Study Guide for Test 1
Study Guide for Test 1 MC 1301
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Delishajernigan Notetaker on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MC 1301 at Texas State University taught by Laurie Fluker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Mass Communication in Journalism and Mass Communications at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Chapter 1 Study Guide The Evolution of Mass Communication Different Communication Tvnes o Intrapersonal daydreaming silent language 0 Interpersonal includes all aspects of personal interaction or contact 0 Mass Communication when messages are sent through technology feedback is much more delayed Problems with Communication 0 Noise anything that interferes with the transmission of a message may occur smudged print reception problems lawn mowers 0 Feedback crucial because message may be misinterpreted unclear delayed etc George GuessSeguoyah 0 Father whitemother Cherokee handicapped never learned to read or write English Cherokee felt they were meant to hunt with bows amp arrows not read 0 Devised a system adopted by the Cherokee nation in 1825 nation awarded Guess a silver medal for his contributions before his death Culture 0 Culture defined as the behaviorsbeliefs characteristic of a particular social ethnic or age group the learned behaviors of whatever group to which you belong 0 Another definition of culture the sum total of ways of living built up by a group over a period of time and passed on from one generation to another Early Cultures amp Storytelling 0 Oral cultures passed on info from one generation to the next without benefit of writing 0 1St important communicators rlv Writinq Cultures 0 Sumerians cuneiform they lived in Sumer the city found between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers that led the way in the history of writing 0 Egyptians created hieroglyphs w2000 symbols used papyrus writing surface derived from plants along the Nile and parchment writing surface from the skins of goat amp sheep Rosetta Stone found by Napoleon French and his troops in the city of Rashid o Phoenicians developed 1St syllable alphabet 0 Chinese credited with developing paper centuries before paper was available in Europe Printing Press 0 Gutenberg gave 1St printing press winterchangeable letters 0 Five years after the printing press 12 million books published in Europe Overview of Media Changes 0 1939 Television debuts at the New York City World s Fair 0 1960 US transitions to information society 0 1975 1st personal computer introduced SATCOM 1 was 1st satellite approved it is sustained about 22300 miles above the Equator Home Box Office was the 1st premium cable network offered 0 1982 CD 1St digital music recording medium introduced 1 o 1996 Telecommunications Act of 1996 changes US media policy particularly ownership Pivotal Moments in Televisi o 1963 TV reaches maturity o 1975 HBO goes on satellite 0 1976 1St basic cable service amp WTBS debut o 1996 Telecommunication Act triggers mergers Computer Development 0 Computers date back to the 19th century 0 People with mathematical expertise were referred to as computers they calculated tables but had plenty of mistakes Collossus was the digital computer used by the British ENIAC was the digital computer used initially here in America 0 President Eisenhower established the project that created the American computer network Chapter 2 Study Guide Media Transformation amp Transition The Founding of a Dvnastv Apple 0 Jobs was the visionary amp master salesman for the company Wozniak developed the company s 1St personal computer Apple and its second Apple II Wayne developed Apple s initial logo wrote the manual for Apple and drew up the partnership agreement Wayne later bowed out before Apple became a powerhouse The Problems at Hand 0 Convergence erosion of traditional distinctions among media some phones allow you to surf the net watch television shows amp movies oh and use the phone Conglomeration media bought by nonmedia companies mnqinq Audiences 0 Silent Generation 19281945 Fought in World War II 7087 years old 0 Millennials 19781990 Gen Y MTV Boomerang 2537 Technoloqical Innovations 0 Fiber optic cable appeared in the mid19803 featuring thin bundles of fiber incorporating glass amp pulses of light eBay 0 Originally called AuctionWeb 1St sold a broken laser pointer for 1483 0 Bought PayPal in 2002 now have a 25 stake in Craigslist acquired Skype in 05 Future of Mobile Payments 0 Right now boils down to a race among Google Amazon amp Apple E x CD Founded in 2003 by Zennstrom of Sweden amp Friis of Denmark eBay reported to have paid 26 billion in cash for the service in 05 in 2011 eBay allowed Microsoft to buy 70 of Skype both Google amp Facebook offered 2 billion for Skype 2 Mark Zuckerberg o Zuckerberg had created Synapse a music website intended to anticipate user preferences offered 1 million by Microsoft Chosen Time magazine s 2010 Man of the Year cebook Initial Pub c Offering 0 Facebook s IPO was one of the most problematic openings in NASDAQ history 2014 MostTalkedAbout EntertainersUS Beyonce 2014 MostTalkedAbout TV ShowsUs Game of Thrones lnstagram Facebook acquired it for 1 billion in cash Application developed in 2010 by Systrom amp Krieger Most liked photo ever Kimye Wedding Busiest day ever Thanksgiving1St day of Hanukkah 2013 Snapchat s Inception o Begun by Stanford University students Spiegel Brown amp Murphy 0 Brown expressed a desire to have pics disappear after being sent 0 Facebook created Poke as competition for Snapchat but not successful 0 Brown later ousted MySpace 0 2007 was the greatest year for the MySpace site 0 June 2011 Specific Media Group amp Justin Timberlake purchased the website for 35 million Twitter 0 Founded by Dorsey Stone amp Williams in 06 first called Status 0 On 11509 when US AinNays Flight 1549 crashed in the Hudson River witness tweeted crash pic scooped journalists for the first time Google Founded by computer science grad students Page amp Brin at Stanford in 1998 Began the search engine BackRub that later became Google Goo le Timeline 0 2000 Launched AdWords service that allows ads to appear for businesses when searched o 2003 Launched AdSense websites get paid for displaying Google ads 0 2006 Purchased YouTube for 1 658 o 2014 Purchased Nest for 328 a smart thermostat amp smoke detector company Google s entry into the smart home market YouTube 0 Founded by Hurley Chen amp Karim in 05 the site now sees television as its prime competitor 3 Yahoo 0 Begun by electrical engineering PhD candidates Filo amp Yang Pinterest o Developed by Silbermann a former product designer for Google 0 Nordstrom is the most followed brand Other Maior Players 0 Coinstar RedBox In addition to coincounting machines now own RedBox with 23000 DVD rental kiosks across the US o Hulu Begun by NBC amp Fox now includes Disney in ownership 0 Netflix Reed Hastings Netflix in 20132014 0 This videostreaming service with total season downloads has been compared to iTunes in the music world Chapter 3 Study Guide Mass Media Ownership Top Powerful Media Corporations 2014 The Disney Company News Corporation Time Warner CBSNiacom NBC Universal GEComcast The Disnev Companv 1 0 Disney Company owns ABC Pixar Lucasfilm Marvel Comics Disney Studios Buena Vista Touchstone Miramax Entertainment amp Sports Programming Network ESPN Disnev s Hot Prooerties ABC the 3 television network Pixar a dozen fulllength animated hits deal worth 74 billion Marvel the 1 comic book publisher 40 market share deal worth 4 billion Lucasfilm 20 Academy Awards deal worth 4 billion Pixar Success 0 Pixar has received 210 awards including 23 Academy Awards 5 Golden Globes 11 Grammys Disney amp Pixar s Joint Venture 0 Disney executive Michael Eisner s relationship with Jobs almost ended the DisneyApple joint venture Disnev Animation amp Buena Vista Successes Six of the top 15 alltime highest grossing films The Maqic of Frozen o The most successful highest grossing animated film EVER earning 12 billion worldwide Timeline of Jobs Career 0 2001 Launches iPod in November changed the face of media consumption 0 2007 Launches the iPhone as of 2015 the bestselling technical gadget ever 0 Oct 5 2011 Jobs dies Apple now is the world s most valuable company News Cor oration 2 amp Ru ert Murdoch 0 Chairman amp CEO News Corp is Rupert Murdoch Fortune named him the 2 most powerful person in business Fox Hot Prooerties o The Wall Street Journal the 1 daily newspaper in the US Ted Turner amp warner Brothers Merqe Time warner Results 3 0 Ted Turner coined the word superstation 0 Time Warner owns CW 50 Warner Brothers HannaBarbera HBO Cinemax CNN Cartoon Network Time Sports Illustrated People DC Comics ViacomCBS 4 ViacomCBS own CBS CW 50 ownership with Time Warner Paramount Studios CBS Productions King World Productions Showtime Spike TV MTV MTV2 Noggin VH1 Nickelodeon BET GENBC Universal amp Comcast 5 0 NBC Universal owns NBC Telemundo part of PAX 14 NBC O amp Os 15 Telemundo O amp Os NBC Universal Studios MSNBC CNBC Bravo Trio USA Syfy 5 theme parks Comcast o Presently the largest multiple system operator MSO meaning it owns multiple cable operations across the country 24 million customers Time Warner is the second largest M80 in the country 2014 Broadcast Network Rankings 1 CBS 2 Fox 3 ABC 4 NBC Net Neutralit o In 2003 Columbia University Professor Tim Wu first coined the term network neutralityquot Extent of Media s Reach 0 37 million people in the US will tune in to a primetime TV show on a typical Sunday night largest audience Saturday then Friday least watched nights Thursday pivotal for advertisers Definitions to Know 0 Broadcasting the transmission of a signal using the ainNaves regulated by the government 0 Networks the entity that provides programming particularly primetime for local organizations 0 Affiliates local the entity that contracts with major organizations agreeing to carry the majority of the organization s programs Chapter 4 Study Guide Mass Communication Effects Mass Communication Research 0 Clear media do affect us but how much amp to what degree effects closely studied by psychologists sociologists amp social psychologists Charles Horton Coolev Pioneer One of 1St social psychologists to try to explain media s role Cooley s views 1 media encourage individuality 2 media limit distribution of new ideas thus lead to assimilation 3 media give people information on other s lives Movie Industry Concerns 0 Charlie Chaplin one of the most popular Hollywood actors helped bring large audiences to his films The Kid 1921 amp The Gold Rush 1925 0 Motion Picture Research Council questioned amount of influence on children launched one of the largest studies funded by the Payne Fund 0 Payne Fund extensive research project 13 studies began in 1928 each answering a different ques on 0 How much info was retained Over 3 yrs 3000 tested at 6 wks then 3 months retention rates high among all groups sleeper effect showed info can sit dormant in subconscious amp emerge over time movies did provide special format for learning Payne Fund Studies Results Unable to find definitive answers to all of the questions Found that movies do have an effect on children Groundbreaking discovery adultschildren learn from media Discovered that what audiences learn affects how they live their lives changed way academics viewed communication amp media Research Turns to RadioOrson Welles On October 30 1938 theater director Orson Welles adapted the HG Wells novel The War of the Worlds with fictional news bulletins amp interruptions on CBS Suggestibilitv Remrch Resulting from war Broadcast o Researcher Cantril amp other broadcasters at Princeton University interviewed amp observed to identify causes of the panic generated by War of the Worlds Suggestibility rather than less education a cause Lasswell s Hypodermic NeedleDirect Effects 0 Theorist Lasswell theorized this one of the 1St true theories to deal with mass media effects 1920s amp 1930s 0 1930s Nazi Germany s intelligent use of radio film amp print media an example 0 Lasswell went on to ask one of the most important questions of research who says what in which channel to whom amp with what effect led future research Lazarsfeld amp Political Power Research 0 1940s Lazarsfeld amp colleagues wondered if mass media had an influence on voting and politics 0 Political party affiliation more important Selective Perception Theory 0 Lazarsfeld Individuals respond amp perceive messages selectively based on their own personal needs pay close attention to some things ignore others 6 TwoStep Flow Research 0 Lazarsfeld amp Katz political science research suggest that media messages 1St influence economic amp political power elites or opinion leaders who put their own spin on messages 1 St step then later pass them on through interpersonal contact or by using media messages 2nd step 0 Popular in the 1950s amp 1960s lost power once media channels expanded allowing more access The Technological School 0 Impact comes from media the technology itself rather than their messages Technological School Toronto School Marshall McLuhan s the medium is the message looks at how technology impacts audiences McLuhan s mentor lnnis felt media are extensions of human mind amp body Joshua Meyrowitz s 1985 No Sense of Place examines the influence of electronic media on our cultural environments 0 Manuel Castells 3 volumes focus on how new media amp technologies are changing how we organize our lives amp define ourselves ThirdPerson Effects Research 0 1980s theory that suggests people tend to believe media messages affect amp influence others more than themselves Indirect Effects Research 0 People tend to perceive the effect of messages of others then react to their perception you become tempted to jump on the bandwagon so you won t be left out Social LearningModeling Theories 0 Social learning involves learning behavior that is controlled by environmental influences rather than internal influences o Bandura used dolls in his research with children and found that children learn aggression sharing cooperation social interactions amp disappointment from individuals in their environment History of Media Violence Concern o In 1960s 2 government commissions explored topic found some influence some causal relationship between watching amp acting violently Cartharsis Theory 0 Dates back to Aristotle who felt that viewing tragic plays people get to release emotions such as grief rage amp fear thus viewing violence in media helps aggressive people address their anger vicariously amp lessens aggressive behavior Cultivation Theorv 0 Gerbner amp Annenberg colleagues television cultivates the way people see the world thus there s a causal link to watching television amp how we perceive reality Mean World Svndrome 0 David Walsh violent video games can lead to violent behavior Violence and MUSE 0 Study found that hard rock 72 of videos and hiphoprap 48 of videos were most violent genres Areas of Concern with Violence 0 Increased levels of aggression 0 Mean world syndrome Desensitization Sex amp Pornoqraphv 0 Research begun in earnest in 1970 with the Presidential Commission on Obscenity amp Pornography Telecommunications Act of 1996 0 Most sweeping reforms in the field of telecommunications in 62 years 1934 0 One entire section dedicated to the issue of pornography on the Internet courts have struck most rules down as unconstitutional amp conflicting with the protections warranted by the First Amendment
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