violent which includes 840 homicides 0 There were 33500 arrests that were property arrest 0 Total delinquency down 31 since 2007 and 11 since 2010 0 Most common offenses o Truancy alcoholmarijuana use fake id shopliftinglarceny simple assault damaging property UCR problems and characteristics 0 Problems with the UCR 0 Not all crimes are reported 0 Police manipulate crimes 0 Bias of where the police go Selfreportvictimization surveys Dark figure of crime 0 Dark gure of crimeunreported crimes that go unseen and unheard 0 SelfReported Data asks adolescences to describe in detail their recent and lifetime participation in criminal activity 0 Given in groups and the respondents are promised anonymity in order to ensure validity and honesty 0 Local surveys 0 National Crime Victimization Survey NCVS o NCVSa comprehensive nationwide survey of victimization in the United States conducted annually by the USS Census Bureau of the Bureau of Justice Statistics BJ S o 12 of all crimes reported 0 Data are collected from a larger national survey Crime trends predictors 0 There were predictions that crime among the young population would increase dramastically 0 That prediction have been proven wrong and youth crime have decreased over the years 0 Between 1980 and 1990 crime was at the highest and steadiness but started to decrease after 1990 Correlates of delinquency Gender race class age 0 Gender it has been proven that males preform more property and violent crimes than females 0 Females are more likely to become runaways than males 0 Race Minority youths are arrested for serious criminal behavior at a rate that is disproportionate to their representation in the population 0 African American youths are more likely to be formally arrested by police but do admit to more offending than Caucasian youths o Racial Threat Theory as the size of the African American population increases the amount of social control imposed against African American by police grows proportionately o Racial Profiling Arresting an individual because they look and sound a certain way For example African American 0 Class Report has shown that kids in all levels of society and in all social classes commit crime 0 Recently serious crimes have increased in lower class areas 0 Communitylevel indicators of poverty and disorder deteriorated neighborhoods lack of informal social control income inequality presence of young gangs and resource deprivation are associated with the most serious violent crimes 0 Age It is a fact that in most cases as people age the likelihood of them committing crime declines 0 Statistics show that around ages 18 and 20 crime within each individuals decline Aging Out Process 0 Persistent Career Criminal someone in uenced by a number of personal and environmental factors 0 Some may change criminal behavior due to Facing their future The ability to resist the quick x tot their problem Increased level of responsibility Personalities changes Become more aware of the risks that accompany crime Changes in human biology OOOOOO Age of onsetdesistance 0 Age of Onset the age at which youths begin their delinquent behaviors has an important effect on length of criminal behavior developmental view of delinquency Wolfgang s study 0 Juvenile victimization o Victimization the number of people who are victims of criminal acts 0 Youths are 15 times more likely than older adults to be victims of crimes 0 National Crime Victimization Survey 0 Teens are 15 times as likely to becomes victims than their grandparents 0 Male African Americans more likely to become victims to violent crimes than females Chapter 3 National Research Council individual characteristics and crime 0 National Research Council NRC is the working arm of the United States National Academies which produces reports that shape policies inform public opinion and advance the pursuit of since engineering and medicine Atavism and Feeblemindedness Lombroso and Goring Choice theory 0 Choice Theory holds that youths will engage in delinquent and criminal behavior after weighing the consequences and benefits of their actions 0 Delinquent behavior is a rational choice made by aa motivated offender who perceives that the chances of gain outweigh any possible punishment or loss 0 Even if they join a gang steal cars or sell drugs their acts are motivated Generalspecific deterrence 0 General Deterrence crime control policies that depend on the fear of criminal penalties such as long prison sentences for violent crimes 0 Aim to convince law violators that the pain outweighs the benefit of criminal activity 0 Swift severe certain 0 Speci c Deterrence sending convicted offenders to secure incarceration facilities so that punishment is severe enough to convince them not to repeat their criminal activity Biosocial biochemical neurological genetic o Biosocial Theory the view that both thought and behavior have biological and social bases 0 Includes makeup environmental conditions and antisocial behaviors o Biosocial problems lead to social problems which make youth vulnerable to crime activity 0 Three types 0 Biochemicalfetal alcohol syndrome I Dietbody chemistry better foods better behavior I Hormones antisocial behaviors anxiety and moods 0 Better feelingmood better behavior 0 Neurologicallearning disabilities and brain injuries I Minimal Brain DysfunctionMBD damage to the brain itself that causes antisocial behavior injurious to the individual s lifestyle and social adjustment I ADHD 0 Genetic I Parental Deviance CambridgeSomerville youth survey I Twin Studiesidentical criminal behaviors I Adoption Studiesinherited delinquent behavior CambridgeSomerville youth survey 0 States that significant number of delinquent youths have criminal fathers o 37 of boys with criminal father were multiple offenders Twin and adoption studies 0 Twin Studiesif crime is an inherited trait identical twins should be quite similar in their behavior because they share common genetics 0 Similarity in their delinquency if brought up in same home might be a function of environmental in uences and not genetics 0 Adoption Studiesto know if delinquency is an inherited trait they compare behaviors of adopted children with the same biological parents 0 This is to determine if the environment or genetics in uence delinquency Psychological Psychodynamic theory personality intelligence 0 Most delinquents have poor home lives relationship problems and issue with authority 0 Psychodynamic Theory branch of psychology that holds that the human personality is controlled by unconscious mental processes developed early in childhood 0 Bipolar Disorder 0 Identity Crisis 0 Depression 0 Conduct Disorder 0 Eating Disorder 0 PersonalityStable patterns of behavior Including thoughts and emotions that distinguish a person 0 Extraversionimpulsive behavior without the ability to examine motives and behavior 0 Neuroticisma personality trait marked by unfounded anxiety tension and emotional instability o Antisocial personality a person lacking warmth exhibiting inappropriate behavior responses and unable to learn from experiences 0 Intelligence 0 Nature Theorythe view that intelligence is inherited and is a function of genetic makeup o Nurture Theorythe view that intelligence is determined by environmental stimulation and socialization Sociopathicantisocial personality 0 AntisocialSociopathic personality a person lacking warmth exhibiting inappropriate behavior responses and unable to learn from experiences 0 Antisocial youths have low levels of guilt and anxiety and persistently violate the right of others Intelligence naturenurture theory 0 Nature Theorythe view that intelligence is inherited and is a function of genetic makeup 0 Nurture Theorythe view that intelligence is determined by environmental stimulation and socialization Chapter 4 Social disorganization theory 0 Breakdown of social institutions and organizations such as school and family 0 Social Disorganizationneighborhood or area marked by culture con ict lack of cohesiveness a transient population and insufficient social organization 0 Transitional Neighborhood area undergoing a shift in population and structure usually from middleclass residential to lowclass mixed use 0 Cultural Transmissionthe process of passing on deviant transitions and delinquent values from one generation to the next 0 Social Controlthe ability of social institutions to in uence human behavior 0 Related Deprivationcondition that exists When people of wealth and poverty live in close proximity to one another 0 Gentrified the process of transforming a lowerclass area into a middleclassed enclave through property rehabilitation Concentric zonesTransition zone 0 Poverty transience heterogeneity Social learning theory four components 0 Social Learning Theorypeople learn to commit delinquent acts through exposure to others Who hold deviant values and engage in deviant behaviors 0 Differential Associationasserts that criminal behavior is learned primarily in interpersonal groups and that youths Will become delinquent if de nitions they learn in those groups that are favorable to violating the law exceed definitions favorable to obeying the law 0 Definitions 0 Differential Reinforcement o Imitation Social bond theory four components 0 Social Bond Theoryties a person to the institutions and processed of society elements of the bond includes 0 Attachmentattachment to parents peers and schools 0 Commitmentcommitment to the pursuit of conventional activities such as getting an education and saving for the future 0 Beliefbelief in values such as sensitivity to the rights of others and respect for the legal code 0 Involvementinvolvement in conventional activities such as school sports and religion Labeling theory 0 Labeling Theoryposits that society created deviance though a system of social agencies that designate certain individuals as delinquent thereby stigmatizing them and encouraging them to accept this negative personal identity Stigma Selffulfilling prophecy 0 Deviant behavior patterns that are a response to an earlier labeling experience youths act out these social roles even if they were false bestowed Primary and secondary deviance 0 Primary Deviance the rst stage in a theory of deviant identity formation 0 Engaging in the initial act of deviance 0 Secondary Deviancestage in a theory of deviant identity formations that which one internalizes a deviant identity by integrating it into their selfconcept
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