Studyguide.pdf 54158, Introduction to Public and Community Health
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by ayla on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 54158, Introduction to Public and Community Health at University of New Mexico taught by Angelica K. Boyle in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 166 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public and Community Health in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
How did the WHO define health in 1946 How has that definition been modified The WHO defined health as a state of complete physical mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity It has been modified since then as a dynamic state or condition of a human organism that is multidimensinal in nature What is Public Health Public health is the most inclusive term regarding more than one person39s health It is actions that society takes collectively to ensure that the condition in which people can be healthy can occur What are differences community health health and global health Community health refers to a health status of a defined group of people and the actions and conditions to promote protect and perserve their health Population health refers to the health status of people who are NOT organized and have NO identity as a group or locality and the actions to promote protect and perserve their health Global health is a term that describes health problems issues concerns that trancend national boundary and is best addressed by cooperative actions and solutions among population What are the 5 major domains that determine a person39s health Gestational endowements Social circumstances Environmental conditions people live and work Behavior choices where Health care availability What is the difference between personal health activites and community health activities Personal health activities are individual and decision making that affects the health of an individual or his or her immediate family Community health activities are activities that are aimed at protecting or improving the health of a population or community Community A community is a group of people who have common characteristics communities can be defined by location race ethnicity age occupation interest in particular problems or outcomes or common bonds This can be by membership common symbols shared values and norms shared needs and commitment and a shared emotional connection What are 4 major factors that affect the health of a community Physical Factors geography environment community size Social Factors prejudices economy politics social norms socioeconomic status Cultural Factors beliefs traditions religion Community Organizing is the community able to collaberatively recognize community problems and set goals to fix them Individual Behavior diet lifestlye healthcare family history Identify some of major events of community health in each of the following periods 0 Early Civilizations 1900 BC Code of Hammurabi that included laws for physicians and health practices 0 Middle Ages Spiritual era of Public Health deadly plagues leper houses smallpox syphillis o Reinassaince and Exploration belief that disease was caused by environmental not spiritual factors 0 18th century Industrial growth 1796 smallpox vaccination by Dr Jenner 0 19th century 1850 Modern era of Public health government not involved microbe causes a disease The major community health problems facing the US in the 21st century Health care delivery Environmental problems Lifestyle diseases Communicable diseases Alcohol and other drug abuse Health disparities Disasters What is included in the WHO39s agenda Promoting development fostering health security strengthening health systems harnessing reasearch information and evidence enhancing partnerships and improving performace Provide a brief explanation of the origins from which the following twentieth century periods get their name 0 Health resources development period 19001960 due to the growth of health care facilities and providers 0 Period of Social engineering 1960 1973 federal government became active in health matters 1965 Medicare and Medicaid established 0 Period of Health Promotion 1974 present bad lifestyle characteristics shown to be the cause of 48 premature deaths Healthy People established What signifigance does the Healthy People documents have in community health development in recent years Promoting development fostering health security strengthening health systems harnessing reasearch information and evidence enhancing partnerships and improving performace What signifigance with Healthy People 2020 have in years ahead I think it will have a big influence on communities giving them clear measurable objectives to strive for This will give a blue print for all Americans on how to change community health for the better What characteristics of modern society necessiate planning and organization for community health a Highly developed and centralized resources in our national institutions and orginizations b Continuing concentration of wealth and population in lasrgest metro areas c Rapid movement of info resources and people made possible by advanced communication and transportation technologies that eliminate the need for local offices where resources were once housed d The globalization of health e Limtited horizontal relationships betweeamong orginizations f A system of topdown funding What is a governmental health agency ls part of government structure federal state or local and are funded by tax dollars and managed by government officials They each have authority over a specific geographical area and exist on four levels international national state and local What is the WHO and what does it do It is the most widely recognized international health agency and is open to any nation that has ratified the WHO constitution and receives a majority vote of the World Health Assembly Its purpose is attainment by all people the highest possible level of health Recently they have adopted the first global public health treaty to reduce tobaccorelated deaths throughout the world What federal department in the US is the government39s principle agency for protecting the health of all Americans and for providing essential human services especially to those who are least able to help themselves What major services does this department provide The department Health and Human Services is the US39s principle agency for people who cannot help themselves It is a department of people serving people What are the 3 core functions of public health a Assessment of information on the health of the community b Comprehensive public health policy development c Assurance that public health services are provided in the community What are the 10 essential public health services a Monitor health status b Diagnose and investigate c Inform educate and empower people d Mobilize community partnerships e Develop policies and plans f Enforce laws and regulations g Link people to needed personal health services h Ensure a competent public health and personal health care workforce i Evaluate effectivesness accessibility and quality j Research for new insights How do state and local health departments interface Many local health departments are mandated by state laws like inspections of resturants or the collecting of vital statistics What is meant by the term quasi governmental agency Examplify one Quasigovernmental health agencies are orginizations that have some official health responsibilities but operate like a voluntary agency They operate indepenently from government supervision but have some funding from the government They also can receive financial support from private sources An example would be the American Red Cross What does the term coordinate school health program mean What are the major components of it It is an organized set of policies procedures and activities designed to protect promote and improve the health and wellbeing of students and stff thus aprroving a student39s ability to lean It can include counseling health eduation school health services and a healthy school environment Describe the characeteristics of a nongovernmental health Nongovernmental health agencies are funded by private donations or by membership dues They all have one thing in common they arose because there was an unmet need They types are voluntary professional philanthropic service social religious and corporate What are the major differences between a governmental health organization and a voluntary health agency Members of the local board of directors with a voluntary health agency are usually volunteers They have no government control at all and only exist on 3 levels government state and local Their primary purpose is fundraising What does a Health Professional gain from being a member of a professional organization They can get certification of continuiungeducation programs for professional renewal they host annual conventitions where professionals can interact and the publication of professional journals and other reports How do philanthropic foundations contribute to community health List some wellknown foundations Philanthropic foundations support community health by funding programs and research on the prevention control and treatment of many diseases Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Commonwealth Fund and the Ford Foundation are examples What is an epidemic A pandemic Name some diseases that caused epidemics in the past Name some diseases that are an epidemic today Epidemic an unexpectedly large number of cases of an illness specific healthrelated behavior or event in a particular population Endemic disease that occurs regularly in a population as a matter of course Pandemic outbreak over a wide geographic area Diseases that caused epidemics in the past flu common cold pneumonia tuberculosis Diseases that are epidemic today H1N1 Why are epidemiologists sometimes interested in epizootics because certain diseases that animals are reservoirs can be passed on to humans What is the difference between natality morbidity and mortality nataity births morbidity illnesses mortaity deaths Why are rates community health rates are important to community health because they allow for the comparison of outbreaks at different times or in different places important in What is the difference between crude and specific rates crude includes total population specific particular populations or diseases Why are prevalence rates more useful than specific rates because they include the number of new and old cases of an event in a population in a given time period divided by the number in that population rather than just measuring the morbidity or mortality for a particular population or disease What is an infant mortality rate Why is it such an important rate in community health infant mortality rate the number of deaths under 1 year of age divided by the number of live births and multiplied by 1000000 x amount of deaths of children under 1 year of age in every 1000000 import to community health because they help to determine the health status of those under 1 year of age What are Examples notifiabe diseases infectious diseases that health officials request or require reporting examples AIDS gonorrhea notifiable diseases In general contrast the leading causes of death in the US in 1900 with those in 2000 Comment on the differences 1900 tuberculosis 2000 heart disease cancer stroke chronic lower respiratory disease Differences in the 1900s leading causes of death were communicable diseases that with some advancement in medications could have prevented and in 2000 leading causes of death are noncommunicable diseases that are caused by numerous factors that are mainly uncontrollable pneumonia influenza At what ages is life expectancy calculated What does it tell us about a population Which country has the longest life expectancy ife expectancy is calculated at birth 65 and 75 this tells us that as a country we have managed to control some of the factors that contribute to early death ife expectancy is highest in Japan What are years of potential life lost How does calculating YPPL change the way we think about the leading causes of death years of potential life lost YPPL the number of years lost when death occurs before the age of 65 or 75 cacuating YPPL changes the way we think about leading causes of death because the death of a young person counts more than the death of an old person and some things cause the death in younger people unintentional injuries and cancer age at death hisher life expectancy How would you define disability adjusted life years DALYs How would you define healthadjusted life expectancy HALE disabiityadjusted life years the number of years that an individual lives with a disability and the number of years of ypp that result from a disability heathadjusted life years the average number of healthy years What is the US Census How often is it conducted What types of data does it gather US Census the enumeration of the population of the US that39s taken every 10 years conducted every 10 years Gathers data on race age income employment education other social indicators What types of information can you find in the Statistical Abstract of the US information on social political and economic organization of the US What kinds of data would you expect to find in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention39s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report morbidity and mortality rates by state and region outbreaks of disease environmental hazards unusual cases other health problems List five important national health surveys that are valuable sources of data about the health and health care of our population The US Census the Statistical Abstract of the US the Monthly Vital Statistics Report Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report the National Health Interview Survey What can be said about the reliability of selfreported health data May be opinionated andor bias What is the National Health Care Suwey Why is it carried out National Health Care Survey a survey that compromises nine different national surveys that gather information on the nation39s health care system In a descriptive epidemiological study what types of information does the epidemiologist gather information to describe epidemics with respect to person place and time who when where What is the purpose of an analytic study Contrast observational and experimental studies in regard to methodology and usefulness purpose of analytic study to test hypotheses in regards to health problems and risk factors contrast of observational and experimental studies in regard to methodology and usefulness Observational investigator observes the natural course of events noting exposed and unexposed subject and disease development The method is just to observe and it is not very useful Experimental investigator actually allocates the exposure and subsequently follows the subjects for the development of disease The method used is a handson method and it is useful With regard to observational studies how do casecontrol studies and cohort studies differ in design and in the kinds of results obtainable casecontro studies designed to compare the diagnosed with a disease with those who do not have the disease for prior exposure to specific risk factors cohort studies designed to classify a specific group of people who share some important demographic characteristic and classify them by exposure to one or more specific risk factors and observe them to determine the rates at which disease develops in each class How do experimental studies differ from observational studies What value do they have in epidemiology To what principles must investigators adhere in order to properly carry out an experimental study experimental studies analytic studies in which the investigator allocates exposure or intervention and follows development of disease carried out to identify the cause of a disease or to determine the effectiveness of a vaccine therapeutic drug or surgical procedure observational studies an analytic epidemiological study in which the investigator observes the natural course of events noting exposed and unexposed subjects to disease development vaue in epidemiology of experimental studies very trustworthy value of epidemiology of observational studies not as trustworthy principes investigators must adhere to in order to properly carry out an experimental study must have a control group radominization blinding and a placebo What are Hill39s criteria for judging whether an association between a risk factor and disease can be considered causal Strength consistency specificity temporaity biologica plausability What are some of the ways in which disease and health problems are classified in community health acute disease lasts less than 3 months chronic disease lasts more that 3 months communicable infectious noncommunicable noninfectious Contrast the terms acute disease and chronic disease Provide 3 examples of each acute disease diseases that last less than 3 months exampes cold appendicitis pneumonia chronic disease diseases that last more than 3 months exampes AIDS Lyme diabetes disease Contrast the terms communicable disease and noncommunicable disease Provide 3 examples of each communicable disease an illness caused by some specific biological agent or its toxic products that can be transmitted from an infected person animal or inanimate reservoir to a susceptible host exampes pneumonia noncommunicabe disease a disease that can39t be transmitted from infected host to susceptible host exampes appendicitis injury tuberculosis cold poisoning What is the difference between a communicable agent and a pathogenic agent communicable agent the element that must be present for disease to occur pathogenic agent the cause of the disease or health problem What are the components of a simplified communicable disease model Agent cause of the disease Host Susceptible Person Environment factors that inhibitpromote the growth of the disease List some examples of environmental factors that can influence the occurrence and spread of a disease heat light radiation noise vibration speeding objects Explain the model for multicausation diseases visual representation of the host with carious internal and external factors that promote and protect against disease center Genetic endowment next Personality beliefs decisions last Environment economics etc lifestyle What is the difference between prevention and intervention prevention planning for or taking action to prevent or stop the onset of a disease or health problem ntervention effort to control the disease while it is in progress taking action during the current event Explain the difference between primary secondary and tertiary prevention and provide an example ofeach primary prevention forestall the onset of illness or injury during the prepathogensis period before disease process begins exampe hand washing using condoms inspecting restaurants chlorinating water supply secondary prevention early diagnosis and prompt treatment before disease becomes advanced and disability severe exampe antibiotics self diagnosis carefully maintaining records tertiary prevention aimed at rehabilitation following significant pathogenesis retrain reed ucate rehabilitate those who have already incurred an injury example recovery to full health after infection burial of dead What is the chain of infection model of disease transmission Draw the model and label the parts step by step model to conceptualize the transmission of a communicable disease from its source to a susceptible host pathogenic agent leaves it39s gtreservoirinfected hostviagtportal of exit transmissiongtportal of enrtynew hostgtestablish infection Referring to the chain of infection indicate how prevention and control strategies could be implemented to interrupt the transmission of gonorrhea Are most of these strategies primary secondary or tertiary prevention measures prevention strategies education use of condoms Control strategies treatment most strategies are primary Define the following termscase carrier vector and vehicle case a person that is sick with a disease carrier a person or animal that harbors a specific communicable agent in the absence of discernable clinical disease serves as a potential source of infection to others vector living organism anthropod mosquito that can transmit a communicable disease agent to a susceptible host vehicle an inanimate material or object that can serve as a source of infection List five examples each of vectorborne diseases and non vectorborne diseases vectorborne diseases yellow fever polio typhoid fever West Nile virus malaria non vectorborne diseases tuberculosis influenza histoplasmosis legionellosis hepatitis Explain the difference between the public health practices of isolation and quarantine isolation separation of infection persons from those who are susceptible quarantine limitation of freedom of movement of those who have been exposed to a disease and may be incuba ngit Explain the importance of vaccinations or immunizations in preventing diseases in the community it39s important for vaccinations or immunizations to be widespread and high in numbers throughout a community due to herd immunity Apply the principles of prevention and the examples given in this chapter to outline a prevention strategy for breast cancer that includes primary secondary and tertiary prevention components primary prevention education knowledge about breast cancer secondary prevention personal screenings regular medical checkups surgery if necessary treatment tertiary prevention continuing medications rehabilitation continuing visiting doctors regularly continuing checkups after surgery requirements what is community organizing a process through which communities are helped to identify common problems or goals mobilize resources and in other ways develop and implement strategies for reaching their goals they have collectively set what are the assumptions under which organizers work when bringing a community together to solve a problem 1 community can deal with their own problems 2 people want amp can change 3 people should participate in the major changes 4 changes that are selfimposed have meaning 5 holistic approach is successful fragmented is not 6 democracy requires cooperative participation 7 communities need help with needs just like individuals do What is the difference between top down and grass roots community organizing topdown initiated by someone outside community grassroots initiated citizen of community What are gatekeepers examples people who control the political climate of the community priest politician principle General Approach to Community Organizing 1 Rrecognize the issue 2 Ggain entry 3 Oorganize the people 4 A assess the community 5 Ddetermine prioritiesampset goals 6 A arrive at a solutionamp intervention 7 limplenment plan 8 Eevaluate outcomes 9 M maintain outcomes 10Lloop back What is meant by community building orientation to community that is strengthbased rather then needbased using community assets and capabm es what is a needs assessment why is it important in the health promotion programing process process by which about the issues of concern are collected and analyzed it is important to start where the people are and see what level of prevention a community has and if there was an effective intervention strategy in the past 5 major steps in program development and selecting a priority issue 1 winnable 2 simple amp specific 3 unite amp involve members 4 affect many people 5 part of a larger plan Difference between objectives goals are much more global and objectives are more precise goals cover ALL aspects of a program amp objectives are the steps to achieve goals goals aren39t measurable amp objectives are written so their level of attainment is observable and measurable goals and What are invention strategies 5 examples activities that help the priority population meet objectives and achieve goals What are best practices best experiences and best processes How are the different practicesgtrecommendations for interventions based of review of research and evaluation studies that support the efficiency of the intervention experiencesgt when A not available these are intervention strategies that have been used in prior existing programs that have not gone through the critical research like practices processesgtquot neither available these are original strategies by planners based on knowledge of community What is pilot testing how useful is it when developing an intervention trial run of an intervention with a few people from the priority population this will show you if you have any problems with delivery training or resources within an intervention Difference in formative and summative evaluation impact and outcome evaluation Summativegt determines the effects of a program on the priority population 2typesquot lmpact immediate observable effects ofa program Outcome end results of a program Formativegt conducted during the planning and implementing to improve and refine 5 major components of program evaluation 1 PLANNING who internalexternal factor timelinegt 2 COLLECTING data who pilot test results 3 ANALYZE the study who when completed 4 REPORT results who writes who receives 5 APPLYING the results be used continue or discontinue What is a coordinated school health program an organized set of policies procedures and activities to improve health of students and staff improving ability to learn Who should be included on the school health council Admin nurse parents social workers other caregivers What foundations are needed to ensure a CSHP why 1 administration support 2 wellorganized school health council 3 written school health policies admin controls resources Why are written school policies needed policies provide a foundation for school district practices and procedures describes nature for program and implementation sense of direction and strengthens possibility it will be a program Who should approve policies school board is final authority key stakeholders school admin committees parents 8 components of a CSHP 1 demonstrate knowledge of health literate educator 2 assess needs for school health edu 3 plan curricula amp programs for health edu 4 implement health edu instructions 5 assess learning 6 plan school health edu programs 7 resource person in health edu 8 communicate and advocate for health and school edu the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that at minimum schools should provide 3 types of services what are they 1 state mandated services health screenings immunization verifications infectious disease reporting 2 Assessment of minor health complaint medication administration care for students with special needs 3 Management of emergencies Explain the importance of using the standard base health curriculum it provides learning objectives and standards that include things that every student should know and is the foundation for development delivery and assessment 4 issues facing school health advocates CONTROVERSY religiousconservatives oppose topics like sex and drugs being discussed IMPROPER IMPLEMENTATION teachers not educated no textbooks not quotcorequot subject FUNDING
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