Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide BIO 110
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amara Brinks on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 110 at Central Michigan University taught by Seefelt, Nancy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Concepts of Biology in Biology at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
BIOLOGY 110 EXAM 1 REVIEW INTRODUCTION 1 What are the properties of life Order Complex but organized Regulation Growth and Development Energy Processing Response to the environment Reproduction Evolutionary Adaptation 2 What are the main themes of Biology 1 2 3 4 5 5 Organisms interact with each other and the environment Life requires energy transfer and transformation Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological function The cell is the basic unit of life Continuity of life is based on heritable information DNA Feedback systems regulate biological systems 3 What is science include the forms of science Seeks natural causes for natural phenomena it is limited to the study of things that can be observed or measured Discovery Science Verifiable observations and measurements can lead to inductive reasoning HypothesisDriven Science Uses scientific method uses deductive logic 4 How do scientists research their scientific questions scientific method 1 2 3 4 5 Make observation Formulate hypothesis Predictions Tests experiments or observations Draw conclusions and make revisions 5 What are negative and positive feedback systems Negative Feedback System Cause a system to change in the opposite direction Positive Feedback System Cause a system to change further in the same direction 6 What drives natural selection 1 2 3 Organisms have high reproductive rates Competition for limited resources Survival of the few BASIC CHEMISTRY 1 Matter Anything that takes up space and has mass 2 Elements A substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions 9 NP P PS 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Atoms The smallest unit of matter that still retains properties of an element Isotopes Different atomic forms of the same element Molecules Two or more atoms held together by a covalent bond Compounds A substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio Ions Charged atoms pH scale Negative logarithm ofthe hydrogen ion concentration gt7basic lt7 acidic Buffers Substance that minimizes changes in the concentrations of H and OH in a solution What elements are essential for life Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen and Nitrogen make up 96 of living matter Calcium Phosphorus Potassium and Sulfur make up most ofthe remaining 4 Describe an atoms structure Positive nucleus with protons and neutrons Negative shells with electrons orbiting nucleus What is a Hydrogen bond Form between molecules that are bonded together by polar covalent bonds Weak chemical bonds between molecules What is a covalent bond Two atoms Sh electrons Generally the most stable chemical bond Breaking the bonds creates energy Most biological molecules are held together by them What is an ionic bond Formed by transferring electrons The most electronegative element strips the electrons away from the other element What are the properties of water CohesionSurface Tension Water is more attracted to itself than air at an airwater boundary High Specific Heat Water is not easily boiled by natural factors body heat DensityTemperature Relationships Water is more dense when at a higher temperature ice floats Solvent Properties Water acts as a solvent for both ionic compounds and polar covalently bonded compounds What are Acids Substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution What are bases A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution What are buffers Substance that minimizes changes in the concentrations of H and OH in a solution What are cations and anions Cations positive ions Anions negative ions ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 1 How does Carbon contribute to the properties of organic compounds Carbon is highly reactive Forms chains or rings that forms the quotbackbonequot of organic compounds 2 What are the important chemical groups Hydroxyl Carboxyl Methyl Amino Phosphate What are dehydration and hydrolysis Dehydration Water is brought out of macromolecules Hydrolysis Water is added into the bonds to make them weaker What are carbohydrates and how are they classified Important for photosynthesis and metabolism The energy in them can be used to make ATP Made up of Carbon Hydrogen and Oxygen Classification Monosaccharide 1 sugar 56 carbons Disaccharide 2 sugars Polysaccharide 3 or more sugars What are proteins and their various structures Building blocks of life Held together by peptide bonds Structures Primary Structure long chain of amino acids polypeptide Secondary Structure Chain with hydrogen bond interactions helix shape Tertiary Structure Interactions between R groups more twisted Quaternary Structure 2 or more polypeptides linked together A protein is made of an amino group Carboxyl group Hydrogen and an R group What are lipids Important for fuel Insoluble in water Phospholipid like fats but have 2 fatty acid chains and one phosphate head the fatty acid chains are hydrophobic phosphate is hydrophilic Fatty acids will orient towards each other while phosphate will orientate to the outside forming a protective barrier Fats 3 fatty acid chains connected to a Glycerol backbone Steroids large and complex formed from carbon rings What are nucleic acids Important for all aspects of life Store and transfer information within a cell Built of nucleotides Phosphate group sugar nitrogenous base A T C G U monomers for nucleic acids A T C 6 DNA A U C 6 RNA THE CELL 1 What is cell theory First discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke Cell Theory All organisms are composed of one or more cells The cell is the smallest unit of life Only living cells give rise to new cells What are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic Cells Simpler cells that lack a nucleus smaller don t have membrane bound organelles Eukaryotic Cells Contain a nucleus larger membrane bound organelles more complex They both have DNA and ribosomes Unicellular one cell bacteria and most protists Multicellular many cells animals and most plants and fungi What does the Plasma membrane do Separates the inside from the outside of the cell Formed from a phospholipid bilayer proteins carbohydrates fats and cholesterol Transports materials into and out of the cell cell recognition attachment sending and receiving cellular messages What does the Cytoplasm do Cytosol surrounds organelles and is 7590 water with dissolved ions and molecules What do the Nucleus and Ribosomes do Control center of the cell Surrounded by a double membrane nuclear envelope Pores allow materials to enter and exit nucleus Genes in the nucleus store information Has long fibers called Chromatin Nucleolus forms components of the ribosomes Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis DNA controls the cell by transferring its information to RNA and the information from RNA is used in the ribosomes to create proteins DNA never leaves the nucleus Name all organelles and their functions Endoplasmic Reticulum ER Rough ER has ribosomes and makes proteins Smooth ER has no ribosomes and makes lipids After a molecule is synthesized in the ER it is put into transport vesicles to leave the ER Golgi Apparatus Modifies stores and distributes the chemical products made in the ER Lysosomes Membrane enclosed sacs that have digestive enzymes to break down macromolecules Vacuoles Fluid filled sacs Many types Food Vacuoles Contractile Vacuoles Central Vacuoles Chloroplasts Sites of photosynthesis Only found in plants and photosynthetic protists Contains its own DNA Mitochond rila Sites of cellular respiration Preduces ATPfrom feed molecules Contains its own DNA The Cytosk eleton Network of protein fibers inside the ce Ill Supports and afintyaiins thes ha pe of the cell Can change the shape of the cell allowing it to move Cilia and Flagella are motilityappendages powered by the cytoskeleton THE WORKING CELL PWP Energy The capacity to do work or transfer heat Potential energy Energy that is stored and available for use Chemical bonds food ATP Kinetic energy Energy contained in moving objects Laws of Thermodynamics First Law Energy is neither created nor destroyed it may be transferred or transformed Second Law Thee transfer or transformation of energy is never 100 efficient some energy is dissipated or converted to a nonuseful form What is ATP Adenosine Triphosphate contains an adenosine plus a tail of 3 phosphate groups That energy is the only energy the cell can use to do work What are enzymes Specialized proteins that speed up catalyze a reaction Can only be used for one specific reaction Can be used over and over to do that specific reaction Lower the amount of energy needed to begin a reaction activation energy The activation site on the enzyme has a special shape that will only fit one type of substrate What is the membranes function Pass materials in and out of the cell Passive movement Diffusion molecules go from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration Simple Diffusion movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration through a semi permeable membrane Osmosis movement of water across a semi permeable membrane Active movement across the membrane Active Transport The use of carrier proteins to move molecules across the membrane from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration Energy is required for this to happen because it goes against the concentration gradient Phagocytosis Process by where a vacuole is used to engulf a particle and move it across the membrane Used for molecules that are too big to pass through the membrane Pinocytosis Process by which a pinocytic vessel is used to engulf molecules dissolved in water and move them across the membrane A process that brings things into the cell using phagocytosis or pinocytosis is called Endocytosis A process that removes things from the cell either by phagocytosis or pinocytosis is called Exocytosis Hypertonic A solution with higher concentration of solutes than another solution you are comparing it to When a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution it will crenate shrivel Because water will be sucked out of it Hypotonic A solution with lower concentration of solutes than another solution you are comparing it to When a cell is place in a Hypoton ic solution it will Lyse expand because water will go into it Igoton ijc Both seo lution s have equal concentration of solute When a cell is in an isotonic solution be normal Solutions always will try to become isotonic CELL LIFE CYCLEMITOSIS 1 What are the phases of the cell life cycle 1 Interphase a Gap One G1 i First growth phase ii Cell grows in volume iii Produces various cellular components b Synthesis S i DNA is replicated c Gap Two G2 i Second growth phase ii Final preparations for mitotic divisions 2 Mitosis a Prophase i Nuclear envelope breaks down ii Mitotic spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes b Metaphase i The chromosomes line up in the center of the cell Anaphase i The sister chromatids are separated as the mitotic spindle pulls them to opposite ends of the cell Telophase i The nuclear envelope of each daughter cell begins to form and cytokinesis cytoplasm division 2 Why is cell division necessary Growth Add new cells Maintenance Replace cells that have become old Repair Replace cells that have been damaged 3 Why is cell division important to understand cancer Normal cells will divide until there is no room left cancer cells will continue to divide and stack onto each other Cancer cells never stop dividing and will spread throughout the body
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