Chapter 3 Definitions
Chapter 3 Definitions CRIM 3304
Popular in Research Methods
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melinda Hoang on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CRIM 3304 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Thomislav Kovandzic in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Chapter 3 De nition Theory A systematic explanation for the observed facts and laws that relate to a particular aspect of life Theories explain what we see and paradigms offers a way of looking Hypothesis An explanation about the nature of things derived from a theory Aggregates Motivations that affect individuals Attributes Characteristics or qualities that describe some object such as a person EX Males and Female Variables Logical groupings or attributes EX Gender Dependent Variable Depends on another Y axis The result The variable we are trying to explain 0 Independent Variable Stands alone and does not change EX Age X Axis Free to do whatever Responsible for causing change in the DV ldiographic Discovery of particular scienti c facts and processes Creditable and Believable 0 Whether alternative explanation Nomothetic Explanation of cause and effect Focus on key determinants of an event 0 Time order Independent variable must precede the dependent in time x became before y 0 Correlation Correspondence between two variables Nonspurious Relationship between two variables is not caused by a third Inductive Reasoning Moves from speci c to general Discovering explanations for a particular set of facts by estimating the weight of the observational evidence The result A Theory Deductive Reasoning Moves from general to speci c Hypothesesexpectation from theories Causation Focus of the explanatory and evaluation research Validity Approximate truth of an inference Units of Analysis Variation in what or who is studied 0 Individuals An individual in a group Describe the population that comprises those individuals 0 Groups Variables lmplies some population of groups exists EX Cities Nations gangs amp police betas 0 Organizations Formal social organization EX corporations correctional facilities courtrooms drug treatment facilities amp police departments 0 Social Artifacts Product of social beings and their behavior EX Newspapers televisions textbook and Internet sources Ecological Fallacy Danger of making assertion about individuals as the unit of analysis based on the examination of groups or other aggregation CrossSectional Based on observations made at one point AKA quotSnap Shotquot Study done once Longitudinal Observations are made at many times Examine differences across time 0 Trend Studies Examine changes in a population across time Each study collects data from different individuals Ex Collect data in 2000 about subject collect again from a different people in 2008 Cohort Studies Examines changes in a cohort across time Each study collects data from different individuals within the same cohort Same sample group variable EX Ages 0 Panel Studies Examines changes in individuals across time Study collects data from the same individuals Logical lnferences Retrospective Studies Type of Cross Sectional An attempt to approximate changes over time Ask people to recall their past 0 Problems with technique 0 Faulty memories 0 Records may be unavailable incomplete or inaccurate Notes Research Design RD is the planning of scienti c inquiry quotGame plan or quotblue printquot Purpose of Empirical Research Exploration Need for a better understanding of an area GOAL is quotwhat is going on herequot Descriptions quotHow and whoquot questions Does not explain why it happened EX pools NCVS amp UCR Explanation Explains why event occur predict future events Application Speci c facts and ndings 0 Evaluation Research 0 Policy Analysis Anticipate the future consequences of alternative actions
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