COMS 2060 Exam 1 Study Guide
COMS 2060 Exam 1 Study Guide COMS 2060
Popular in Communication in Interpersonal Relationships
Popular in Communication Studies
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Swanson on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COMS 2060 at Ohio University taught by Charee Thompson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 215 views. For similar materials see Communication in Interpersonal Relationships in Communication Studies at Ohio University.
Reviews for COMS 2060 Exam 1 Study Guide
Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Emily!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
-Ms. Pearline Friesen
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/20/15
COMS 2060 Interpersonal Communication Exam I Study Guide 6 Lecture Notes 825827 825827 Centrality 63 Characteristics of Communication Why Do We Communicate 1 To Manage an Impression a Identity needs b Ex quotMeet the Parentsquot i You wear your best clothes have good posture watch your language and the type of humor you use 2 Reduce Uncertainty a Uncertainty Reduction Theory i Asserts the notion that when interacting with others people need information about the other party in order to reduce their anxiousness b Causes anxiety 3 Relational Needs a Need to be liked b Need to belong c We are social beingscreatures 4 Physical Needs a Nonverbal touch affects our physical health b Ex Harlow39s Monkeys amp the importance of contact comfort i Studied the effects of maternal separation and social isolation of monkeys ii In uences childrearing practices and methods 5 Spiritual Needs a The need to understand what39s bigger than us b quotWhy are we herequot questions 6 Instrumental Needs a Practical and pragmatic form of communication b Helps us to do and accomplish basic tasks i Ordering coffee ii Scheduling a meeting iii Asking for directions Characteristics of Communication 1 You cannot not communicate a Nonverbal communication amp facial expressions 2 Meanings are in People a Everything is subjective b Everyone sees things differently c Meanings are not in wordsike labels i The word 39turkey39 1 It can be a food country or a triple strike in bowling Different ideas about love and relationships Meanings are all subjective Meanings are NOT in behavior Thng i Depends on punctuation and the point of emphasis 3 Communication is Filtered a Educational background b Where you are from i Ex People from Cincinnati like Skyline c How you were raised d Communication is context speci c e GenderSex i Females are commonly thought to be relationship keepers f Socioeconomic Status i Ex Comparing accents 4 Communication is Governed by Rules a Eye contact manners 39golden rule i Usually stays with you from childhood How your parents raised you b Culturally speci c 5 Communication Relies on Multiple Channels a Verbal b Nonverbal 6 Communication Relationship a Ex Going home for the summerseeing friends and family i The relationship has changed You don39t communicate everyday like you and your roommate ii Can feel like you drifted apart 7 Communication is a Tool a Can be used for good or bad i Good MLK Malala Gandhi ii Dictators cult leaders 8 Communication is Irreversible a You can t take it back 9 Communication is NOT common sense 10Communication is learned a Idioms common phrases jargon b Ex 0U speci c i Uptown Court Street Battle of the Bricks 11Communication has both content and relational meaning a Connotation vs denotation i Connotation idea feeling associated with a word ii Denotation a word39s literal meaningdictionary b Ex Two Profs giving the same lecture can be completely different c Can be positive or negative i 39Grandma39 1 Sweet old lady 2 Can be used as referring to someone who is slow 12Communication is both intentional amp unintentional a What you meantboth intentional and unintentional b How it was perceivedboth intentional and unintentional i Ex Road rage the art of gift giving Myths about Communication 1 Everyone is an expert in communication 2 More communication is always better a In relationships it can lead you to realize that you are too different and could be the end of the relationship 3 Communication will solve any problem 4 Communication is inherently good 5 Communication can break down Interpersonal Communication 1 Interpersonal Communication a Communication that occurs between 2 people within the context of their relationship b As the relationship evolves it helps them to negotiate and de ne their relationship 2 What Brings Us to an Interaction a Involvement i Student orgs causes groups b Proximity i Stranger on an airplane ii Coworkers c Utility i Car problems ii Networking d Reinforcement 3 Our Communication is Based on Three Principles a Culturalsocietal b Sociological i The groups to which we belong ii Menwomen iii Majors in college c Interpersonal i Can39t make predictions at this level until you really know someone ii Estimated that we have 57 relationships like this in our lives 4 What Makes a Good Communicator a Appropriateness i Follows rules b Effectiveness i Achieves goals 5 Competent Communicators Selfawareness amp selfmonitoring Adaptability Empathy Cognitive complexity apem 91 Chapter 1 Communication Model 6 Constructing Messages 1 The model of communication had evolved and changed over the years a Source i The originator of an idea or thought b Encode i To put an idea into language or a gesture c Message i Verbal and nonverbal elements of communication to which people give meaning d Channel i A pathway through which messages are conveyed e Decode i To interpret or give meaning to a message f Receiver i The party who interprets a message g Noise i Anything that interfere with the encoding or decoding of a message 2 Ensuring Message Quality a Organize i Know your purpose ii Drop what39s unimportant 1 Be careful of seductive details iii 39chunk what39s important 1 Our lives are organized in 339 a First middle and last name b Breakfast lunch and dinner c Intro body conclusion d Phone numbers b Use Redundancy i Not the same as repetition redundancy is saying the same thing in a different way 1 Use 2 examples for every concept 2 Be aware of seductive details ii Follow the 39tellshowdorespond method 1 Med school method 2 Learning how to drive iii Use Repetition 1 Saying the same thing in the same way a Helps things stick b Ex TV Show theme songs c Focus on Schemas i Category for storing patterns 1 Sports triviaTV ii Avoid speaking from personal schemas iii Instead think about the person39s schema that you are trying to communicate with d Ask Questions i Open Ended vs Closed Ended ii Advice vs Question iii Empowering Questioning 1 Forward thinking iv Avoid taking a position too soon 1 We tend to let our position in uence are questionsassumptions v Shut up and let them talk 93 Chapter 2Culture 63 Gender 1 Culture a b System of learnedshared symbols language values and norms that distinguish one group from another Symbols i Something that represents an idea ii Words are also symbols iii Language is a system of symbols Language i System of symbols without a shared meaning of what wordssymbols 1 Ex We have confusion and miscommunication 2 What happens when things don39t translate Values i Standards ofjudging how good desirable or beautiful something is ii Ex 0U Bricks diversity Bobcat family Norms i Rules and expectations that guide people39s behavior in a culture ii Values are what39s expected and norms are what we accept 1 We can value sustainability but make no effort to compost 2 How Culture Affects Communication a Individualism vs Collectivism i Responsibility to oneself vs the responsibility to othersfamilycommunity b LowContext vs HighContext I Explicit vs implicit ii Stated vs assumed iii Cues from verbal communication or surroundings 1 39hot coffee39 warning label on a coffee cup iv United States is a lowcontext culture 1 Take things at face value c LowHigh Power Distance i Who holds the power ii How is society structured 1 More hierarchal or is it at iii Forms of language 1 Who are you talking to Formal or informal 2 Ex In French Vousformalboss amp Tuinformalfriends someone you have a personal relationship with d Feminine vs Masculine i Masculine 1 Cultures that value ambition achievement earning 39things39 2 Ex United States ii Feminine 1 Cultures that value quality of life nurturing and service e Uncertainty Avoidance i How comfortable are the people of a society with the unknown unclear or unstructured ii The degree to which a society is a progressive 1 Ex Legalization of samesex marriage pot 2 US unique in that there is a presidential election every 4 years iii How open are countries to doing things differently 1 Countries with a long history and power usually aren39t f Monochronic vs Polychronic i How do people treat time ii Flexibility goals promptness 1 Ex United States treats time as a commoditybuys sells and wastes it quotTime is moneyquot iii Monochronic Countries 1 US 2 UK 3 Japan somewhere in middle iv Polychronic Countries 1 China 2 Middle East 3 Mexico 4 Africa g Common Codes i Idioms ii Gestures iii Jargon iv Lingo 3 Theories that Explain Intercultural Communication a Face Negotiation Theory i 39face and selfimage is a universal phenomenon b Intercultural Adaptation Theory i Changing behavior clothing language c Communication Adoption Theory i Trying to accommodate to others using language 4 Gender Sex amp Sexual Orientation as Cultures a Gender shifting roles i Generally considered in terms of masculinefeminine ii Attitudes and behaviors iii Androgynycombination of both b Sex Biological i Physical ii Considered static 1 Male and female c Sexual Orientation i Sex or sexes to which one is attracted to ii We often assume that these are consistent for every individual when in fact they are not 1 Femininefemale 2 Masculinemale d Genderlect Styles i Idea that men and women live and communicate in completely different cultures ii Manifests itself in language 1 Women indirect questions apologize a lot loaded language soft language 2 Men more direct frank or callous iii Con ict 1 Men more physical sparring 2 Women jeopardizes relationship iv Listening v Question Asking 1 Women seek connection open ended questions 2 Men seeking the state of things status vi Muted Group Theory 1 Power 2 Language controlled by majority groupmen 3 Women39s speech relegated to private spaces a No public space for them to be heard and have power 98 Chapter 3Communiation 63 the Self 1 Who Do You Think You Are a Selfconceptidentity i Multifaceted ii Partly subjective iii Enduring but changeable 2 How Do We Know Who We Are a b C Personality amp biology Cultural gender roles i What others expect of us shaped by social environment Re ected Appraisals i We see ourselves how societyothers see us Social Comparison i Upwards 1 Looking up to someone as a role model aspiring to be like them ii Downwards 1 Believing you might be better or have nicer things than someone 3 How Does SelfConcept Shape Communication a SelfMonitoring i Re ecting on being appropriate and effective in communication 1 If taken to an extreme it can be a bad thing 2 Can be seen as uptightunauthentic ii Awareness of how we appear and adjusting communication b SelfFul lling Prophecy i Our expectations lead us to behave in certain ways that con rm those expectations ii Can work in positively or negatively c Michelangelo Phenomenon i We have a tendency to 39mold39 people into ideal selves ii Help them uncover best potential d SelfExpansion Model i People have a desire to selfexpandthey achieve this through relationships ii Ex I seek relationships with people who help me grown 1 Making a sports team studying with people who study a lot 4 How Do You Feel About Who You Are a SelfEsteem affects is affected by our communication b What Makes Individuals Unique Communicators i Needs 1 Ex Control of the remote 2 Sandbagging a When things build up and they explode 3 Over helping a When someone helps us excessively b Helicopter parenting c Can be seen as a control movemoney ii Affection iii Inclusion iv Ef cacy 1 quotI can do this feelingquot quotso whatquot factor 2 Camp counselor teachers re ghters 3 Vocational approach purpose statement a What are you good at b What do you enjoy c What does the world need you to do 910 Chapter 4Peception 1 Perception a Process of making meaning from the things we experience in our environment b Interpersonal Perception i When we apply this process to people and relationships ii Decoding 2 Before We Can Make Meaning a Selection i We have to select some things to focus onin our environment b What Gets Our Attention i Intensity ii Movement m RepeUUon iv Contrast v Noveltyunusua or unexpected c Once we decide what to focus on we have to gure out what it is i Attempt to organize it into a schema ii Comparing the new info to what we already know 3 Perception is NOT Perfect a Attribution Theory i An explanation the answer to a 39why39 question 1 39why did he ght with his sister 2 39why didn39t you take out the trash39 ii We assign meaning to individuals and their behavior along three dimensions 1 Locus a Is this because of something within or outside of a behavior 2 Stability a Will this person or behavior change 3 Controllability a Can this person do anything about this iii Attribution Theory becomes triclq because how we feel about people39s in uences the answer to our 39why39 question b SelfServing Bias i The tendency to attribute one39s successes to internal causes and one s failures to external causes c PrimacyRecency Effect i We tend to emphasize our rstprimacy or our last recency impressions over latter impressions when forming a perception d Positivity amp Negativity Bias i We tend to focus on a person39s positivenegative attributes when forming a perception ii Halo Effect 1 quotwhat is beautiful is goodquot iii Expectancy Violations 1 When people fail to meet our expectations we perceive them more negatively e Stereotypes i Stereotypes are really schemas ii Tend to be characteristics Overgeneralized Extremes Simplistic Selfconforming NegaUve Kernel of truth iii Where do we learn Stereotypes 1 Family 2 Friends O P PP N 3 Limited observation iv Why do we stereotype Ef cient Ego defense Aggression war Conformity PWN 915 Chapter 5 Self Disclosure 1 SelfDisclosure a The deliberate act of giving others information about ourselves that we believe to be true and think that they don39t already know i Varies in breadthbroad and depthspeci c ii Varies among relationships iii Usually follows a process 1 Over time selfdisclosure declinesplateaus iv Usually reciprocal 1 Matches in breadth and depthdyadic effect v In uenced by culture and gender vi US is a selfdisclosing countrysma talk in coffee line 2 Why do we SelfDisclose a SelfDisclosure serves many purposes i Expressivepositive or negative ii Catharsispurging of an emotion iii Seeking vaidationconfirmation 1 Age 1835 is emerging adulthood 2 Series of making big decisionscoege career where to live marriage kids iv Clari cation v Relationship Development vi Information Giving doctor visits vii Impression Management 1 Manage others impression of us a Ex Eating something you don39t like in order not to offend someone Seeking Advice 1 Means you haven39t made a decision Viii 3 How do we judge SelfDisclosure a b C th0 Was it intentional i Ex quotwas I meant to hear thatquot Accuracy i How objectively true is the information Honesty i How true someone thinks it is Being honest doesn39t mean your accurate Breadth Depth Timing i Judge based on when where and what you were told Valence i Positive or negative h Clarity i How clearbest am I understanding this 1 Ex 5050 movie clip i Uniqueness i How unique is this information to our relationship j Relevance i How relevant is this info to what we are talking about currently k Appropriateness i Does it follow the norms of the situation ii Work conversations iii Online discosuresyik yak 0U confessions 1 Expressivecatharsis 4 Communication Privacy ManagementCPM a Relationships are characterized by needs to both reveal and conceal info 5 Five Principles a Individuals or collectives believe they own their private information b People feel they have a right to control the ow of their private information to others i They choose where and who gets their personal information c People use privacy rules to decide whether to open the boundary or close it i Ex Not teing parents what you do on the weekends ii Poitica viewsdiscussions with family members d If individuals reveal information they make others shareholders of that information and presume these coowners will follow existing privacy rules or negotiate new ones i Presumption e Managing the informationboundaries can be turbulent i Disruption in coordination of rules ii Someone blatantly violates those rules 917 Chapter 6Languge 1 Language a Symbolicrepresents something b Is arbitraryrandom C Is governed by rules i Phonologicalsounds ii Syntacticorder iii Semanticmeaning iv Pragmaticimplications 1 Ex Firing someone changes work dynamic and essentially severs relationship 2 quotI doquot resembles a huge lifetime commitment 3 Borrowing clothes asking for trust not just a sweater v Has layers of meaning vi Semantic Triangle 1 Symbolword 2 Referentdenotativecontent 3 Referenceconnotative the thought relationship associated with word 2 Language is Consequential a Names help de ne us i Celebrity baby names Blue Ivy Apple North ii Last Name Effect 1 If your last name is at the end of the alphabet it can bring feelings of inequityalways being at the end of the line into adulthood iii NameLetter Effect 1 Implicit egoism 2 We are often attracted to things that start with the same letter as your name 3 Words Persuade Us a b C Ethos i Credibilitycharacter Pathos i Emotional appeal Logos i Logicreasoning Ex Bob Dylan Chrysler car commercial i Ethos Bob Dylan is an American icon credible speaker represents America ii Pathosfeelings of pride and nostalgia iii Logoscars started in America Language Affects Credibility i Credibility is hard to get back if it39s lost H CHch s iii Dialects iv Equivocationmisdirecting not answering questions Language re ects and affects relationships
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'