Chapt 1-4 Study guide Exam 1
Chapt 1-4 Study guide Exam 1 Knr 182
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mel Broadway on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Knr 182 at DCH Regional Medical Center taught by Megan Taylor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and physiology in Kinesiology at DCH Regional Medical Center.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
De ne Anatomy page 1 Structure of body parts amp how their relationships to others De ne Physiology Page 1 Function of body amp how parts work and carry out life sustaining activity Function always re ects structure Structural organization 3 Subatomic particles Protons neutrons electrons Atoms Molecules Macromolecule Organelle Celluar level Tissue Organ Organ System Organismal Level Cells are the smallest unit of life Complenting shapes and functions 4 types of tissue Connective supportive Nervous Communication MuscleMovement and Ephlium tissue cover Atoms have CHNOPS Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen OxygenPhosperaus sulfur Molecules have CLPNO Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Organic molecules Organelles Have Mitochandria Cytoplasm nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi vacuoles Lysosomes Organ systems are lntergumentary Skeletal muscular nervous endocrine cardiovascular lymphatic Respitory digestive urinary Reproductive Life functions include Maintaining boundaries movement blood responsiveness breathing digestion break down food metabolism Catabolism break down vs anabolism build up excretion sweat reproduction orgasminal level growth Survival needs Nutrients CHO Proteins fats oxygen 20 in the air waterBW 5060 body temp 986 Atmospheric pressure air forced on body De ne homeostasis Equilibrium balance of body internal and external temp Disruption causes death or disease Negative and positive feedback Positive feedback body admits oxytocin makes contractions that create a stimuli And it continues and then shuts offs blood clots child birth Negative feedback house thermostat Stimulis receptor control center effector response Anatomical position Body is erect and and feet slightly apart Regional terms Axial head neck amp trunk Apprendicular limbs Body plans amp sections Frontal cuts into anterior and posterior front amp back Saggital cuts into left and right exion and extension Transverse superior and inferior potion top and bottom any rotation at the body Medial is the middle Directional terms Lateral ear is closer to nose lntermediate is between medial and lateral Proximal closer to attachment sightwrist is distal to elbow Distal is farther from attachment sight Super cial top layer Deep deep body Dorsal amp Ventral Dorsal houses ur brain and spine cavities Cranialamp vertebral cavity Abdominal hard soft cavity ventral abdominal and thrarxic cavity Abdominal pelvic Meninges Mebraneous lining Diaphragm Lwar Etnmaah Emma39me Tranaaar39aa aaan at large intaatina Aaaamdimg aalam af larga imtaatina Descending calm1i all large intestine Email imteatinre GEE LlllTI Appandli Initial pain at aigniai aaan 7 Left urinef qua r t quadrant 7 Lc Inwar quadrant ighi lcwcr quadrant Caraniai cacin ccntains brain Thcrccic cavity D Iiid A mm a rm if cuntainc heart andalu gs Diaphragm Vertebral cavity cantainc spinal curd Abdicmlnai cavity cantaisns digestive viscera i s i icrcalbudycauiw i Ventralch cavity K F eflci c cavity mnbainc bladder rapmducii w Bans arid rectum a Latcral cicw Input late rmatien sent slang afferent pathway te Dutput 39 Intermatien sent slang efferent pathway ta aetisate I deteeted by reeepter 39 Hespense et e eeter feeds Isaak te intl39uenee magnitude ef stimulus and returns variable te homesstasis Stimulus Pmdaees change in variable Cewrlgm mail Fesrsen Etiueellsri ine parallelian as Benjamin Gunmmgs ei a At li i man Meleemle system w J I Organism 1 Tissue Chemicals needed in the body H20 minerals proteins lipid nucleic acid CHO vitamin Recommended calorie intake Minmum 1200 Recc2000 ElementAtom Percent of body weight Hydrogen 95 Carbon 185 Nitrogen 32 Oxygen 650 TOTAL 961 Phosphorus Sulfur 39 amp Others 3 kinds of bonds Ionic covaent hydrogen bonds Covalent bond When two atoms share 1 pair of electrons CHO Carbon hydrogen oxygen Simple 1 or 2 molecules monosaccharide amp disaccharide monosaccharide Glucose Fructose Galactose Disaccharides Sucrose glucose fructose table sugar Lactose glucose galactose milk sugar Complex more than 2 molecules of CHO polysaccharides Starch storage carbohydrate for plants Glycogen storage carbohydrate for animals Recommended amount for carb is an energy source 225325 grams 45 to 65 of total caloric intake come from carbs Protein Sparing protein is normally used for maintenance repair and growth of tissues however when CHO reserves are reduced metabolic pathways exist for the synthesis of glucose from protein Therefore your body uses tissuetissue protein for energy 3 Metabolic Primer for fat to be used as an energy source it must be preceded by CHO metabolism Fuel for the central nervous system the brain uses glucose almost exclusively as a fuel and essentially has no stored supply of this nutrient Types of lipids from milk lard eggs meat 1 Triglycerides most of fat in body 2 Phospholipids 3 Steroids saturated single bonds between carbon atoms animal products beef lamb pork chicken egg yolk dairy fats cream butter milk cheese shell sh lobster shrimp crab Unsaturated trans fatty acid double bonds between carbon atoms plant sources vegetable oils corn peanut soybean and ketone bodies Phospholipids Modi ed triglycerides 2 fatty acid chains Steroids Fat soluble Cholesterol most important steroid Found in cell membranes Needed to make vitamin D steroid hormones and bile salts Role of a lipid 2 Protein sparing 3 Protection 4 Insulation for the bodyorgans 5 Vitamin Carriers 6 Hunger Depressant 7 Major role in cell structures What is an amino acid building blocks of proteins Long chains form proteins 20 different amino acids used to make proteins Essential amp nonessential proteins Essential proteins there are 9 of these out of the 20 proteins are ones that our own body cannot produce It needs these proteins from the food we take in like meats or soy Nonessential as you may have guessed are ones that we produce on our own so we don39t need to worry about them Fibrous Proteins used for building structural frameworkmechanical support movement examples collagen keratin elastin actin myosin Globular Proteins functional catalysis transport regulation of pH regulation of metabolism body defense protein management Cell structure amp function provide cell framework a structural proteins secondary structure brous proteins b functional proteins tertiary structure globular proteins Regulate body functions a enzyme action b transport c acidbase balance b muscular contraction c protection Nucleic acids 2 Deoxyribonucleic Acid amp Ribonucleic Acid Vitamins Act as coenzymes in metabolic reactions Vitamins are organic molecules and subclassi ed into fat soluble amp water soluble Minerals Constitute about 4 of total body weight and are most concentrated in the skeleton Minerals are inorganic molecules Water molecules Within the cell 3040 Outside the cell 6070 Cell anatomy the study of cellular structures Cell physiology the study of cellular function Cell Theory 1 Cell is basic structural amp functional unit of living organism 2 Organism depends on both the individual and combined activities of its cells 3 Biochemical activities of cells are dictated by their shapes 4 Cells can arise only from other cells 3 Main Parts to a Cell Plasma Cell Membrane 2 Cytoplasm and Organelles 3 Nucleus Membranes found on the outer surfaces of all cells plasma membrane membranes are the major component of organelles membranes are made up of lipids protein and carbohydrate Membranes are mostly made up of lipid and protein 60 protein and 40 lipid membranes are the directors of what comes in and what goes out of the cell sites for chemical reactions membranes are the type of lipid found in the membrane is a Phosoholipid Properties of the phospholipid bi layer 1 Little if any structural support 2 Powerful barrier to most molecules of biological interest such as a particles with electrical charges Na K Ca gt IONS b large molecules have a hard time crossing c water generally moves freely across 3 Generally interspersed with proteins Glycocalyx Made of glycoproteins amp glycolipids Cholesterol Stabilizes the membrane Decreases mobility of phospholipids amp decreases uidity of membrane Two main types of membrane a integral membrane proteins proteins embedded transmembrane protein internal membrane protein intrinsic external membrane protein extrinsic b peripheral membrane proteins Properties of the lipid biayer a structural support b transport of molecules across the membrane c enzymatic control of chemical reactions at cell surface d receptors for hormones and other regulatory molecules einterceuarjoining CAM s f cell to cell recognition Diabetes type Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus IDDM Juvenile Onset Diabetes Usually occurs before age 15 Totally lack insulin activity Beta cells of the pancreas stop producing insulin No insulin no glucose in the blood stream no ATP Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus NIDDM Adult Onset Diabetes Usually occurs after age 40 amp increasingly common with age Hereditary or familial predisposition is common in Type II Diabetes Type II VVVV V Insulin is still produced by pancreatic beta cells however amount is inadequate or the insulin receptors are unresponsive Individuals are commonly over weight and lack regular physical activity Three ways cells can be bound to each other Tight junctions impermeable junction use indigro proteins plasma membrane connects to another cells plasma membrane not allow other molecules to move inbetween cells Desmosomes anchoring junctions celluar velcrow kertain llaments they allow the sheet of cells to undergo stress Gap junctions communicating junction small channels that connect cytoposm to other cells cytoposm Two ways substances cross membrane Passive processes no energy required Active processes energy ATP required Types of passive transport Diffusion Simple diffusion Carrier and channelmediated facilitated diffusion Osmosis diffusion of water Simple diffusion Nonpolar lipidsoluble hydrophobic substances diffuse directly through phospholipid bilayer lipid soluabe means it can pass thru Examples oxygen carbon dioxide fatsoluble vitamins Facilitated diffusion Certain hydrophobic molecules are transported passively down their concentration gradient by Carriermediated facilitated diffusion Channelmediated facilitated diffusion Osmosis Diffusion of a solvent Movement of solvent such as water across a selectively permeable membrane Water diffuses through plasma membranes Through lipid bilayer Aquaponn Flow occurs when water concentration is different on the two sides of a membrane Two major active membrane transport processes Active transport some sort of protein that going to allow ions into the cell Vesicular transport using vesicles found in the cell to move particles from the external celluar enviorment to internal enviorment Both require ATP to move solutes across a plasma membrane for any of these reasons Solute is too large for channels Solute is not lipid soluble Solute is moving against the concentration gradient Active transport Primary active transport Required energy comes directly from ATP hydrolysis ATPgt ADP PEx Sodium Potassium Pump Secondary active transport Required energy is obtained indirectly from ionic gradients created by primary active transport Ex After sodium is pumped out of cell NaK pump Na moves along concentration gradient or leaks back into the cell through a carrier protein and can bring with it or cotransport other subctances amino acids glucose etc Requires carrier proteins solute pumps Bind speci cally and reversibly with substance being moved Moves solutes against their concentration gradient from low to high This requires energy ATP I Vesicular Transport Endocytosis transport into cell Involves transport of large particles macromolecules and uids across the membrane in sacs called vesicles Requires cellular energy usually ATP 3 different types of endocytosis phagocytosis pinocytosis receptormediated endocytosis Exocytosis transport out of cell Transcytosis transport into across and then out of cell Vesicular traf cking transport from one area or organelle in cell to another Plasma membrane Protects and allows substances to enter or exit the cell through diffusion facilitated diffusion osmosis active transport and vesicular transport Cytoplasm Serves as the substance in which chemical reactions occur Contains organelles Histology Fixed sectioned stained Study of tissues Roles of Epithelial Tissue 1 Protection 2 Absorption 3 Filtration 4 Excretion 5 Secretion 6 Sensory reception Simple epithelia Strati ed epithelia Pseudostrati ed epithelia Glandular Epithelia O Gland One or more cells that make or secrete a product The quotproductquot is referred to as a secretion Glands are classi ed according to two sets of traits Where they release their product Number of cells docrine internallv secretin0 Hormones messenger chemicals Through exocytosis Enter into blood or lymphatic uid ocrine externaly secreting numerous than endocrine Secrete products onto body surface skin or into body cavities Uniceluar secrete through exocytosis Muticeluar mucous glands sweat oil salivary Unicellular Exocrine Glands intestinal and respiratory goblet cells producing mucus Multicellular Exocrine Glands pancreas most sweat and salivary glands structural classi cations made up of two parts Epithelium derived duct Secretory unit Merocrine glands products are secreted by exocytosis Most common Pancreas sweat glands salivary Holocrine cells accumulate products until they rupture Ex Sebaceous oil glands of skin 4 types of connective tissue Connective tissue proper Cartilage Bone Blood Extracellular Matrix 1 Ground substance 2 Fibers 3 Cells Most other tissues are composed of cells while a nonliving extracellular matrix predominates the composition of CT Aides weight bearing function tensile resilence and other abuse Ground substance An unstructured material that lls spaces between the cells and contains the bers Composed of Interstitial uid Cell adhesion proteins Proteoglycans glycosaminoglycansGAGs Fibers Three types collagen elastic reticular Collagen bers are strong ropelike structures Elastic Tensile resilience Elastin allows for stretch and recoil like rubber bands Reticular Fine collagenous bers that form a branching network reticul that supports other cells and tissuesquotfuzzy netsquot that surroundsupport organs and blood vessels Areolar connective tissue Func on Wrapscushions organs Phagocytic towards bacteria Location Distributed beneath epithelia throughout body Packages organs Surrounds capillaries Adipose tissue Closely packed adipocytes Func on Energy reserve Protection Insulation Location Subcutaneous beneath the skin Surrounding kidneys and eye balls Abdomen breasts Reticular connective tissue Similar to areolar but Withoutcollagen amp elastin bers Only contains reticular bers Func on Support forms a stroma that supports other cells Location Lymph organs spleen lymph nodes bone marrow Dense regular 0 Parallel collagen amp elastin bers 0 broblasts 0 Function Support 0 Location Tendons attach muscles to bones Ligaments attach bones to bones at joints Fascia brous membrane surrounding muscles blood vessels nerves Dense irregular lrregularly arranged collagen amp elastin bers 0 broblasts 0 Function Multidirectional support 0 Location Dermis joint capsules Elastic o Dense regular tissue 0 Increased amounts of elastin 0 Function 0 Allows recoil of tissues after stretch ie arteries lungs some ligaments 0 Location 0 Arterial walls walls of bronchial tubes some ligaments Cartilage o Avascuar O Chondrocytes cartilage cell 0 Water 80 GAG s hyauronic acid coIegen bers 0 Function Support shock absorption decrease friction increase joint surface area 0 Types 0 Hyaline Elastic Fibrocartilage Hyaline cartilage o Chondrocytes 110 0 Most abundant 0 Water collagen bers GAG 5 h yauronic acid 0 Function Resists quotsomequot compressive forces ALLOW SMOOTH MOVEMENT 0 Location 0 Ends of long bones costocartilages nose trachea larynx Elastic cartilage 0 Similar to hyaline but MORE elastin 0 Function 0 Maintains shape 0 Allows exibility 0 Location 0 External ear 0 Epiglottis Fibrocartilage o Alternating rows of chondrocytes and thick collagen bers 0 Function 0 Location 0 Intervertebral discs 0 Pubic symphysis O menisci Osseous tissue 0 Hard calci ed matrix w many collagen bers 0 Osteocytes 0 Function 0 Support 0 Protection 0 Leversmovement 0 Mineral storage 0 Hematopoiesis 0 Location Blood 0 Red and white blood cells 0 Fluid matrix plasma 0 Functiontransport nutrients waste gas 0 Location contain with blood vessels Muscle Tissue Highly cellular Wellvascularized Responsible for body movements Contain myo laments Three types 0 Skeletal 0 Smooth Cardiac Cardiac O striated involuntary muscle cells are cylindrical branching cells with a single central nucleus Cardiac muscle is responsible for pumping blood through the circulatory system Smooth o nonstriated involuntary muscle forms the walls of hollow organs lts cells are elongated shaped with a single central nucleus Nervous tissue Neurons 0 Cell body 0 Dendrites o Axon FuncUon o Transmit electrical signals Membranes covering amp lining Incorporate more than one type of tissue Types 0 Cutaneous o Mucous O Serous Continuous multicellular sheets Epithelium bound to underlying later of connective tissue proper Cutaneous Membranes 0 Skin Epidermis Keratinized strati ed squamous epithelium Attached to think layer of connective tissue dermis Dry Mucous Membranes 0 Line all body cavities that open up to the outside of the body 0 Digestive 0 Respiratory o Urogenital 0 Wet o AbsorptionSecretion Serous Membranes 0 Found in closed ventral body cavities O Serous uid lubricates the interacting parietal and visceral layers to prevent friction 0 Ex pleura pericardium peritoneum in ammatory response is a relatively nonspeci c reaction that develops quickly wherever tissues are injured immune response response is extremely speci c but slower Tissue repair requires that cells divide and migrate o This is initiated by growth factors wound hormones released by injured cells 0 It occurs in 2 major ways by regeneration and by brosis 0 Depending on the type of tissue injured amp the severity Regeneration is replacement of destroyed tissue with the same kind of tissue Fibrosis involves proliferation of dense connective tissue called scar tissue INFLAMMATION o Macrophages amp mast cells release in ammatory chemicals vasodiation and increased permeability 0 White blood cells and clotting proteins in ltrate the injury site forming a clot or scab 0 stops loss of blood 0 holds edges of wound togeth er ORGANIZATION 0 Blood clot is replaced by granulation tissue 0 Pink restores blood supply containing new capillaries bleeds easily picking scab o Fibroblasts produce collagen to bridge the gap 0 Surface epithelial cells multiply amp migrate over the granulation tissue REGENERATION amp FIBROSIS 0 Surface epithelium begins to regenerate and thicken O Scab soon detaches 0 Amount of brosis scarring depends on the severity of the original injury
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