Sociology 1101 Midterm 1 Study Guide
Sociology 1101 Midterm 1 Study Guide Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology)
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Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology)
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Isabella Bowling on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology) at Ohio State University taught by Steven Lopez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 1535 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Sociology 1101 Dr Lopez Midterm Study G u Id e Important People Important Concept Key Term Chapter 1 The Sociological Imagination An Introduction The Basics the study of human society literally quotmaking the familiar strange The ability to see the connections between our personal experience and the larger forces of history Asks ourselves to take what we think to be natural and see that it isn t eg Why do we go to college The larger narrative that connects the students professors alumnae and all other participants and goers through the experience of being present Sociologists 17981875 quotSocial physics and positivism a philosophical system that holds that every rationally justifiable assertion can be scientifically verified or is capable of logical or mathematical proof and that therefore rejects the need for a religious system we can decide right and wrong without reference to higher powers or other religious concepts Comte believed it was the job of every sociologist to develop this kind of morality 3 Epistemological stages how human knowledge develops 1 stage relied on religious references such as the Bible to explain why things were the way they were 2 stage Enlightenment thinkers believed people were governed by natural and biological instincts 3 stage we would develop a social physics in order to identify the scientific laws that govern human behavior Not theology or biology but PHYSICS Basically we will create mathematical and statistical equations and theorems to explain behavior 1802 1876 quotone of the earliest feminist social scientists touched on parenting relationship between state and federal gov and marriage how it is based on the assumption of the inferiority of women Founding fathers of the sociological discipline 1973 The Saints and the Roughnecks Observational study of two groups of white teens one uppermiddle class Saints and one working class Roughnecks Question Selfimage related to delinquency Answer Both equally delinquent through field observation Saints drink more not arrested as much and they committed crimes for quotfunquot Rough necks fight more committed crimes for money arrested more often Why one viewed as good and other as bad by the community Saints could hide their crime because they were less visible could drive cars and be out of sight Roughnecks were much more visible Saints had much more exposure to know how to interact with police apologetic they had more connections to the community Saints had more their parents were upstanding members of the community people who you don t want to cause problems with because they could cause problems for you How are rules applied across the board to everyone Institutional data At this school the saints had elaborate schemes to always be counted present makes them look like saints Chambliss recreated the data and made it much more accurate It s important to understand HOW the data is collected always be skeptical Another myth to recognize The wealthiest members of our society are better than the rest of us or worst of us Reason Just because they re successful it doesn t mean anything in regard to moral practices or personality In this experiment the thing to recognize also is that the crimes were different it was how the authority treated them that was different Chapter 2 lethods Sociology as Science A set oWHODS and data sources allowing systematic observations of the social world 1 Field observation including participant observation have to be sure to not make generalizations by repeating them ndepth interviews Archives of historical documents and public records Surveys Content analyses eg of media reports recognizing different patterns and other things to distinguish and interpret what kind of messagesbiases it may contain 6 Experiments slightly more rare but possible Participant Observation Aims to uncover the meanings people give to their own social actions and the actions of others by observing their behavior in practice in contrast to just asking them the movement of higherincome individuals into oncedistressed innercity neighborhoods This method helps the researcher to observe what a participant is actually thinkingfeelingdoing rather than what they would like to think they thinkfeeldo Costs lots of TIME and MONEY nterviews One common form to gather qualitative data Just ask the participants Allow an openended interview to allow participants to go off into tangents and gain true insight and observations quick easy survey given to a small subgroup aka longitudinal study tracks the same individuals over time Historica Methods collect data from written reports newspaper articles journals transcripts television programs diaries artwork etc a researcher compares two or more entities with the intent of learning more about the factors that differ between them systematic analysis of written or recorded material 91quot Hypothesis in sociology a proposed relationship between two variables usually with a stated direction the process of assigning a precise method for measuring a term that s being studied With each hypothesis there is an Ex Hypothesis The lower the educational level of the parents the greater the chance that their children will be poor as adults Alternative hypothesis There is a positive relationship between parental education and children s likelihood of living in poverty as adults procedure measures what you intend it to how likely you are to obtain the same result using the same measure the extent to which we can claim our findings inform us about a larger group Research methods the tools we use to describe explore and explain various social phenomena yes it s all lowercase on purpose sociologist that connected social media with faceto face methods in order to determine relationships and biases that her subjects had Combined the qualitative and quantitative seek to obtain info that is already in or can be converted to numeric form Uses statistical analysis to describe the social world that the data represent eg surveys can t be readily converted to numbers used to document meanings behind actions or to describe the mechanisms by which a social process occurs eg interviews starts with theory forms hypothesis observes analyze concludes starts with observation then works to form a theory attempts to predict how certain social institutions tend to function not explaining ALL of society nor explaining a microculture Just how general social institutions work Most sociologists tend to use this type of viewpoint in their work Role of Researcher analyzing and critically considering the quotwhite coat effects you may be inspiring within your research process Meaning how you are influencing your research subjects to behave usually they will behave in ways better to their normal behavior simply because they know they are being observed by you Show respect to your subjects but remain as objective as possible try not to interfere with the subjects lives and behaviors but merely remain as an observer and reporter Put aside personal bias and strive for neutrality Feminist Methodology Not necessarily different in method but seek to recognize patterns in historical data considering the following three things 1 Treat women s experiences as legitimate empirical and theoretical resources 2 Engage in in sociology that may in turn bring about policy change to improve women s lives 3 Take into account the researcher as much as the overt subject matter aka take all subjects seriously Correlation v Causality aka association quottend to two things vary together causes change in one thing causes another to change To establish you much have 1 Correlation 2 Time order consistent forever or just for now 3 Ruling out alternative explanations b is actually causing quotaquot You have to watch out for this in explaining things because oftentimes it can seem that quotaquot is causing quotbquot but the opposite is actually occurring Variabe Types variable the outcome you are trying to explain variable the measured factors believed to have a causal impact on the dependent variable Related to Research Concepts and theories our stock of knowledge about the social world 1 are unified explanations using scientific concepts to make sense of a variety of observed facts Not the same as hypothesis a falsifiable testable guess to explain something 2 The purpose of systematic observation in science is to BUILD CONCEPTS and to REFUTE or SUPPORT theories Not categorize them as quotcorrectquot only support them A set of VALUES that guide scientific activity 1 Claims are evaluated on the basis of impersonal criteria agreedupon words of evidence It s subjective 2 Share findings with everyone Benefits available to everyone it s not supposed to be a commercial enterprise Should be fueled by curiosity not by whether or not you can make profit 3 Value Neutrality Science should not be pursued to support a pre existing ideology Open to being surprised and challenged by new evidence Not cherry picking examples to support your beliefs 4 Science produces knowledge but not Truth There s never a final judgment or an absolute certainty no matter how well established Nothing is too sacred to be questioned Be your own most demanding critic Always trying to find flaws in the evidence presented keeps everyone honest Ethics of social research 1 Do no harm 2 Informed consent participants must know what the research being conducted entails and the requirementsexpectations that must be met by them 3 Voluntary participation participants can t be coerced into participating Paradigms in Science quota broad unit of consensus it unites a lot of fields A set of guiding assumptions about the world that tells scientists what to study and what not where to look and where not for problems of interest and what to expect eg General relativity and quantum mechanics in physics plate tectonics in geology They re broadly accepted theories Sociology has competing paradigms in which coherent research programs focus on different sometimes immeasurable aspects of social reality There is no single paradigm that crushed all other opposition Each paradigms has its own active and competitive research THREE MAJOR THEORIES OF SOCIOLOGY How is social order possible given the tremendous tensions of modern life Where do all of these rules come from Why not anarchy Why variability in cultures Three partial answers 1 Societies are a lot like organisms they are coherent wholes made up of many individual parts In healthy societies social structures function together harmoniously eg family 9 school economy BUT in societies order and harmony require a feeling of belonging to something larger than yourself A nonrational attachment main reason why people follow rules Main reason why people pass up the opportunity to selfadvance at the expense of others even when you can get away with it unnoticed Complex modern societies rely on two kinds of solidarity cooperation a an old type rooted in our perceived similarities with other members of society Tribal societies we all belong to the same neighborhood all buckeyes nationalism etc b a new kind based on the specialized roles we play in a complex division of labor Project group everyone contributes to see group success team sports families etc Manifest vs Latent functions of a society added later after Durkheim a stated outright more official eg universities provide an education to students that will give them legitimate knowledge so they can contribute to society provide a place for research and discovery etc b not the official purposes more hidden eg universities provide students a social outlet to practice being adults reduces competition ofjobs in the labor force reduces unemployment finding lifepartners etc conflict arises as societies don t work harmoniously sociologists should find the conflicts and recommend how to improve Durkheim argued that we still needed regulatory structures to deal with dysfunctions and to prevent them 2 is a big proponent of this theory Rejects the idea that societies are basically harmonious emphasizes the role of power struggles amongbetween important social groups eg men and women religious racialethical groups contending social classes etc Which groups benefit from a given structure Functional people apart of the groupsocietythe whole conflict theory whichever social group has the power ndustriaism in the conflict theory is CENTRAL to the society the conflict is what fuels the society and is a necessary dynamic It s not always bad to have conflict it drives social change an inherent part of social progress Functionaism doesn t acknowledge the huge social movements in relation to why they occur and what they lead to but conflict theoryjustifies it as necessary and makes the social movements central 3 is a big proponent of this theory If a quotsocial structure quotpartsquot and their relationships to each other the quotpartsquot aren t just things like bricks they are that people play There are microlevel interactions between individuals that affect society as a whole Directs our attention to this interactive roleplaying that makes up everyday life how people s individual decisions and personalities create those social institutions mentioned in the other views above People play MANY different roles that can be brought out in different situations Social institutions like the state do not exist outside us but rather are created and recreated in the daily microlevel enactment of social rules They exist because we think they do We enforce the roles given through interaction with each other signals of approval interest disinterest etc States corporations armies etc these structures have to be They are ideas that have to be lived out and practiced over and over by individuals with communication and help and approval from other individuals Chapter 3 Culture and Media Social Behavior in Human Society the subject matter for sociology quotA group of interacting individuals sharing the same territory and participating in a common social structure Individuals are not isolated we live in a web of rules formal or informal they are real and matter Much of sociology is finding what rules are unofficial and how they differ from formal and how they differ culture to culture of rules ostracism shunning loss of respect jail loss of friends etc of rules results in good grades friends respect money love houses etc Human behavior is shaped by social rules and structures To think sociologically is to be aware of relationship between our individual lives and the wider society Culture a set of beliefs traditions and practices the sum of social categories and concepts we embrace in addition to beliefs learned behaviors and practices everything but the natural environment around us It influences the way people live and behave the sense of takenforgranted superiority in the context of cultural practices and attitudes Basically believing one culture is bettersuperior to another It s important that sociologists AVOID this when studying cultures and societies includes values beliefs behaviors and social norms most abstract form of nonmaterial culture it s a system of concepts and relationship indicates an understanding of cause and effect Ex Why not use firstclass toilets if you have coach tickets There are expectations that come with buying the coach ticket and if these quotrulesquot aren t followed or expectations not met the whole systemstratification of the system would break down 4 Elements of nonmaterial culture 1 shared rules that prescribe behavior that is appropriate in a given situation for specific people People follow rules not mainly because of fear but because of socialization and the desire to achieve social acceptance a ordinary convention of everyday life nonconsequential mayjust be odd ex talking too close types of clothes you wear etc stronger norms w moral significance ex swearing cheating etc formally enforced norms that hold strong moral significance ex don t murder steal etc or you will have quotxquot as a consequence 2 shared ideas about what is right desirable good a They are abstract general concepts rather than specific behavioral norms b Values integrate a number of norms into a coherent idea Expressed in symbols flags buttons storiesfables legends codes of ethics d Vary person to person or within a person so they may conflict ex freedom and security we want freedom to do whatever we want but we also want the security of formal laws protections and rights 3 a Each language describes the cultural activities of a society b Helps us quotseequot or understand our cultural practices If it has many words for one thing it s probably important c Language can also distort and inhibit ex used to marginalize others d Same words mean different things according to the culture present in that population ex In the US we refer to the material that covers our legs pants but in Britain pants are called trousers and women s underwear are called pants so the word means something else b 4 a Reenact basic values of society help recall collective meanings and values b Highlight the key events of life ex marriage birth religious events etc the notion that the shared meanings of nonmaterial have eroded ex red lights don t always mean stop everything that is part of our constructed physical environment including technology Ex tools wheels clothing schools factories buildings cities art etc material and nonmaterial culture that is out of sync ex privacy norms with the internet we really don t have privacy but we still continue to believe in privacy material culture artplayrecreation language and nonverbal communication social and economic organization social controlnorms conflictwar education belief systemsreligious ritual not necessarily supernatural just held sacred ex catholic mass vs football game groups united by a set of concepts values symbols and shared meaning specific to member of that group Can be difficult to identify often marginalizing oppositional to the main culture ex goths because they reject some of values of the larger culture Studying culture founded the first PhD program in anthropology at Columbia University 1930s Coined the term taking into account the differences across cultures without passing judgement or assigning value Where do we draw the line though of not passing judgement 1928 Samoan women and casual sex study found that it s more acceptable for Samoan women to have casual sex before marriage Fueled feminist movements in the US She introduced the idea of modes of behavior and understanding that are not universal or natural in mentioning how we shape our notions of gender Focused on understanding the significance of events and pastimes for local people can give us a better understanding of their lives The pastimes show us what s important to the culture they can be representative of culture cock fights represent Bhali and baseball represents US Reflection Theory Culture is a projection of social structures and relationships into the public sphere a screen onto which the film of underlying reality or social structures of our society is shown Culture is transmittedreinforced with socialization among other processes Rejected largely because it s basically claims that culture has no impact on society that it s merely a reflection But through deeper insight and study we realize that society and culture are like two mirrors facing each other in that they both reflect and make up one another Media Any formats or vehicles that carry present or communicate information including newspapers books magazines sky writing web pages etc History of the media Beginning with town crier and word of mouth to print press to books and newspapersto moving picturesilent filmto radioto tv and moviesto the internet Italian political theoristactivist 1900s and a marxist quotPrison notebooks because he wrote about society and his findings while in prison Coined the term which quotrefers to a historical process in which a dominant group exercises moral and intellectual leadership throughout society by winning the voluntary consent of popular masses Basically getting people to go along with what you want because it seems like the best course of action Takes place in private institutions During the 1960s and 70s they focused on how people read and interpreted texts such as soap operas newspapers etc We are NOTjust passive receptors of media Power and influence and bias have a huge effect on what even is considered news using politics to gain money or economic advantages The media is very monopolized here in the US we currently have 6 companies that control more than 90 of the media Does this leave the media censored Or is it keeping us safe the steady acquisition of material possessions often with the belief that happiness and fulfillment can thus be achieved Shopping has become the American duty the act of turning media against themselves Perspectives in Regard to Media Functionaist Perspective Manifest open functions entertainment keeping the public informed conferring status celebrating and making someone known and selling productsservices Latent less obvious functions creates a unified culture used as an agent of socialization and enforces social norms Competition for ratings entertainment appeals to the lowest common denominator Giving them what they want to see not just educational Media concentration on noneducational things and the pressure on TV news channels and divisions to make money attract advertisers nternet has disrupted the business model of print journalism Audience fragmentation lack of shared experiencenarrative as a culture Separation of networks and we can t agree on basic facts of a story But note that it s not all bad more high quality niche programming than ever more targeted Rise of the blogs good information from real experts is more available than ever before Puts a premium on the ability of an educated public to be able to tell what information is real though Conflict Perspective Mass media reflects basic divisions conflicts and power struggles in society Media is an arena through which social groups vie for power and it s a vehicle for powerful groups to impose their views upon viewers what are we talking about today What are we focusing on Groups with power control what we see and hear through media and direct our focuses Which voices and viewpoints are heard What are the boundaries of respectable opinion The media attempts to shape perspectives See Spheres of Legitimacy by Daniel C Hallin google Hallin s spheres say media defines what the quotgeneral consensus is quotlegitimate controversy and what is deviant to the consensus without a quotwhyquot explanation Reflects the interests of opposing powerful groups Ex f Democrats are in power something that Republicans do can be portrayed as quotlegitimate controversy if it s within quotreasonable limits of conflict as defined by the Democrats But if the Republicans dowant something that seems to quotconflict with our very morals as a society it can be made to look quotdeviantquot by the media deoogica Hegemony presenting the interests of powerful groups as the interests of all or as natural the way the world is ex subtle messages about the world in ads and programming Ex Honda Motors quothate something change something Identifying a specific problem pollution then give them a solution buy our new better diesel engines both viewssides in the media have some biases against liberals AND conservatives because the mass media wants to sell stuff they will do whatever it takes while avoiding offending parent corporations advertisers and powerful organized interest groups Focuses on interactions facetoface encounters symbols and meanings and interpretations of social situations Appicable to traditional mass media especially applicable to analyses of new social media Treat media as not just viewed as a way to get informationideological messages spread So they represent the society Frames metaphors myths symbols and images can be analyzed to understand this cultural system We can learn more about our culture and our inner strugglesconflictions with how we present topics from many different perspectives Chapter 4 Socialization and the Construction of Reality Socialization quotthe process through which individuals internalize the values beliefs and norms of a society and learn to function as its member Achieves two things 1 Producing an Identitypersonality 2 Reproduce a particular culture and society You know all of the things you should and shouldn t do because you were socialized developed a way to test if a computer can act as a human If the subject can t tell the difference in conversation with a human from the computer the computer passesbut most don t pass for long Adding in facial expressions body language and other nonverbal communication cues in addition to verbal communication causes the artificial intelligence to fail Limits Both and neither Just help us understand our social world We re not a blank slate at birth and we have innate qualities BUT experience also can shape our social skills Ex body tells you that you need to pee but socialization tells you when and where to do so Theories aka developing the self as our ability to assume the point of view of others and thereby imagine how they see us develops 1930 Stages of Self helps us understand HOW we learn to see ourselves as others see us Infant s only know the I then learn the me then eventually develop a sense of other someone outside themselves socialization gets us up to this point The other half aka generalized other which represents an internalized sense of the total expectations of others in a variety of settings develops as we live and gather new information as an individual Stages of Self Mead 1 imitation usually copying parents and play by themselves 2 role taking understanding that each person has their own role that they have to play that is different from their own 3 can cope with the existence of multiple roles in the same setting changing into different roles to work in a group to accomplish a goal Ful socialization quotThe generalized other has fully developed meaning that children are able to imagine what they look like to other people Presentation of Self Dramaturgical approach we re all actors on the stage of our life in different role contexts is manipulating how others see us The more complex the society the more complex our livesroles can be The roles ARE who we are there s nothing underneath You have to pretend to know what you re doing in the role refers to the work of having to recover from a slip up in your role so how do you recover Using comedy Apologies Cooley self as a reflection of other s behavior Mean selfachieved in stages by active role taking Goffman we work on ourselves constantly by engaging in impression management Agents of Socialization children gain experience and socialization through their families 2008 showed that members of Congress who had daughters were more likely to vote for feminist measures Previously the children were taught almost everything by their parents but now in the school they are taught more about technology and advancements more than their parents could show them Twoway street of socialism middleclass makes their children become more structured with higher aspirations more work less free time while lowerclass parents rely on natural growth as the child fills the free time with whatever they please So the lowerclass children tend to not be able to reach goals they desire because they don t have the developed skills or connections from their parents children s new locus of socialization becomes peers and teachers the new reference group Prepschools at private institutions allow for social networks with wealthier people and may give access and benefit for the rest of their lives many adolescents spend a great deal of their time with others these others reinforce taught rules from home and conformity is generally expected peer pressure Look to peers for advice rather than parents but know that it may not be as nearly as reliable How does it impact us Affecting us negatively or positively ex Sesame Street Still up for debate on how it influences socialization ex College army prison An institution that controls all the basics of daytoday life such as eating sleeping bathing etc the things we learn as adults during activities such as jobs can be critical if you go through major changes such as moving to a new country suffering huge memory loss andor changing schools preparing to resocialize in order to prepare for a new change Social Interaction developed Midrange theory chapter 1 the We revert to deviance in order to achieve cultural goals because our status set is too complexdifficult to get us to the goal Needtoknow vocabulary a recognizable social position that an individual occupies ascribed status what you were born with achieved status what you becomeobtain the duties and behaviors associated with a particular status the incompatibility among roles corresponding to a single status the tensions felt by an individual who is filling two or more roles that conflict refers to all the statuses you have given at any time the one status that stands out andor overrides all the others the reason people interact with you mainly Groups and Networks Every social group has a network structure People within the group can be represented as quotnodesquot and the connections between them as quottiesquot As you add nodes the complexity of the group increases Weak ties can bring two social networks together by the the persons connecting the groups See Chapter 5 for more info sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one s status as male or female Some sociologists argue that gender roles don t effectively capture the entire status of a person even though the extreme confidence that sex is seen as a master status in our society treat babies differently from the moment they leave the womb based on their sex studied how teens in high school reinforce gender roles Found that many students used quotFag discourse to insult other males to curtail improper behavior Studying Social Interactions Involves acting critically towards the interactions we have every day Garfinkel sent students to breach social norms to see what happened to determine the values and norms of society Ex Facing backwards in an elevator has its roots in Shakespeare but generally credited to Goffman that life is essentially a play a play with a moral of sorts Morals are based on quotimpression management We re struggling to impress our audience who also happens to be actors in our play Also it s important for us to distinguish between frontstage and backstage arenas is the esteem in which an individual is held by others hence saving face in an embarrassing situation We use to signal the start of an encounter means refraining from directly with someone even if you know them until an opening bracket has been issued signal a closing such as putting on your coat and putting your books away near the end of lecture are unconscious signals of our true feelings such as grimacing after each bite of food even though we say it s delicious The Social Construct of Reality Something is real meaningful or valuable when society tells us it is we interact with others using words and behaviors that have symbolic meanings according to the individual culture 1 Human beings act toward ideas concepts and values based on those meanings 2 These meanings are a product of social interaction 3 These meanings are modified and filtered through an interpretive process that each individual uses in dealing with outward signs Chapter S Groups and Networks Social Groups 1950 Without knowing anything about the group members individual psychology or the cultural or social context in which they are embedded aka we can make predictions about the ways people behave based on the number of people are in the group a relationship of two most intimate form of social life mutual dependence No secrets no mediator and you know who did what Inherent symmetry Pure dyad both voluntarily stay a relationship between three Holds supraindividual power meaning the group will go on if one member leaves Three basic forms of political relations that may evolve 1 person who tries to solve the conflict Ex a good friend 2 person who encourages more conflict on top of what already existed bc they benefit from it Also known as the entrepreneur Ex a marriage counselor who wants to keep the couple coming back for therapy for money 3 person who creates a wedge intentionally between the other parties Ex a child who dislikes their stepparent and wants to create a wedge between that stepparent and their biological parent if one tie between two members is weaker it is unlikely to fade away because it is so wellreinforced by the remaining two ties see quotembeddednessquot below Most interactions aren t this pure relationship between two or three there are usually other parties and people involved As groups get larger their complexity grows exponentially According to Simmel groups larger than 3 can be classifies into 3 types 1 all the members of the group at any given time are present and interact with one another There s one center of attention at any given time Lack of formal arrangement or roles Equality 2 facetoface interactions but has more than one center of attention 3 Has everything same as a party but with the presence of who is in charge and who belongs to each group that mediates interaction and leads to who is who and why 1909 emphasized a distinction in groups limited in the number of members making it an end unto itself Also they are key agents of socialization ex family Members are noninterchangeable and enduring these groups are impersonal and instrumental exists as a means to an end It s also contingent meaning you may or may not remain in the group based on your position and loyalty Roles more important than the actual individual did quotvision experiments in which a group one subject among a group of actors was shown a series of lines and told to decide which were longer than others and which were equal in length when most of the group gave incorrect answer at least 13 of the subjects expressed serious discomfort They were most confused when the whole acting group agreed upon the incorrect answer has more power and tend to be larger in number but not always become stigmatized and have less power help us understand or make sense of our position in society relative to others Social Networks Dyads triads and groups make up social networks that are held together by ties A tie is the content of a particular relationship aka the story of the relationship Ties can be one layer or having many layers A is the sum of stories contained in a set of ties the degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths within a social network The more indirect paths you make to somebody the stronger the relationship The more friends of friend A you know the stronger the relationship with the friend A will be 1973 contradicts embeddedness with the referring to the relatively weak ties that turn out to be quite valuable bc they bring information Usually very helpful in job searches Weak ties can bridge the the gap between two disconnected social groups between two network clusters 1960s sent a chain letter from Nebraska to a guy in Boston People would send the letter to someone they thought might now the man in Boston 20 of the letters made it to the guy and there were no more than five people between any set of strangers set up a similar experiment but using an email and statistics to estimate global connectedness Found that Milgram was not quite right Not everyone is connected to everyone else but at least half the people in the world are connected to each other through six steps played almost no role in determining how someone might now someone else the people who seem to know everyone the information knowledge of people or things and connections that help individuals enter preexisting networks or gain power within them More interconnecting ties deeper connections more thriving community and economy in that area Social capital is VERY important It s the reason or the explanation as to why someone with a lot of connections can use those connections to make themselves successful in terms of finding employment recommendations etc Network Analysis in Practice Teenage Sex about 50 of American teenagers over 15 have admitted to having sex Over 13 of those who hadn t were still sexually active in other way Lots of partners huge amounts of STI s in this generation The sociologists were trying to see how to best prevent the spread of STI s by determining who is in the core network so they could be targeted for prevention and awareness Four Models for the spread of STI s 1 the core group is the infected group who have contact with each other and with people outside of the group Solution persuade the core to practice safe sex when coming into contact with noncore members 2 one person fills the structural hole between the infected and unaffected population Solution try to cut the ties of the one person or persuade them to practice safe sex 3 the infected population does not have contact with one another but the core members have contact with different members of the disconnected infected population and in turn affect one another within the core group Solution none given 4 there is a main line of transmission with a few branches off the main line Solution initiate some breaks in the tree but there will be no focal point to target romantic rule don t date your ex s new flame s ex So if Sally and Ben were dating and Amanda and Kyle were dating but then the couples break up If Ben starts dating Amanda Sally and Kyle wouldn t date because it s an unofficial rule Organizations an allpurpose term to describe any social network that is defined by a common purpose and that has a boundary between its membership and the rest of the social world organizations have a set of governing structures and rules for their internal arrangements ex US Army organizations don t have the governing rules ex local fan club But this is a continuum many organizations aren t distinctly formal or informal but have a range of qualities that fit into both categories refers to the shared beliefs and behaviors within a social group Also interchangeable with corporate culture refers to how power and authority are distributed within an organization Usually affects the culture Ex Whether you re a boss or an employee will affect how you act at work and will influence the culture of the workplace The growth of large multinational corporations has affected organizational structure Now the members of corporate boards often sit on the board of directors for multiple companies this phenomenon is known as This is bad because it may lead to the biased decisions based on preferences and weak ties with other people to get benefits for themselves or the other companies they work for and cause a loss of competition a constraining process that forces one unit in a population to resemble other units that face the same set of environmental conditions meaning everything ends up similar tries to develop a sociological view of institutions opposed to say economic view and sees the network of connections among institutions as the key to how they look and behave the governing rules and decisions follow symmetry peer pressure social signaling how people socialize with one another and network laws can be official or unofficial Chapter 15 Authority and the State What is power is the ability to act even in the face of opposition emphasizes the order for people to enact collective goals People follow because of the collective goal Must have 1 Knowledge a certain definitive attractive goal 2 Resources money connections and time to make it work 3 Organization needed to successfully apply resources to problems and overcome collective action problems is quotpower over rather than quotpower to A has power over B to the extent that heshe can get B to do something he or she would not otherwise do the probability that a command with a given specific content will be obeyed by a given group of persons Two types 1 control by virtue of a position of monopoly 2 the willing obedience of the ruled to the commands of legitimate authority People let themselves be ruled because the ruler s will is also their own power relations among people and other social actors Three Strategies of Domination getting people to follow your will 1 coercion punishment Advantages fear can be very effective you can get compliance no matter how badly they want to do something else and it has been popular throughout history Disadvantages Inefficient compliance vs commitment hard to get highquality work makes people resentful creates resistance hard to apply fairly and the paradox of coercion loses legitimacy as soon as you use it t s a fine line to use fear ex mob bosses too much fear executed 2 incentive reward Advantage can be effective people often will do things for money put in an effort Disadvantage Hard to calibrate what s a good reward and the risk of perverse incentives creeping in How much can I do to just get the reward Risk learning to do something for the right reasons rather than the reward ex kids 3 Draws on people s attachments to the group If people are attached they are more likely to act on its behalf without needing rewards or punishments they WANT to do it because they believe in the group Collective rituals that help people identify with their roles and other people in the grouporganization as important too Can be most effective if they DESIRE TO BELONG to the group Advantages it can be a deeper stronger form of power and control Punishment and reward have a shallower hold on people s identities Disadvantages Rituals take time and effort and authorities have to give real responsibility and control to subordinates Types of Legitimate Authority Weber a belief that an authority has the RIGHT to give orders and have those orders obeyed Legitimate power is much stronger than illegitimate power Three types 1 sanctity of ageold traditions divine rights of kings etc the ruled are subjects over the ruler personal loyalty and obedience and rulers have traditional longpreacticed obligations to their subjects 2 authority carefully spelled out by formal rules no one is above the law the ruled are citizens with specific legal rights obedience to rules and office not to a person and loyalty is impersonal delegated to officials with technical qualifications Break the rules loss of legitimacy 3 obedience owed to the charismatic leader because of transcendent abilities followers are those who answer the call can create powerful personal loyalty most unstable form of legitimacy and it must be ROUTINIZED to survive beyond the original charismatic figure somehow the characteristics have to be preserved in the next leader Ex Dali Llama each of them are the quotreincarnationquot of the original Can become more bureaucratic kind of like Catholicism choosing the Pope State and Its Power a human community that successfully claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory The state is a threat of violence basically It s implicit that there will be consequences physical punishment if the rulesorders are not followed even though the state s authority derives from the implicit threat of physical force as soon as the state resorts to physical coercion all its legitimate authority is lost So having to resort to violence is proof that people are not listening to the state Some states cannot use their threat of punishment because the people within it fight back or against the power Sometimes happens to lead to a quotstate within a state each state is recognized as territorially sovereign by fellow states Follow the principle of noninterference n affect in Europe and Africa States must be not only recognized by their subjects but ALSO by other surrounding states The state is responsible for the welfare of its citizens Organizations that extract resources through taxation and attempt to extend coercive control and political authority over particular territories and the people within them concerned with explaining the contradictions between formal legal equality and social class inequality The welfare state is a and gives benefits for all society to keep the peace Focus is on what is a citizen s relationship to the state rights guaranteed to each lawabiding citizen in a nationstate 1 guarantee personal freedom from interference eg speech and travel 2 guarantee a person s right to participate in politics eg vote and hold office 3 guarantee protection from the state in the areas of housing employment health and education a Rights to contributory programs eg Social Security b Rights to meanstested programs eg unemployment benefits Radical Power and Persuasion suggests that power may be quotat its most effective when least observable because it may not generate any resistanceopposition Lukes the three ways power can work 1 Power is visible when agendas clash conflict results and one side prevails 2 Power is so formidable that no conflict results from competing interests because one side is convinced it s a losing battle 3 Power has manipulated the resistance so that there is no resistance because the overall preference and wills of the ruled match the will and preferences of the one with the power One way to wield invisible power is by shaping the choice set breaking down the choice into very specific choices rather than one big decision Also offering yesorno or leftorright type choices which states that there is no system of voting that will consistently yield the top choice of the most voters when there are more than two alternatives So if you give the crowd more than two options the true top choice won t be revealed because people may intentionally vote for something in order to quotmake sure another option isn t picked Ex group of friends go to movies and you have to pick between 3 movies A B and C You know the movie movie A you want to see isn t going to win and you absolutely don t want to see movie C So instead you vote for movie B It isn t your actual first choice you just picked it because you don t want the other option Power and International Relations Usualy scholars highlight the importance of aka use of military or economic influence when it comes to international policies But today because of globalization using hard power is very costly and the risk of losing valuable import and export is too risky Alternate is using aka cooperative power of attraction making your culture and ideals so appealing people or nations can t resist wrote The Leviathan says we agree to enter into a with the sovereign authority who is charged with ensuring peace by threatening death for deviant behavior in order to avoid a chaotic and violent existence EMPHASIZE STRONG GOV says that we are naturally peacefully existing people who serve as our own executive powers and punishers but we agree to submit to an authority to help settle discords over conflicts like personal property It s not so much life or death as a matter of money EMPHASIZE HANDSOFF GOV power theoretically lies in the hands of the people Citizens vote in elections speak freely and participate as equals The emergence of modern capitalism is the driver in this government type needs the working middleclass to rise and establish this government rights only to a small group or even a single individual may have limited suffrage often sensor information to public and arrange the quotdisappearancesquot of non submissive subordinates the study of the decisions actors make in situations where there is usually uncertainty and where the success depends on the strategy of others So people try and think of how they can benefit based on the actions of others In order to make transitions to democracy the ordinary people must overcome a quot which asserts that it is more difficult to collaborate in larger groups than smaller ones The people can overcome this by looking at the effort they make from the angle their small contribution is good to the collective group so you have to give up what you want It s hard to make people be altruistic A lot of times they will be more altruistic if it boosts their ego if there is no public eye they will tend to make the more selfish decision quot Direct deliberative democracy is very hard to pull off when the numbers get above a few hundred The coordination fails so ultimately an elected oligarchy will have to be chosen to rule Who Rules the US Three Branches 1 Lead by president aka head of state Enforce the rules of the state Has the authority over the military and other useful power tools 2 House of Reps and Senate Congress Create legislation that coincides with the desires of the population that is being ruled over 3 Supreme Court and lower federal courts Interpret the rules and the Constitution the governing document of the US in order to explain the laws According to the Constitution the States should hold the most power and the federal government in theory is pretty decentralized an organization that seeks to gain power in a government generally by backing candidates who subscribe as close as possible to their ideals In US two major parties are Democrats and Republicans an organization that seeks to gain power without campaigning for direct election or being appointed to office but rather using influence to make policies through the elected officials Poitica Participation in Modern Democracies any quotactivity that has the intent or effect of influencing government action eg voting marching in the streets working on a campaign etc mportant because the people inform their government their needs and preferences by political participation So no participation no voice The irony in modern democracies like the US The poor and less educated participate LESS even though they have the most to lose political orientation the strength of the person s political commitments resources include money to donate and civic skills and mobilization efforts made by the political or nonpartisan parties to get people to vote or get involved explain why people do or do not participate politically If people have strong political desires they are more likely to participate in voting If people have the money and skills they are more likely to donate to and help out in campaigns for candidates that reflect their ideals If the parties political and nonpartisan reach out and organize and recruit the population they are more likely to participate in the ways listed above and others Because of the criteria listed above usually uppermiddle class people are the most politically involved Socio Ch 14 92215 Capitalism and the Economy an economic system in which property and goods are primarily privately owned investments are determined by private decisions and prices production and the distribution of goods are determined primarily by competition in an unfettered marketplace the way people in a society are organized to produce their means of subsistence Each includes the most important economic activities and the property relations in which they take place History of Capitalism Primariy societies relied on in order to provide sustenance for their societies The productive property the communal hunting groundterritory Modes of production passed down with little to no change Next began with the development of the in Europe The productive property slaves Saves were given minimal food clothing and shelter The slaveland owners lived off the labor of the slaves who worked their lands Then the presence of lords serfs and fiefs The lord ruled over his fief land and had serfs to work the land that were tied to the land serfs could own land and weren t sold so they re not slaves The productive property the feudal estate land peasantsserfs around 1700 new farming technologies invented that directly increased food output Ex seed drilling selective breeding and crop rotation Lead to increase in population adding more people to the labor pool Fueled the quotenclosure movement 9 making farms private Finay capitalism more migration to the city encouraged the development of factory jobs for unskilled laborers 9 legal monetary system rose 9 wage labor and formation of new social institutions ex corporations a legal entity unto itself that has a legal personhood distinct of its members namely its owners and shareholders Emerged to limit the liability of investors 9 more investors willing to invest 9 more money Theorizing the Transition to Capitalism 1770 the father of liberal economics quotIndividual selfinterest in an environment of others acting similarly will lead to a situation of competition as long as basic laws and contracts are honored 9 greater efficiency Two reasons each part done more quickly and specialization of a person doing the task leads to better innovation the use of monetary exchange as payment It is better than trading bc there are set values and standards And money allows us to get change back only pay what it is worth Also money allows the ability to save efficiently And it s inherently social in that we expecthope that our money will be accepted wherever else we go Trading isn t always fair and you tend to lose more than you wanted per trade and can be a long process 1900 saw monetary payment system as the depersonalization of exchange By having money paired with the job not with the person true friendship is possible Keeping business and pleasure separate usually leads to better social experiences ncreasing levelstypes of payment payments for survival needs very personal only paid when taskitem is complete in exchange for money kind of personal get paid based on the hours you work under the system not dependent on the quality or production process paid a set amount of money for an average day and hours over the year vacation and sick days paid appropriate standard of living based on a particular grade level and amount of experience extra bonus based on services performed outside of the job eg giving a speech or presentation for the company saw capitalism as fundamentally flawed and doomed a condition in which people are dominated by forces of their own creation that then confront them as alien powers Basically people s jobssearch for success ends up ruling their lives destroys social interaction and leads to lack of appreciation for the product the process of work other people and themselves Marx considered this a basic state of being in a capitalistic society Eventualy once competition is so stiff that it no longer exists the crisis will ultimately destroy capitalism Marx believe the working class world rise against the capitalist working class and would usher in in which most or all of the needs are met through nonmarket methods of distribution basically provided by the governing state Quick to follow would be a classless society in which the means of production are shared through state ownership and in which rewards are not tied to productivity but to need believed technology and ideas generate social change For example the Protestant Reformation only a select few go to Heaven 9 people see monetary wealth as a sign of being chosen to go social movement towards capitalism and free markets to gain wealth Weber viewed capitalism as negative because it creates an we can t escape we can t enjoy life because of the obsession with money expansion and lack of satisfaction with our current state Capitalism Societies obtain commodities anything for sale from the a place ruled by private producers who meet the demands of the buyers Societies get the moneymeans to buy these commodities through quotjobsquot a voluntary agreement to sell our quotlabor power in exchange for money no one forces you directly to sell your labor to them You can choose who you work for It s voluntary There is an EQUALITY of rights between you and the bosses freedom to pick wherewho you work There is a relationship of wage workers don t own productive property so even though we don t have to sell our labor economic coercion pushes us into the labor market to avoid the consequences of not working poverty homelessness etc Changes the world because now people aren t born with defined roles and lives but can make choices and learn skills to choose where their lives go Dominant form of productive property land materials money etc when used to employ wage labor between these who buy labor power and those who sell it less powerful property less must work to live Only power is the power to withhold work eg strikes a form of multilateral power if many wage labors associate they have more power united Seeks higher wages a degree of control over work tasks pace hours etc more powerful relies on workers to live BUT can live off their accumulated wealth for a longer time than laborers if necessary Have more power because they can last longer against refusing laborers Seeks lower labor costs and control over the work process These conditions drive the need for inventing new production methods Capitalists compete with one another for markets Competition always threatens to erode profits and drive down prices to the cost of production nnovation can lead a capitalist to gain temporary advantage until competitors follow suit Incentive to expand and reinvent With each cycle of innovation capital must find evergreater markets for its products A relentless drive for technological innovation An incredible growth of productivity and therefore of wealth A rapid and unending social upheaval eg communities and companies rise and fall so quickly now with the everchanging market ndustria conflict workers defend their ways of life against the leaders attempting to change and take advantage of workers Recurring crises of overproduction it s not a stable economic condition There is a huge overturn of what is important and what s not quotBoom and Bust The concentration of capital into larger and larger units large multiunit corporations bc when there is a crisis the smaller units become absorbed by larger more successful units The dream of selfregulating market economy The quotInvisible Hand free market acts as a guide for people s decisions to meet their needs The if everyone pursues hisher own interests within competitive markets the general good will result Adam Smith 1776 is defined as quotan efficient allocation of resources an allocation of resources in which no one can be made better off without making someone worse off Competitive markets there have to be tons of producers and consumers in the market so that price isn t rules by only one groupindividual Perfect information Must have a fully informed market on the basis of price and quality so that consumers are in control Low or nonexistent transaction costs meaning it should be costess to change suppliers or employers In this view market regulation is not just unnecessary but also harmful Unfortunately we don t live in this world because we fail to meet these standards The regulatory state makes these regulations for the market because it can t selfregulate 0 Building safety regulations 0 Social legislation unemployment 0 Food and drug safety regulations insurance Social Security 0 Consumer product safety 0 Environmental regulation regulations 0 Financial regulation 0 Labor laws Recent changes in Capitalism In the US our economy is dominated mainly by the selling of services not products the more one earns the more one can afford leisure however the more one earns the more it costs to not work in terms of forgone wages leads to choosing to work over enjoying leisure Wages a wage paid to male workers sufficient to support a dependent family Implemented by Henry Ford he paid workers 5 every day they worked quot117 today Developed to keep women and children out of the workforce Feeds on gender roles and lead to the quottraditional family model 9 male bread winner female dependenthomemaker Working women in past quot39 45 pay of men today 81 Having women as a cheaper workforce gave employers the advantage over male workers because the men can t effectively strike if women will take their jobs However women make up nearly 45 of the unionized workforce Paid Leave Most other industrialized give their workers at least 10 federallymandated paid days off and huge amounts of PTO paid time off for maternity leave some places even paternity leave The US does NOT have any federallymandated paid days NOR paid maternitypaternity leave Even when offered leave people in the US usually don t take it why Work viewed as a safe haven from stress at home the accomplished feelings that come along with working AND raising a family The fear of job loss if they miss out on promotions The Service Sector the section of the economy that provides intangible services Ex restaurant work health care provision etc a set of multidimensional social processes that create multiply stretch and intensify worldwide social exchanges and interdependencies New markets allow participation for everyone New means of exchange eg computers cellphones etc allow for almost instantaneous transactions Lead to the development of thirdparty players to monitory and regulate trade and exchange and also to provide nongovernmental organizations a global expansion Also had clearly exposed the global divide between the haves and the havenots The Reign of the Corporation legally recognized as an individual and has formalized rights duties and responsibilities for each person that make up the body of the institution The stigmathey show no disregard for others can t maintain longterm relationships frequently lie and are solely driven by selfinterest making money However it is designed quotto use their resources and engage in activities designed to increase profits as long as it engages in free and open competition without deception or fraud 1970 Can lead to people forgetting the lines between right and wrong bc they become so power driven and profitdriven occurs when one seller of a goodservice dominates the market potentially leading to zero competition in the market Lack of free and open trade a few handful of sellers work together to set prices through aka coordination and affect free and open market exchanges Keep up with the market change your products and ways of production frequently nfluence policy gain political access and information in order to change policy and gain profit Lower costs of product such as Bypass environmental concerns bc it s expensive to maintain low levels of pollution properly dispose of waste andor buying ecofriendly technology Lowering labor costs moving all or part of a company s operations abroad to a nation with lower pay scales and more lenient labor laws refusing to negotiate or renew a contract of workers that band together to try and promoteprotect their collective interests as workers a band of employees who bargain on behalf of the workers to gain more rights change something etc
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