New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unit 1 Study Guide

by: Alyssa Schutzenhofer

Unit 1 Study Guide PSY 101

Alyssa Schutzenhofer
GPA 3.5
Introductory Psychology
Dr. Gross

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This is a study guide for Exam 1 that covers EVERYTHING Professor Gross went over in Lecture. This includes the characteristics of science, different research methods, classical conditioning, opera...
Introductory Psychology
Dr. Gross
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Introductory Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Schutzenhofer on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Gross in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.


Reviews for Unit 1 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/21/15
0 Lecture 1 Psychology Unit 1 Study Guide 0 Media makes claims that are not always true 0 To nd out if things are true we consult authority gures but they are not always right either quotMasturbation mental illness Placing Galileo under house arrest for his countercultural beliefs working with mechanics and the movement of moons around planets 0 Characteristics of Science Empiricallyderived evidence based on standardized and systematic observation amp experimentation NOT subject matter 0 Isaac Newton provided a working heliocentric model that used mathematics to explain it Objective evidence that explain amp predict natural phenomena 0 Galileo almost burnt for supporting the heliocentric view Replicable strong evidence that was repeatedly tested and precisely recorded so that any scientist could repeat the experiment 0 The argument that vaccines cause mental disorder was discredited because the results could not be replicated and the scientist could not provide them to the public Public The evidence and experimental information is shared and free to the public 0 With public access to previous tests and research Jake Andraka was able to create a cancer test 100 times cheaper amp 26000 times more accurate than current tests Peerreviewed scientists like you review and critique your work they evaluate it blindly and enable you to make a compelling case 0 When scientists reviewed the work of Mar Houser they wanted to see the results of the mirror tests that he said the monkeys took but he couldn t show them because it was a lie Contrary Evidence a good scientist tells you when they are right and when they are wrong there is evidence given for against their ndings 0 Researchers faked evidence of the ability to clone humans 0 Lecture 2 Pharmaceuticals don t disclose contrary evidence on the results of antidepressant trials misleading info Falsi able must have the ability to be tested and proven wrong Nonfalsi able Oral Roberts said raised people from dead Precise very speci c can make predictions from the evidence Precise predictions lead to a better understanding amp increased falsi ability o What effect if any does exposure to violence have on people Some believe there is a strong correlation others think there would be just as much violence without the media Results Aggression increased as the amount of TV violence consumed as a child increased Other in uencing Variables If they idolized a super hero or thought TV was just like the real world To nd out the relationship use 2 research designs Correlational study extent that two variables go together 0 Also known as a Longitudinal Study how things have changed over a period of time 0 Main Advantage interested in anything you can use correlation to study as long as you can MEASURE it 0 Main Disadvantage can never say one variable caused the other to happen no inferring because there could be external variables just they seem to go together 0 Dependent Variable the variable or behavior we are trying to explain 0 Predictor Variable the variable that predicts the outcome knowledge of X forecast Y 0 Operational De nition The steps used to de ne the variables can be used to reproduce the procedure very clear 0 Pearson Correlation Coef cient a statistic that re ects the correlation between variables ranges from 1 1 O If positive number the variables are both increasing or decreasing If negative number one increasing while the other decreases inverse relationship Absolute Value shows strength 0 no relationship amp 1 perfect relationship Statistical Signi cance Odds the correlation between the variables is due to chance Statistical Control takes away the in uence an outside variable could have on the variables in the study 0 Experimental Can say quotX CAUSED Yquot O Disadvantage must study something very similar to the phenomena interested in Random Sample assign numbers amp draw from numbers to create a random sample everyone has equal chance of being chosen Random Assignment once we have a sample use this to determine the treatment and control group Control Group group not exposed to independent variable Experimental Control Group All participants treated the same Convenience Sample sample of the population at hand Representative Sample sample chosen with the desired characteristics from large population Law of Large Numbers more cases are a better representative than fewer Experiment comparing videogame violence and reaction time to a ght IV violent vs nonviolent game exposure DV if they helped the victim the time it took to help if they hear the ghtthe severity of the ght Those exposed to the violence took longer to respond to the ght or didn t hear it at all Lecture 3 0 Important that the study can be replicated amp when you repeat the study you get the same results 0 Let s Make a Deal Are your chances of winning better if you change or stay 66 chance of winning if you switch 33 chance of winning if you stay If you STAY There are 3 doors amp 1 of them has the car so the chance of picking the car when you stay is 33 If you SWAP There is a 33 chance that you picked the car on the rst pick and 66 that you picked a goat When you swap there is a 66 chance that you will pick a door with a car and 33 that it will be another goat o Read Recite Review Strategy What is the learnercontrolled testing method 3R Experiment 1 IV The study technique Was it randomly assigned yes DV rate at which students retained the information Experiment 2 Note taking took the most time Which study condition produced the best learning 3R What makes 3R technique mnemonically so effective It focuses on retrieval and feedback practices Can use the reading study guide handed out by Professor Gross to read recite the information by answering the questions and then reviewing to see if you were correct 0 Are two guesses better than one Wisdomof Crowds Effect crowds average is more accurate than an individual s Polling the Crowd Within gain 110th from asking yourself the same question as you would from asking another person but if you wait a few weeks and ask your self the question again the bene t rises to 13rCI of asking someone else There is bias if you ask yourself within a shorter period of time Lecture 4 0 Can only do CORRELATIONAL research methods when you can t randomly assign o If you can randomly assign can do EXPERIMENTAL research methods Experimental Group all participants are treated equally except for the independent variable Control Group group not exposed to independent variable 0 Learning a change in some fundamental way somewhat permanent change in knowledge or behavior that comes from experience Habituation Don t notice something anymore because you are used to it Classical Conditioning Previously neutral stimulus elicits a response Re exes and involuntary behavior something you are born with learning quotevent X trigger behavior Yquot Discovered by Pavlov and the salivating dog experiment 0 Ex song causes emotion or veteran ducks when there is a loud noice An unconditioned stimulus causes an unconditioned response a conditioned stimulus footsteps that precede food cause a conditioned response to salivate when they are heard Emotional amp Physiological Responses that are learned from Classical Conditioning 0 Phobias o Needles amp nausea 0 Taste aversion Conditioning happens in one trial When made sick rats can easily associate that illness with the taste or smell of the food but not with audio and visual stimulus such as light ashing ex Of biological contraint Operant Conditioning things you choose to do and is shaped by consequences 0 Lecture 5 0 Classical Conditioning re exiveinvoluntary o Operant Conditioning voluntary behaviors consequences shape them Reinforcement consequence that increases behavior 0 Positive Reinforcement stimulus added and the behavior is increasing 0 Negative Reinforcement stimulus taken away and the behavior is increasing Punishment consequence that decreases behavior 0 Positive Punishment adding a stimulus decreases the behavior 0 Negative Punishment taking away stimulus decreases the behavior Shaping schedules of reinforcement build the behavior a little bit at a time Continuous schedules establish a behavior Ratio schedules encourage high rates of behavior Variable schedules produce persistence Behavior modi cation is used with untreatable patients 0 Woman who wouldn t eat accidentally spill on her so she feeds herself Negative Reinforcement feeds herself TAKE AWAY the spHHng


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.