Exam #1 Study Guide
Exam #1 Study Guide Comm 3550
Popular in Communications in Public Relations
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sara Notetaker on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 3550 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Pyle in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Communications in Public Relations in Communication Studies at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Chapter 1 Key Concepts about Public Relations 0 Management Function the relationship between an organization and the publics important to its success must be a top concern of the organization s leadership therefore practitioners shape policies and must be able to measure the degree of their success in their various projects Twoway Communication Must be able to listen to people speak of their concerns and also telling people about an organization s needs PannedActivity Actions must be carefully planned and consistent with the organization s values and goals Researchbased Social Science Formal and informal research must be done to allow an organization to communicate effectively Socially Responsible expected to play a constructive role in society Public Relations Process does not re ect the real world 1 Research 0 Discovery phase 0 Practitioners use of formal and informal methods of info gathering to learn about an organization the challengesopportunities and publics important to its success 2 Planning 0 Strategy phase Practitioners use info gathered during research to develop strategies to meet the needs of their clientsorganizations 3 Communication Execution phase Practitioners direct messages to speci c publics in support of speci ed goals 4 Evaluation 0 Measurement of how efficientlyeffectively a PR s effort met the organization s goals ValuesDriven PR incorporates a dynamic version of the fourphase process of research planning communication and evaluation into the framework designed by an organization s core values o the process of uncovering not just where an organization wishes to go but also the principles the organization will observe in getting there 0 process begins with consideration of values during research phase Chapter 2 Resource Dependency Theory Organizations need resources to achieve their goals Some of those key resources are not controlled by the organization To acquire those resources organizations build productive relationships with the publics that control those resources Public Relations Managers Solve problems advise organizational leaders make policy decisions take responsibility for the successfailure of PR programs Most often found in organizations that operate in rapidly changing environmentsorganizations that encourage employee input Public Relations Technicians Rarely make strategic decisionsadvise others within the organization Prepare communications that help execute PR policies created by others More likely to be found in organizations in which the environment is stable and predictable Where are the jobs Corporations Nonpro t organizations and trade associations Governments Public Relations Agencies Independent Public Relations Consultancies Corporations Offer the most jobs in PRhave greatest variety of jobs Organizations that produce goods or services for a pro t 0 Ex manufacturers retailers sports organizations host of other forpro t organizations Focus on speci c publics 0 Ex employee relations media relations government relations community relations businesstobusiness relations or consumer relations marketing communications 0 understanding and appreciating all sides of a relationship between their organization and a particular public 0 quotspans the boundariesquot that separate their organization from important publics Traditional Entrylevel tasks 0 Employee relations Media relations Government relations public affairs Community relations Businesstobusiness relations BZB Consumer relations marketing communications Investor relations OOOOOO Nonpro t OrganizationsTrade Associations Can include universities hospitals churches foundations and other groups that provide a service without the expectation of earning a pro t Some are local and some are national Trade associations are grouped with nonpro t because they offer services without the primary motive of earning a pro t 0 Ex American Library Association Duties are often similar to PR duties within a corporation Have no stockholders so they don t engage in investor relations activities 0 Instead they have donor relations fundraising and member relations PR jobs in trade associations include member relations media relations government relations and marketing communications Governments Jobs exist at all levels international federal state and local Focus on 4 key factors voters the news media employees and specialinterest groups Press secretary Public Information of cer Public Affairs of cer and Communications Specialist o Entrylevel communication duties include writing news releases responding to constituent concerns writing position papers that help politicians articulate their beliefs and helping build digital newsrooms of documents images videos and links Upperlevel duties include speaking with reporters writing speeches for politicians and brie ng of cials on public opinion 0 Usually called Public Information not public relations Public Relations Agencies 0 Assist with public relations activities of other organizations Corporations nonpro t organizations trade associations governments and even individuals hire PR agencies to help manage and execute various PR functions Practitioners in PR agencies are assigned to includes all public relations activity planned and executed for one particular client 0 Individual accounts are managed by an and one or more 0 PR agencies can range from small shops to huge international corporations Independent PR Consultancies A oneperson PR agency 0 Many consultants specialize in a particular are of PR 0 Ex Crisis communications speechwriting website design training others in basics of good public relations 0 Major appeal is also biggest burden the consultant alone bears responsibility for success or failure Postmodernism challenges conventional wisdom and social traditions it seeks out voices and opinions that mainstream tends to ignore The median starting public relations salary fro 2009 graduates of US journalism and mass communications programs was 30000 Chapter 3 History and PR profession are both valuesdriven PR did not attain its current meaning until the 20th century Some historians believe that the development of PR is a direct result of Western civilization s rst true democracy the citystate of Athens led by Pericles from 461 to 429 BC the study of public opinion and the methods of in uencing it Often seen as the beginning of public relations as a social science based on research planning and twoway communication 0 Flourished when a philosophy of vox p0puithe voice of the people was embraced The spread of Christianity during the Middle Ages could be linked to the application of PR techniques 0 Francis of Assisi missionary who spread his teachings of self imposed poverty and service to the poor across Europe and the Middle East Organized government PR efforts in the UK preceded those in the US by more than a decade The march towards modern PR began in earnest in the US after the Civil War The development of modern PR is linked to 5 social trends that began in the Progressive Era Growth of Institutions as business government and labor organizations grew larger the need for effective communication increased 0 Expansion of Democracy reforms such as giving women the right to vote and direct election of US senators brought more people into the political process and increased the need for public discussion of policy issues 0 Improvements in Communications the growth of national news services such as Associated Press and birth of national magazines gave muckraking reports a wider audience 0 Introduction of commercial radio in 1920 and commercial TV in 1947 launched era of instant electronic communication 0 Internet gave the power to communicate with mass publics and began shifting away from media companies and toward individuals 0 Growth of Advocacy wave of immigrants brought Old World political ideas to the New World 0 Gave birth to increased political activism Search for Consensus nation at one time believed to be a melting pot in which various cultures and philosophies combined into something distinctly American 0 Now it is accepted to be both American and retain other cultural identities Pre20th Century America 0 Most famous example is Boston Tea Party a publicity event designed to focus attention on British taxation without representation 0 The Federalist Papers appeared in newspapers between October 1787 and April 1788 0 Written by Alexander Hamilton James Madison and John Jay under the single nom de plume Publius o Essays helped lead the reluctant former colonies to ratify the Constitution of the US Rati cation remains the most important event in the development of PR in the US First Amendment de nes the liberties that allow the free practice of this vital profession The Seedbed Years 0 US society underwent profound changes in period following Civil War 0 Industrial Revolution transformed nation s economy and helped fuel a ood of immigration 0 This evolution of publicity signaled the birth of a new industry PR 0 Scott Cutlip called this period the quotSeedbed Yearsquot a time in which the new profession began to take root Nation s rst PR agency Publicity Bureau in Boston was created in 1900 Theodore Roosevelt 18581919 was the rst to initiate close and continuous ties with reporters and is called the founder of presidential press conferences 0 Brought press into the White House quotBully Pulpitquot lvy Ledbetter Lee 18771934 0 formed a publicity bureau with George E Packer in 1904 o boasted 3 values quotAccuracy Authenticity and Interestquot philosophy evolved in 1906 into Lee s quotDeclaration of Principlesquot the rst articulation of the concept that PR practitioners have a public responsibility that extends beyond obligations to a client 0 quotYou are judged by the company you keepquot referred to as quotPoison Ivyquot by his detractors Accused of being a Nazi sympathizer 0 Lee refused to answer reporters questions about his German business interest bad War and Propaganda WWI focused public attention on the use of mass media as tools of persuasion the attempt to have a viewpoint accepted at the exclusion of all others 0 Did not carry the negative connotation then as it does today 0 To rally the nation behind the war President Woodrow Wilson established the Committee for Public Information 0 Believed the press should be strictly censored 0 During the two years that the US was at war CPI churned out more than 75 million pamphlets and books with titles ranging from quotWhy We Are Fightingquot to quotWhat Our Enemy Really Isquot 0 FourMinute Men the largest speakers bureau ever created 75000 speakers gave 755190 talks to drum up home front morale Edward L Bernays 18911995 0 the Father of Public Relations Nephew of Sigmund Freud 0 Played major role in having Freud s theories on psychoanalysis introduced to America 0 Received high marks for his work with the Creel Committee 0 His book Crystalized Public Opinion popularized the phrase quotpublic relations counselquot giving professional advice to our clients on their public relationships regardless of whether such activity resulted in publicity 0 First to articulate 2way communication concept of PR Postwar Boom Office of War Information Headed by veteran newspaper and radio commentator Elmer Davis 0 Mission to coordinate and control the ow of info from the battle eld to the home front and to engage in experiments in psychological warfare against the enemy Postwar period witnessed rapid growth in PR education Saw great social reform and upheaval including the civil rights movement consumerism environmentalism the antiwar movement women s rights gay rights and multinationalism Information Age Business and industry began a sometimes painful process of modernizing and downsizing o This trend had a major impact on PR 0 Many inhouse PR departments were either reduced or eliminated entirely 0 Created opportunities for agencies and private consultants to ll the gaps
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