Exam 1 - Comprehensive Study Guide
Exam 1 - Comprehensive Study Guide PHI 171H
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michael McDonald on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHI 171H at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Morgan Rempel in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Ethics and Good Living in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
PHI 171H Exam 1 Study Guide Stoicism Zeno Greece 0 Founder of stoicism 300 BC 0 if you don t get what you desire desire s what you get 0 Man conquers the world by conquering himself 0 Cenyo reference Seneca Rome 3 BC 65 AD Marcus Aurelius Rome O AD 121180 0 Roman Emperor Epictetus Greece 0 Slave crippled in slavery O bear amp fine bear 0 Erichiridian 0 Marcus was his pupil How to live a goodtranquil life 0 Live in accordance w nature 0 Don t ask why just accept 0 Play your part Consider which you want more if things require you to lose selfrespect to get do you still want them Nothing in the world is intrinsically evil Prescribe a certain character for yourself amp type for yourself and guard it Don t take on roles too big for yourself disgrace to yourself and you reject the position you might have been better for Conduct yourself as you would at a banquet 0 Take politely do not snatch 0 Don t crave wait until it comes to you Live in Accordance with Nature What is proper for you to do is defined by social relationships 0 EX Not a bad or good father nature assigned a father But even if you re not yet a Socrates live like him WWSD Behave the same way when something happens to someone as you would if it happened to you In my power to control vs not in my power Recognize in life some things are in my power and some are not Focus energy on things you can control 0 Don t waste energy on things you can t Have contentment for things not up to us But don t worry about what anyone says about you people will talk about you no matter I can t control what people say I can live my life in a way that people don t talk that way about me MA MindB ody Reasonsemotionpassions This is how Socrates became what he was by attending in all things he encountered to nothing other than reason An educated person blames neither anyone nor himself Don t be carried away by impressions be on your guard Realism No rosecolored glasses Use thinking to control emotions think before you act 0 What are the consequences Very black amp white lacks empathy Sign of weaknesses to focusspend too much time on the body focus on your mind Selfcontrol Make use of selections and re ect on lightly discretely ad tentatively be thoughtful of your choices Life is short suicide We live for an instant only to be swallowed in complete forgetfulness and the void of infinite time The length of one s life is irrelevant whether you live three days vs three hundred years there is NO difference Quality gt Quantity Not merely living but living well 0 For mere living is not a good but living well 0 Death no fear or loss for no man can lose very much when a driblet remains Live as long as you ought not as long as you can Dying well means escape from danger of living ill Consider w logic whether you should shouldn t end your life Suicide setting oneself free Stoic are logical in everything including death 0 Death itself is not terrible it is the idea that death is terrible that is terrible 0 If the room is smoky if only moderately I will stay If there is too much smoke I will go Remember this and keep a firm bold on it the door is always open 0 Quit complaining you could always kill yourself Tolstoy 10 Greed 0 Pahom always wants more is never satisfied 0 Grass is always greener on the other side 0 Greediness eventually leads to his demise How much is enough 0 People always want more 0 Study in America states that people always want double no matter what they have 0 Pahom always listed over new opportunities for more Bashkirs 0 Good example of Epicureans 0 Simply satisfying basic wants and needs Pahom 0 Example of a Hedonist 0 Only lives for pleasure Final Thoughts 0 Greed demise 0 How much land does a man truly need Grave 6 feet from head to toe IRONIC 0 For a man whom enough is not enough nothing will ever be enough Tolstoy 20 Leo Tolstoy 1828 1910 My Confessions First Truth Pursuit of Comfort 0 Very privileged life as an admired writer 0 Rich married w children First truth the idea that it is necessary to derive the greatest comfort for oneself and one s family Second Truth Death Tolstoy fears death My life is a stupid mean trick played on me by somebody Suicidal There is nothing in life and there never will be anything No sensible meaning to a single act of his whole life Sooner or later there should be nothing left but stench and worms All things will be forgotten Inevitability of death 0 So why wait Analogy hold onto the branch of life with the dragon of death below you and bad above you What do you do Deception in the pleasures of life Searches for answers of meaning of life 0 Looks to science atom which destroys meaning 0 No rational explanation Third Truth Faith Found his answer in working class the irrational answer of faith In order to understand life he had to renounce knowledge How must I live 0 According to God s Law Faith gave his life meaning Faith is not merely an evidence of things not seen and so forth not revelation not the relation of man to man not merely an agreement with what a man is told Faith was the knowledge of the meaning of human life in consequence of which man did not destroy himself but lived power of life Art as Decay Art is the honey in the analogy Art adornment of life When looking death in the face the superficial pleasures art bring became meaningless Look at life through the mirror of art but cannot find the meaning of life Begins to see art as a destruction from main focus Science 0 Did not like answer as it diminished any possibility of the meaning of life RationalityReason 0 Speculative answers to the meaning of life 0 If it s all stench and worms in the end what s the point of anything 0 Why do things exist Because they exist 0 Meaning of life consists in evolution and the cooperation within it Irrationality 0 Suicidal 0 Has to hide weapons from himself 0 Sinks into irrational depression 0 He has everything but still seeks for the greater answer 0 Possible that Tolstoy had a void Learned vs Common People 0 Learned people gave him rational answers he found no comfort in 0 You can t understand the meaning of life do not think live 0 Common people gave him an irrational answer in faith 0 Only people who had an absolute believeddefinite answer to the meaning of life 0 Without faith one cannot live 0 Common people knew how to live and die 0 Tolstoy began to love these people Transform into them 0 Devotes the rest of his life to faith 0 The life of the working class masses of all humanity which created life that was life itself and that the meaning given to this life was truth Epicuris Hedonism ML 538 Name of School The Garden Main Points 0 Live prudently so one can reach ataraXia Physicalmental undisturbedness 0 Do NOT fear death 0 Atomism 0 Everything is composed of tiny particles ATOMS O Eventually have to come apart 0 Form amp reform 0 Nothing lasts forever because everything is made of atoms even Godsdeath is inevitable 0 The Garden 0 Epicurus school 0 Kept to themselves 0 Were viewed as pigs by society because of focus on pleasure 0 Hedonism O Epicurean hedonism is different than the modern perception Pleasures come from sober reasoning For the man whom enough is not enough nothing will ever be enough A piece of cheese few olives and friends are all an Epicurean needs Limit of quantity in pleasures is the removal of all that is painful Not possible to live a pleasant life that is not prudent honorable and just I NO virtue no pleasantness 0 Think closely on your decisions 0 Not all pain is evil and not all pleasure is good 0 Just free from trouble 0 Tranquility peace of mind 0 Through prudence and good decision making one will find peace of mind 0 Contentedness 0 If you are content with a little you will be better off because where there is a 00000 little there will ever be a lack 0 Ataraxia 0 GOAL OF LIFE I Longterm happiness 39 Carefully make decisions based on whether the thing in question will contribute to your ataraXia 0 Fear of Death 0 so it does not matter to us because we are only concerned with goodbad sensations Good news Death is the end Find comfort that any dead loved will never suffer again Death eternal safety It is inevitable because nothing made of atoms lasts forever ATOMISM 0 Fear of the Gods Gods role model to reaching ataraXia immortal blessedness Gods do NOT punish or reward Gods are not motivated by revenge or favor Epicurus did not believe in these scary Greek gods of the time Gods are above human emotions O O O 0 00000 0 Karma not distributed through Gods I 3 Types of Desires 0 Natural and Necessary I Food and drink 0 Natural not necessary I Sex luxury food I Don t be dependent for your happiness 0 Vain and Empty I Love affairs I Does NOT contributing to ataraXia 0 Final Thoughts on Epicurus 0 Human psychology is naturally unquenchable which makes its difficult to achieve happiness through constant effort and pursuit People always want double 0 Curb your natural need for more so you can live a more content life 0 If gods are immortal and made of atoms then like a waterfall the atoms from which the Gods are made of are constantly replenished I Epicurus on Friendship 0 We should seek pleasure in conversation friendship a good simple diet and a prudent life 0 Choose friends similar to you 0 Of all the things which wisdom acquires to produce the blessedness of the complete life far the greatest is friendship I Epicurean Ethics O No absolute right or wrong 0 USE PRUDENCE 0 Natural justice is reciprocal benefit because it prevents one man from harming or being harmed by another Dominguez and Robin Your Money or Your Life 0 Voluntary Simplicity 0 Choose to scale back your impact 0 Very hard to be happy if you require a lot of material things to be happy Epicurean 0 Happiness is more important than money I Work moreless time happiness 0 Not making a living we are making a dying O 54 of Americans believe they have less free time than five years ago How much money would it take to make you happy More than I have now Take identity and selfworth from jobs Caste system based on what you do for money jobism Working for the weekends Official work week 40 hours a week 00000 I Actual More than that to keep up 0 Less money more debt I Working more so more money right amp I SPEND MORE THAN WE MAKE OR HAVE I Savings rate has decreased 50 since 1973 I We choose debt consciously every time we buy something we can t afford I Levels of Debt Lock of saving make working a lot necessary 0 If you re born poor it s not your fault but if you die poor it is I Every man woman and child owes 3000 on average probz more now I Work and spend on treadmill 0 What about Happiness I 3 can t complain I Average score 26 28 0 Roy Kaplan Study I Always need more to be happy I Never Content I Living for the weekend I Materialism O Damage to the Planet I Earth is not an inexhaustible resource I Primary engines driving global environmental problems is North American patterns of excess consumption I If we respect each other and respect the community all of our sheep get fed and the community thrives But if some look out for only themselves they may start grazing extra sheep Goodwill is gone and the community suffers I We enjoy our current level of af uence by nature I In the last decade US went from biggest creditor to biggest debtor I Huge gap between rich and poor I We must scale back or the earth will force us too 0 Is more Better I Who is better off 0 Obviously not us or the planet I Subconscious competitive nature I The more we have the more we want 0 Limits to Growth I Economy is growth is good I Fuel from economic growth come from nature and nature is not abundant RSS runs out I Always a point individualspecific population collapsesdies due to lack of RSS or stabilizes at a level the environment can handle I Not my problem I Selfishegotistical I Idea that someone will always save us 0 Af uenza I Movie we watched
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