IR Exam Part 2; Study Guide
IR Exam Part 2; Study Guide POSC 1020
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Quinn Riley on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POSC 1020 at Clemson University taught by Lydia Lundgren in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 242 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Relations in Political Science at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
IR PART TWO STUDY GUIDE Mercantilism A De nition An economic doctrine based on a belief that military power and economic in uence were complements B Application to International Relations The establishment of monopolies by way of mercantilism allowed for control of trade and other economic activities by actors within the international system In a country s control of trade they were able to manipulate activity so that they could funnel money into the government and its business supporters This pertains to international relations in that the creation of colonies within mercantilism allowed for policies that favored the mother country and subjected said country s colonial possessions to limited purchasing power limited imports reduced pro ts for crops and more expensive goods mostly coming from the mother country In doing so mother country s stemming from Europe battled one another for colonial possessions and global predominance Mercantilism sought to subdue the populations of their empires and expand at the expense of other European rulers Therefore elements of both war and bargaining are found within mercantilism Perhaps one of the only bene ts to colonists under mercantilist rule was that they therefore assumed the protection of the mother country from other actors C Historical Example A wide variety of historical examples can be cited within the realm of mercantilism Throughout the 16th through the 18th centuries colonial empires took hold all over the globe One of the most notable examples of mercantilist policies within colonial possessions is the British colonial rule over North America The thirteen colonies were subjected to limited importing and exporting and reduced pro ts coupled with higher prices In colonial Virginia for instance tobacco that was produced could only be sold to England and Virginians could only buy manufactured goods from England Subjects received less for what they produced and paid more for what they consumed Peace of Westphalia A De nition The settlement that ended the Thirty Years War in 1648 B Application to International Relations The Thirty Years War maintained that international politics and markets were battlegrounds on which major powers fought Supremacy in Europe was closely tied to the battle for possessions all over the world When the French Dutch and other allies ensured the decline of Spain the Peace of Westphalia was drafted and signed so as to stabilize borders limit religious con ict and call on governments not to interfere with the internal affairs of other countries This general recognition of an individual states right to their own territory is said to be the beginnings of the modern system of states and the principle of sovereignty C Historical Example Initially the Spanish and the Portuguese fought for predominance in the New World When Spain amounted victorious they faced new contenders on the mercantilist battle eld Spanish possessions in the Netherlands revoted and linked arms once again with the Dutch while the British continually challenged Spain Ultimately the Spanish were defeated when the aforementioned contenders cooperated by forming an alliance The Peace of Westphalia saw the formation of national sovereignty countries were no longer operating under the notion of the previous world order Now territories were to be respected and borders were to be upheld Sovereignty A De nition The expectation that states have legal and political supremacy or ultimate authority within their territorial boundaries BApplication to International Relations A states sovereignty and recognition of that sovereignty by other actors within the international system is crucial to the concept of statehood When a state has the ultimate authority over their own policies and political processes they are able to maintain their own domestic order and provision of governance However this is only on the individual state level When one zooms outward and views sovereignty within the context of the entire globe of states a question is raised if each state controls their own people borders laws and norms whom does a state adhere to Who is above them Thus the concept of international anarchy is born in which there is an everpersistent absence of a central authority with the ability to make and enforce laws that bind all actors However the core principles of sovereignty are violated all the time the invasion of a country by another country for example is a violation of national sovereignty CHistorical Example When the French Dutch and other allies ensured the decline of Spain during the Thirty Years War the Peace of Westphalia was drafted and signed so as to stabilize borders limit religious con ict and call on governments not to interfere with the internal affairs of other countries This general recognition of an individual states right to their own territory is said to be the beginnings of the modern system of states and the principle of sovereignty Historical examples of sovereignty from this point forward consist of upholding and violations of the concept when President Bush made the decision to invade Iraq he decided that the reward associated with this risk was more bene cial to him the outcome of war was more bene cial than bargaining and therefore moved forward with his action in violating the sovereignty of Iraq Public Goods Collective Action Problems A De nition PG Individually and socially desirable goods that are nonexcludable and nonrival in consumption CAP Obstacles to cooperation that occur when actors have incentives to collaborate but each acts in anticipation that others will pay the costs of cooperation B Application to International Relations The public goods within today s international system compose elements of problems within collaboration Due to the nature inherent to public goods others cant be excluded from it and all can enjoy it one person s consumption of the good doesn t change the quantity available to others the ongoing assumption is made that actors can enjoy public goods whether or not they contribute to the provision of those goods This in turn produces what are known as collective action problems or obstacles to cooperation that occur when actors have incentives to collaborate but each acts in anticipation that others will pay the costs of cooperation Therefore efforts to produce public goods pose problems to cooperation in that actors are not willing to bear the costs of these goods themselves and would rather sit back and watch others incur the costs while sharing in the bene t CHistorical Examples National defense clean environment and the eradication of communicable diseases are examples of public goods However in the context of national defense individuals would rather bene t from national security without paying taxes or volunteering for military service producing a collective action problem lndivisible Good A De nition A good that cannot be divided without diminishing its value BApplication to International Relations lndivisible goods often create insurmountable obstacles in crisis bargaining When the good in question is indivisible compromise solutions are impossible to reach making bargaining become quotall or nothingquot States are often willing to go to war over indivisible goods because a split in any sort of way is not possible However within the realm of international relations what goods are truly indivisible Political scientists attempt to answer this question both theoretically and empirically CHistorical Examples The city ofJerusalem is commonly cited as an example of an indivisible good within the realm of international relations Islam Christianity and Judaism each have relics cultural practices and ethnocultural ties to this city therefore making it nearly impossible to divvy up due to each groups interest in it
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