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Test 1 Study Guide!

by: Julia Marcinak

Test 1 Study Guide! PSY 4930

Julia Marcinak
GPA 3.5
Affective Neuroscience
Dr. Wen Li

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About this Document

This should cover all the material for the first test! I noted in the slides that you should print to learn the structures of the brain and systems!
Affective Neuroscience
Dr. Wen Li
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Affective Neuroscience

Popular in Psychlogy

This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Marcinak on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 4930 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Wen Li in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Affective Neuroscience in Psychlogy at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 09/21/15
55 multiple choice 110 Content is only from lectures but the readings go more in depth All multiple choice Limbic system circuit Names dates are not as important as implications Functional and structural anatomy Print Slides Lecture 2 Lecture 4 Lecture 5 Lecture 6 Lecture 7 Lecture 1 1418 and 22 8121315 61015 and 16 11 and 12 1 General Concepts of Affective Neuroscience 2 What is Emotion a QQWFDP P h Emotions are physiological arousal expressive behavior and conscious experience There is a cognitive and physiological element to them They have a particular internal feelingbodily response and they are either liked or disliked They cause external bodily outcomes Facial expressions etc They trigger action responses and cognitive responses Emotions do not last long moods last longer The motivate us for action They are explicit by evaluating cognitive appraisal and implicit by coding hedonicity i Both directly in uence our behavior They regulate social behaviors and help maintain selfesteem 3 Categorization of Emotion a Basic Emotions i Anger Attack AggressionConfrontation ii Fear Threat or Danger FightFlightFreezing iii Sadness Losses Seeking Comfort or Withdrawal iv Disgust BodilyMoral violation Rejection v Surprise Nonexpectation AlertnessInquisition vi Joy RewardGain AttachmentApproaching b NonBasic Emotions Emotional blends Social Emotions i Pride ii Embarrassment iii Guilt iv Shame V Maternal Love vi Sexual Love vii Infatuation viii Admiration ix J ealously 4 Basis of Emotions Physiology or Cognition a 99057 f Emotions can be seen as biological responses that we have little control over Or they can be de ned as a conscious experience rather than a biological response We are not good at detecting our levels of physiological arousal We recognize different emotions because of our mental evaluation of a situation Measurements of heart rate breathing and blood pressure can help determine emotions Selfreport questionnaires measure emotional experience 5 Theories of Emotions a Lange and James propose that emotional experience is a result of physiological arousal i This is the somatic theory of emotions ii The body informs the mind iii Body changes are accompanied by different emotions and perception of these changes determine emotions iv Differences in emotions are the direct results of different patterns of psychological responses V Distinctive patterns in the ANS are associated with different emotions Cannon suggest that arousal is a signal system for the brain to act and produce emotions i Emotions are emergency situations which trigger different brain processes ii A heightened arousal system prepares body to cope with situation iii The conscious emotional experience is registered in the cortex iv Instantaneous emotional feeling v Flawed because than people who do not receive physiological arousal should not experience emotions False autonomic feedback and Excitation transfer theory both suggest that there is more emotional experience than physiological arousal Two Factor Theory of Emotion i Physiological and situational factors play a role in emotion ii Autonomic arousal intensi es the emotion iii Physiological arousal determines the quantity of the emotion iv Cognitive attribution is the critical factor in emotional experience e Cognitive Appraisal Model i Cognitive appraisal determines the level of physiological appraisal and type of emotion we eXpect to experience ii We learn what to eXpect from previous stimuli f Pavlov i Classical Conditioning 1 CS gt US ii Instrumental Conditioning 1 RewardsPunishments Lecture 2 1 Issues of Affective Neuroscience a What are the underlying brain circuits b How emotional eXperiences emerge from the brain circuit i Emotional abilities are instinctual ii Organism39s learn to make effective behavioral choices in order to survive iii Different emotional tendencies emerge at different parts of development 2 History of Affective Neuroscience a Classical Psychoanalysis i Feelings and thoughts are everything while biology does not matter b Radical Behaviorism i Feelings and thoughts do not matter behavior is a set of learned responses c Timeline of Affective Neuroscience Print Slide 9 and learn dates circled in red 3 Major Theories a Somatic Marker Hypothesis i A key role for bodily feedback in emotion implicating the PCF where somatic markers are stored ii Somatic markers are physiological reactions that tag previous emotional events as significant iii Emotions are informations and feelings are monitors iv Somatic markers allow decisions to be made where logical analysis is impossible b Valence Asymmetry Hypothesis i Promotes adaptive goals by linking choices to emotional consequences ii Left PCF Positive goals iii Right PCF Negative goals c Emotion Systems i Single System Model A particular region is responsible for a particular emotion ii Multiple System Model Various regions serve for different emotions 4 Big Questions a Is pleasure simply a sensation i No it39s more of a cognitive emotion b Hedonic impact is added to pure sensation signal Is human pleasure similar or different than other animals i The same limbic brain circuit and neurochemical activity occurs but human cognition adds richness d Pleasure is not simply getting what you want it is getting what benefits you Liking is a hedonic value wanting is a drive e Can pleasure be assessed by objective measures i Basic core emotions can but cognitive functioning can not f Are pleasure and pain on a continuum i Pleasure is generally negatively correlated with pain but sometimes they are in uenced indirectly g Does pleasure have evolutionary function i Pleasure drives motivation and optimizes behavior h What brain substrates actually cause pleasure i A single area does not implicate pleasure Some must remain intact for hedonic value Lecture 3 1 Mind vs Brain Mental vs Neural a CellularMolecular Links emotional processes to action potentials local field potentials and neurotransmitter actions i Neural representation The way that neural transmissions respond to the outside world b Cognitive Links emotions to brain substrates i Mental representation abstraction relating to things in the external world ii Cognitive processes Thinking attention memory learning decision making interpretation c Stimulation of corteX produces mental sensations of thinking and memory 2 History of the Study of the Brain a Do mental experiences arise in the heart or brain b MindBody Problem How can a physical substance give rise to mental experiences i Dualism Mind and body are separate ii DualAspect Theory Mind and body are two levels of explanation for the same thing iii Reductionism The mind will eventually be explained in terms of physicalbiological terms c Early anatomists believed the ventricles were very important and the cortex was misrepresented d Phrenology i Different parts of cortex serve different functions still used Functional Specialization There is some degree of specialization but not each region does not have a specific function ii Differences in personality ability are represented in differences in the skull sizeshape and lumps discredited e Broca s Observation Specialized language faculty in brain i Patients with lesions in this area could not speak but had good cognitive abilities ii There are two language faculties in the brain 1 Comprehension 2 Production f Minds without Brains The Computer Metaphor i During the 20th century researcher were concerned with observations of behavior not what the brain was doing during behavior This lead to behavioral models that did not reference the brain ii This was inspired by thinking of the mind as following processes like a computer iii Input gt Perception gt Attention gt Short term memory gt Output g The Return of the Brains i Structural images allow precise imagining of the brain CT MRI ii PET adapted to models of cognition iii Levels of oxygen in blood measure cognitive functioning 3 Main Challenges a Is it possible to study the mind without the brain i Software Mind Hardware Brain ii Brain provides constraints on the nature of cognition iii It39s hard to give a purely cognitive answer but easy to answer in terms of neural processing b Functional imaging tells us where cognition occurs but not how i ii Lecture 4 Data tells us wherewhen Theory tells us how 1 Basic Knowledge of the Brain and its Units a Central Nervous System Brain spinal cord cerebrum and cerebellum i ii iii iv vi vii viii Has 100 billion neurons and trillions of glial cells We aren t born with a full set of neurons connections form throughout life Grey matter neuronal cell bodies White matter Axons myelin and glial cells Enables impulses to be conducted more rapidly Neurons the fundamental working units They communicate through gaps called synapses l Sensory Multipolar Motor Unipolar Intemeuron Multipolar Efferent Away from body cells 9599 Afferent Receive signals 6 Connections are formed if they are not used they die Glial cells are the support cells Corpus Callosum White matter that connects two hemispheres Slide 14 has classifications Print b Peripheral Nervous System Nerves that gather information and transmit orders Facial Nerves i ii Somatic Nervous System Nerves that participate in external communication They send external information to brain from sensory detectors Enables responses to stimuli in our environment Autonomic Nervous System Nerves that regulate vital functions and maintaining equilibrium 1 Sympathetic Nervous System Prepares organism for action Activates ght or ight Accelerates heart rate and respiration Increases perspiration and blood pressure Decreases digestive activity Uses epinephrine and norepinephrine 2 Parasympathetic Nervous System Causes a general slowdown in the body to conserve energy Increases digestion and sexual appetite Uses acetylcholine 2 Gross Neuroanatomy Print slide 1518 and 22 a Regions i Parts of Brain Slide 15 ii Views of Brain Slide 16 iii Lobes of Brain Slide 17 iv Gyri and Sulci of each Lobe Slide 18 1 Lateral surface is made up of four lobes each has it39s own set of gyri and sulci V Different brains regions are defined by different composition of cells b Fibers White Matter Grey matter is Cortex i Brain matters are intricately connected through fiber circuits ii Print Slide 22 for association of bers Lecture 5 1 Cortical Structures and Functions Print Slide 8 for Areas of brain a The cortex is a layer of cells that make up the outside layer of the brain i Allocortex 1 Archicortex 3 layers 2 Paleocortex 45 layers 3 Periallocortex Transitional ii Neocortex iii Bumps gyrus and Groove sulci b Functions Voluntary movement language reasoning perception attention regulation c Primary Sensory Areas Receive signals from sensory nerves Includes visual occipital auditory and somatosensory area d Primary Motor Areas Send axons down to motor neurons e Association areas The remaining areas in the cortex Receive input from sensory areas and are responsible for complex thinking 2 Subcortical Structures and Function a Subcortex is beneath cortex and consists of nonlayered neurons b BasalGanglia Modulates actions and thoughts by reciprocal interactions in the frontal lobes Part of dopamine system i Dorsal Striatum ii Ventral Striatum iii Globus Pallidus iv Substantia Nigra v Subthalamic Nucleus vi Deep brain stimulation gt Subthalamic Nucleus gt Substantia Nigra gt Dopamine Release c The Limbic System Related organism to current environment based on current needs based on previous situation i ii Implicated in emotions learning memory and defense system Print slide 12 for limbic system d Diencephalon 1 ii iii The thalamus is the processing system between the senses and the corteX eXpect smell Essential to perception Hypothalamus regulates eating drinking temperature sexual activity and endocrine functions Maintains homeostasis by 1 In uencing the activity of ANS 2 Controlling the release of certain hormones 3 In uencing drives such as hunger and thirst Print slide 13 e The Midbrain and Hindbrain 1 ii iii iv Midbrain includes inferior and superior colliculus Inferior hearing superior gaze orientation Hindbrain has pons and medulla which regulate vital functions along with wakefulness Cerebellum is attached to the hindbrain Integrates motor commands with sensory information to make smooth movement and dexterity Print Slide 15 3 Brain in Development a Proliferation New rain connections formed i ii By age 6 our brain is 95 of it39s maX size Girls reach full size at age 11 boys at age 14 Boys brains are larger than girls Grey matter develops quickly during childhood and slows during adulthood Peaks at age 1113 then begins to decline b Pruning Unused connections dying 1 ii iii iv New pathways form while others die Use it or lose it Makes the brain more versatile and able to adapt to it39s environment Brain matures from back to front Frontal lobe matures last It is responsible for reasoning planning organization and impulse control c Myelination Insulating brain bers to make transmissions faster i Made up of white matter Develops continuously throughout life peaks between ages 1113 d Humans have the most brain connections Lecture 6 1 Key Regions in emotional processing a P qormgpsr k Orbitofrontal Cortex Affective evaluation decoding punishment and reward value Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Attention modulation Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Affective modulation inhibitory control Anterior Cingulate Cortex Topdown modulation con ict detection Insula Represents internal state innoception Amygdala Threat detection emotional memory Hippocampus Declarative memory spatial detection contextual fear Insula and ACC integrate sensory information affective cognitive and autonomic processing Limbic system Borders between neocortex and subcortical structures 1 Hippocampus amygdala septal nuclei cingulate cortex entorhinal cortex perirhinal cortex parahippocampal cortex hypothalamus 2 Slide 610 contain limbic system structures and circuit Amygdala Integration center for emotions emotional behavior and motivation Emotional detection Dense connections 1 Kluverbucy Syndrome Ablation of temporal lobes including amygdala Causes docility hypersexualitly hyperphagia and visual agnosia Print Slide 1516 with fear conditioning circuit 2 Specific Neural Systems for various emotions a b c Lecture 7 Amygdala Fear Insula Disgust OFC Reward Values computing reward values gives behavioral exibility Patients with lesions to OFC act impulsively ACC Ventral Affective ACC Dorsal Cognitive Ventral Striatum Increase dopamine production with secondary rewards i Includes Nucleus Accumbens and Ventral Putamen 1 Understand the Relationship between Emotions and Internal Physiological States a b Homeostatic Emotions Pain hunger thirst fatigue temperature itch Classic Emotions Joy fear anger disgust etc c Allesthesia Affective experience depends on internal state Homeostasis Maintaining internal functions within optimal range for survival e Introception Internally monitors and provides the CNS with information about the body f Interoceptive System A collection of nerve pathways that map homeostatic signals 2 Sensory Emotions a SweetBitter WarmCool BurdenedUplifted HeavyLight b Helps maintain physiological equilibrium c Nausea association makes us avoid certain foods and feel disgusted while if we were shocked each time we would avoid the food but not dislike it d Emotions motivate us to achieve homeostasis e Emotionrelated actions can be instinctive or conditioned 3 Neural Circuit Underlying Interactions between Emotion and Physiological a Macroscopic is composed of the brain regions i Brainstem processing of introception ii Subcortical grey Shape bodily state by maintaining homeostasis iii Cerebral Cortex Subjective eXperience of emotions voluntary actions modulating interoceptive eXperience b Microscopic Neurons glial cells synapses i Processing of signals relies on unmyelinated structures ii Ephaptic Transmission Sideways intemeuronal communications that is mediated by external current ow c Hypothalamus is a nodal point that mediates autonomic emotional endocrine and somatic functions i Print slide 11 Hypothalamus parts and functions ii Print slide 12 Circuits of Emotion 4 Social Value of Emotion Neural basis of Theory of Mind a Humans have evolved to infer what others are thinkingfeeling from their behaviors b Temporal poles Semantic schema that specify social roles Parietotemporal junction Important for theory of mind tests Medial frontal lobes Attending to internal states intentions of others and self 90 Sample Questions 1 What are the primary dimensions of emotion a Love and hate b Mood and state of mind c Valence and arousal d Happiness and sadness 2 Which of the following most accurately re ects the hierarchy of interoception a Cortex gt SubcorteX gt Brainstem gt Reaction b Stimulus gt Brainstem gt hypothalamus gt Reaction c Cortex gt Brainstem gt Peripheral Neurons gt Internal Milieu d Internal Milieu gt Brainstem gt Thalam us gt Cortex 3 A phenomenon that describes the dependence of affective eXperience on internal states physiological states is a Memory b Homeostasis c Alliesthesia d Cognitive appraisal


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