EFB 320 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
EFB 320 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE EFB 320
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabrielle Donnelly on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EFB 320 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Tom Horton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see General Ecology in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Ecology Exam 1 This is not an allencompassing study guide however these are the important main ideas to study Look over your notes AND MOST IMPORTANTLY FIGURE NUMBERS FROM LECTURE IMPORTANT TIPS Chapters 23467 and small part of 5 pg 104110 of textbook Look at all of the figures Dr Horton mentioned in lecture there will be exact copies of the diagrams and questions about them Study the practice questions he gave us They will likely be on the exam Try to study the ecologists and their contributions may be matching questions on the test about them Study the SOIL LAYERS O A B etc Statistics What is variance What are the different stats useful for Q If a graph is skewed left or right what is the best measure for the center Median not mean Know that outliers skew data Standard deviation for a known set of data what is the distance from the mean for each data point Iarge standard deviation wide variance spread small standard deviation narrow variance spread and means data is very close to the mean Standard error for a population when comparing your known data tells you how close your data is to the mean of an unknown population of what you re studying Ex how close you are to the population mean of men s heights with your Ecology class data on mean men s heights Chapter 2 SOILS AND PHYSICAL WORLD Understand how acids and bases affect soils Basic soils leach nutrients out of soil so plants cannot use them What compounds affect pH H30 H ions cause acidity and OH ions create basic pH What nutrients are important to the environment Nitrogen Phosphorus Sulfur Calcium Magnesium Iron Sodium Nitrogen Phosphorus and Potassium are important for plantslimiting nutrients Carbonimportant for all organic life forms Difference between heterotrophs gain energy by consuming organic biological sources autotroph gain energy from inorganic sources photoautotrophs gain it from light and chemoautotroph gain energy from chemical bonds Chapter 3 ADAPTATIONS TO THE PHYSICAL WORLD Know plant adaptations C3 C4 and CAM C3 occurs in moist habitats where C02 uptake is linked in space and time considered inefficient because the plants open their stomata for CO2 and lose water C4 occurs in dry habitats where CO2 uptake and photosynthesis are separated in space CAM occurs in very dry habitats desert where CO2 uptake and photosynthesis are separated in space and time Conflict between need of CO2 uptake and minimizing H2O loss solved by changes in anatomy and physiology 5 important adaptations for plants in arid conditions 1 Stomates opening at different times of the day to avoid water loss at peak sun hours 2 Thick waxy cuticle on plant to prevent dessication drying out 3 Trichomes hairs on leaves or roots to increase surface area for absorption 4 Sunken stomates to reduce water loss 5 Reduced leaves to stop excessive evapotranspiration AII organisms need to excrete nitrogenous wastes as not doing so would cause a build up that would become toxic Know the different ways these organisms excrete the waste Humans excrete wastes in the form of urea in our urine Birds and reptiles excrete a pasty uric acid Fish excrete a dilute urine water salts ammonia Know temperature regulation homeotherms vs poikilotherms Poikilotherms cold blooded ectotherms Homeotherms warmblooded endotherms Partial homeotherms pythons skunk cabbage bees tuna hummingbirds at night they experience a torpid stage and slow down their body due to such high activity during the day Chapter 4 VARIATIONS IN THE ENVIRONMENT Understand El Nino and La Nina differences and effects Fig 49 48 413 El Nino ENSO El Nino southern oscillationis a reversal of the trade windsgtcauses an upwelling of nutrients in Californiagtcreates excessive productivity which is unhealthygttoo much productivity can cause things like algal blooms La Nina follows the traditional trade winds but is a more intensified version and exhibits extreme weather patternsgtaccentuates hot water traveling to New Guinea Water is most dense at 4 degrees Celsius Epilimnion top level of water in stratified lake warm and less dense more dissolved O2 Thermocline thin middle layer of water in lake that exhibits massive changes in temperature Hypolimnion lowest layer of water in lake that is cool and dense Geological features affect water flow and soil chemistry In Northern hemisphere South facing slopes are warmer and drier than North facing slopes Rainshadow effect 416 water rises and cools condenses and rains out on one side then winds sweep across the other side and create desert KNOW SOIL LAYERS horizonsfig 421 41 Odead organic matter Aminerals humus rich zone of leaching plant roots grow here 3 low organic matter clay deposition mineral deposits Cregolith unbroken rock and barely any organic matter no plant roots here Podzolization process in cold regions where needle leaved trees are predominant Fig 423 Laterization fig 424 in warm wet conditions of tropics and subtropics soils weather to great depths gtsoils are depleted of soluble substances and enriched with insoluble substances Chapter 5 READ PAGES 104110 ON STREAM INFORMATION Chapter 6 ORGANISMS Overarching question What is a species Forest elephants and savanna elephants thought to be the same but recently discovered to be different genera Giraffes are actually 6 different species throughout Africa and will not interbreed in the wild but will interbreed in captivity 3 ingredients of evolution by natural selection variation among individuals inheritance of that variation difference in fitness among individuals related to variation interaction between genotype and environment Rapid speciation adaptive radiation results from open niche space Ex Tarweed became a shrub in Hawaii and has many different shapes and forms depending on its environment Evoutionary fitness genetic contribution by an individual s descendants to future generations of its population the more offspring and individual produces the greater the fitness of that individual Understand phenotypic plasticity organism can change its phenotype not genotype due to environmental conditions a plant will grow shorter if its environment is not ideal in order to preserve energy Chapter 7 LIFE HISTORIES AND EVOLUTIONARY FITNESS Life history allocation of energy by an organism to reproductive effort via age at sexual maturity reproductive events parental investment number and size of offspring and life span Influenced by evolutionary responses to physical conditions food supply and species interactions prey predators competitors mutualists Allocation of resources TRADEOFFS for shorter lived organisms focuses fecunditygtgrowth wants to put out as many offspring as it can before it dies for longer living organisms focuses growthgtfecundity overtime the tree will have produced more offspring than a weed despite it taking a longer time to do so Predation affects prey populations and fitness if predation increases so will the number of offspring prey produces but they will put less energy into each individual offspring fish grow larger when there s low predation and smaller when there is high predation Iteroparous reproduce multiple times in organism s life high parity Ex humans rabbits Semelparous reproduce once in organism s life Ex salmon bamboo cicadas Senescence deterioration of physiological systems immune system repair mechanisms DNA accumulates mutations increased risk of cancer Ways to Increase Fitness resource storage tubers in plants squirrels storing nuts dormancy deciduous trees reduced metabolic activity hummingbirds hibernation bears diapause insects alternate sexes born each season metamorphosis amphibians insects migration geese wildebeest Species concepts morphological issues because there are different variations of trees that have spikes or do not have spikes due to phenotypic plasticity but are they the same species biological concept can these animals produce viable offspring Are mules not a species because they are infertile What about asexual bacteria phylogenetic concept tells you if the organisms are genetically the same
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