Unit 1 Study Guide
Unit 1 Study Guide PSY 101
Popular in Introductory Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Schutzenhofer on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Gross in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
0 Lecture 1 Psychology Unit 1 Study Guide 0 Media makes claims that are not always true 0 To nd out if things are true we consult authority gures but they are not always right either quotMasturbation mental illness Placing Galileo under house arrest for his countercultural beliefs working with mechanics and the movement of moons around planets 0 Characteristics of Science Empiricallyderived evidence based on standardized and systematic observation amp experimentation NOT subject matter 0 Isaac Newton provided a working heliocentric model that used mathematics to explain it Objective evidence that explain amp predict natural phenomena 0 Galileo almost burnt for supporting the heliocentric view Replicable strong evidence that was repeatedly tested and precisely recorded so that any scientist could repeat the experiment 0 The argument that vaccines cause mental disorder was discredited because the results could not be replicated and the scientist could not provide them to the public Public The evidence and experimental information is shared and free to the public 0 With public access to previous tests and research Jake Andraka was able to create a cancer test 100 times cheaper amp 26000 times more accurate than current tests Peerreviewed scientists like you review and critique your work they evaluate it blindly and enable you to make a compelling case 0 When scientists reviewed the work of Mar Houser they wanted to see the results of the mirror tests that he said the monkeys took but he couldn t show them because it was a lie Contrary Evidence a good scientist tells you when they are right and when they are wrong there is evidence given for against their ndings 0 Researchers faked evidence of the ability to clone humans 0 Lecture 2 Pharmaceuticals don t disclose contrary evidence on the results of antidepressant trials misleading info Falsi able must have the ability to be tested and proven wrong Nonfalsi able Oral Roberts said raised people from dead Precise very speci c can make predictions from the evidence Precise predictions lead to a better understanding amp increased falsi ability o What effect if any does exposure to violence have on people Some believe there is a strong correlation others think there would be just as much violence without the media Results Aggression increased as the amount of TV violence consumed as a child increased Other in uencing Variables If they idolized a super hero or thought TV was just like the real world To nd out the relationship use 2 research designs Correlational study extent that two variables go together 0 Also known as a Longitudinal Study how things have changed over a period of time 0 Main Advantage interested in anything you can use correlation to study as long as you can MEASURE it 0 Main Disadvantage can never say one variable caused the other to happen no inferring because there could be external variables just they seem to go together 0 Dependent Variable the variable or behavior we are trying to explain 0 Predictor Variable the variable that predicts the outcome knowledge of X forecast Y 0 Operational De nition The steps used to de ne the variables can be used to reproduce the procedure very clear 0 Pearson Correlation Coef cient a statistic that re ects the correlation between variables ranges from 1 1 O If positive number the variables are both increasing or decreasing If negative number one increasing while the other decreases inverse relationship Absolute Value shows strength 0 no relationship amp 1 perfect relationship Statistical Signi cance Odds the correlation between the variables is due to chance Statistical Control takes away the in uence an outside variable could have on the variables in the study 0 Experimental Can say quotX CAUSED Yquot O Disadvantage must study something very similar to the phenomena interested in Random Sample assign numbers amp draw from numbers to create a random sample everyone has equal chance of being chosen Random Assignment once we have a sample use this to determine the treatment and control group Control Group group not exposed to independent variable Experimental Control Group All participants treated the same Convenience Sample sample of the population at hand Representative Sample sample chosen with the desired characteristics from large population Law of Large Numbers more cases are a better representative than fewer Experiment comparing videogame violence and reaction time to a ght IV violent vs nonviolent game exposure DV if they helped the victim the time it took to help if they hear the ghtthe severity of the ght Those exposed to the violence took longer to respond to the ght or didn t hear it at all Lecture 3 0 Important that the study can be replicated amp when you repeat the study you get the same results 0 Let s Make a Deal Are your chances of winning better if you change or stay 66 chance of winning if you switch 33 chance of winning if you stay If you STAY There are 3 doors amp 1 of them has the car so the chance of picking the car when you stay is 33 If you SWAP There is a 33 chance that you picked the car on the rst pick and 66 that you picked a goat When you swap there is a 66 chance that you will pick a door with a car and 33 that it will be another goat o Read Recite Review Strategy What is the learnercontrolled testing method 3R Experiment 1 IV The study technique Was it randomly assigned yes DV rate at which students retained the information Experiment 2 Note taking took the most time Which study condition produced the best learning 3R What makes 3R technique mnemonically so effective It focuses on retrieval and feedback practices Can use the reading study guide handed out by Professor Gross to read recite the information by answering the questions and then reviewing to see if you were correct 0 Are two guesses better than one Wisdomof Crowds Effect crowds average is more accurate than an individual s Polling the Crowd Within gain 110th from asking yourself the same question as you would from asking another person but if you wait a few weeks and ask your self the question again the bene t rises to 13rCI of asking someone else There is bias if you ask yourself within a shorter period of time Lecture 4 0 Can only do CORRELATIONAL research methods when you can t randomly assign o If you can randomly assign can do EXPERIMENTAL research methods Experimental Group all participants are treated equally except for the independent variable Control Group group not exposed to independent variable 0 Learning a change in some fundamental way somewhat permanent change in knowledge or behavior that comes from experience Habituation Don t notice something anymore because you are used to it Classical Conditioning Previously neutral stimulus elicits a response Re exes and involuntary behavior something you are born with learning quotevent X trigger behavior Yquot Discovered by Pavlov and the salivating dog experiment 0 Ex song causes emotion or veteran ducks when there is a loud noice An unconditioned stimulus causes an unconditioned response a conditioned stimulus footsteps that precede food cause a conditioned response to salivate when they are heard Emotional amp Physiological Responses that are learned from Classical Conditioning 0 Phobias o Needles amp nausea 0 Taste aversion Conditioning happens in one trial When made sick rats can easily associate that illness with the taste or smell of the food but not with audio and visual stimulus such as light ashing ex Of biological contraint Operant Conditioning things you choose to do and is shaped by consequences 0 Lecture 5 0 Classical Conditioning re exiveinvoluntary o Operant Conditioning voluntary behaviors consequences shape them Reinforcement consequence that increases behavior 0 Positive Reinforcement stimulus added and the behavior is increasing 0 Negative Reinforcement stimulus taken away and the behavior is increasing Punishment consequence that decreases behavior 0 Positive Punishment adding a stimulus decreases the behavior 0 Negative Punishment taking away stimulus decreases the behavior Shaping schedules of reinforcement build the behavior a little bit at a time Continuous schedules establish a behavior Ratio schedules encourage high rates of behavior Variable schedules produce persistence Behavior modi cation is used with untreatable patients 0 Woman who wouldn t eat accidentally spill on her so she feeds herself Negative Reinforcement feeds herself TAKE AWAY the spHHng
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