Exam 1 Study guide
Exam 1 Study guide PSY305
Popular in Psy Infant and Early Childhood
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Marth on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY305 at Grand Valley State University taught by Paszek in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Psy Infant and Early Childhood in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Psychology 305 Infant and Early Child Development Study Guide Exam 1 Development Change physical mental behavioral etc 0 Change is orderly and sequential Genetic changes occur 0 Variations in genes variations in behavior 0 The environment in uences the changes as well Chapter 1 Beliefs about babies Eary experiences impact the child39s life such as the environment that they grow up in as well as whether they were born preterm or full term A Discontinuous vs continuous change 0 Doctors see discontinuous change due to them only seeing the child once or twice a year These discontinuous changes are known as stages 0 Parents see continuous chanoes which includes little changes such as the phases the infant goes through before learning to walk crawling standing etc B Nature vs Nurture Jean Rausseau believes that infants are born 39good39 and that we have the ability to develop in a positive way depending on our environment or gene cs 0 Nature Genetics The built in reaction to acting 39good39 0 Nurture Came from Locke39s idea that the environment and experiences in uence how you act good or bad People now believe that our behavior is in uenced off of a combination of nature and nurture C Active or passive development 0 Active You play a role in learning and developing acting towards a speci c goal 0 Passive Does not have a say in how they learn They believe that biology is the only effect on how we learn Ex a person who believes all in fate D Qualitative vs Quantitative changes 0 Qualitative Descriptive changes such as language when children use it to comprehend things and communicate 0 Quantitative changes looked at in amounts Ex counting how many words your infant can say History of Childhood Chidren had short childhoods and started working by age 6 No adolescence The puritans believed that children were evil because they were born in sin A 17005 0 People started to believe that childhood was a unique time and needed more attention 0 ohn Locke believed that infants were quottabula rasaquot blank slate the child39s experiences ll the blank slate and shapes them into the person the will become 0 lean Rausseau Nature vs nurture Children are born good and they have to decision to choose if they develop in a positive or negative way depending on their experiences B 18005 0 Industrial Revolution causes many changes 0 Instead of children working only on the families farms they are now sent to factories to work mostly lower class children some middle class 0 School was not mandatory only the rich kids went to school because their families didn39t need them to help provide for the family income C19005 0 Children are now being brought out of the work force 0 Child labor laws emerged Protected children from the danger ofjobs Got most children out of the work force so that more adults could have jobs 0 Kids are now required to go to school because jobs were becoming more specialized and required education and training 0 Juvenile justice system was put into place so that kids were no longer punished as adults DCulture and Content 0 Different cultures view children differently Ex Baby sleeping in a different room as the parents is a foreign concept to some countries ESources of historical information 0 Literary evidence gt parents39 diaries and letters of advice 0 Quantitative evidence gt census data and tax records 0 Material culture gt toys clothing and furniture of child Theo es A Biological Theories 1 Maturational Theory Arnold Gesell believes that development occurs due to an unfolding of genetic material 2 Ethological Theory formed by evolutionary psychologist they compare human development to animal development Gives the basic idea that those who survive adapt to their environment reproduce and pass on the genes Only the ttest survive B Psychodynamic theories 1 Freud emphasis on early childhood that he says forms your personality Psychosexual stages 1 Oral 01 yrs ID gt do things for instant grati cation 2 Anal 13 yrs ego gt deals with reality 3 Phallic 36 yrs superego gt sense of mortality 4 Latency 612 yrs 5 Genital 2 Erikson psvchosocial theorv social outside in uences shape the child Trust vs Mistrust con ict as an infant with caregivers may lead to an infant mistrust CLearning theories How the environment is effecting observable behavior Nurture DCognitive theories To see how the infant and child mind works by comparing differences Piaget Intelligence tests E Bronfenbrenner Bioecological theory 1 Microsystem the immediate environment Ex home and who lives there 2 Mesosystem the interrelationships between the microsystems Ex parents know what s going on at daycare good or bad communication between microsystems 3 Exosystem Outside institutions that effect the child39s development but the child isn39t a part of it Ex government or parents job 4 Macrosvstem overall culture and subcultures Ex traditions and values 5 Chronosvstem time and history Ex years you grow up timing of something like divorce and how old the child is Chapter 2 Research methods Research Settings Naturalistic observation observing infants in their usual surroundings such as their own home or regular childcare facility Gives researchers ideas about spontaneous behaviors that can be studied in the future The only downfall is that naturalistic observations vary across dimensions that may make a difference in children39s behavior Ex observing children at home while the tv is on distraction can give you different results than observing children without the tv on ethnographic research researchers make detailed observations or conduct interviews in everyday settings This method is used to provide comparative data such as sleeping feeding discipline and other infantcare practices 0 Laboratory studies done in a specially designed research space where the researchers are able to eliminate extraneous nuisance factors such as tv ringing telephone and etc lndependent variable the manipulated variable Dependent variable depends on the independent variable It is the manipulated behavior tels us cause and effect using random assignment Research Designs 0 Case study and in depth examination of a single individual Ex biographies Subject Research when researchers intervene or study the effects of an experimental manipulation on a single participant Ex a oneonone therapy session with a child 0 Quasi exoerimental desion nonexperimental collect information about before the study begins Uses preexisting variables such as race ethnicity and gender Participants cannot be randomly assigned researchers compare these different groups they select in terms of dependent variables of interest such as physical growth motor development or language acquisition 0 Experimental desion examines an effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable Refer to the laboratory studies de nition Research designs for studying development Lonoitudinal research Studies a single group of individuals repeatedly over a long period of time age changes Advantages good way to evaluate the effects of interventions on development Disadvantages and participants often drop out People born in the same time period as you may act differently than people born from a different cohort Ex technology people born in earlier years 1900 may not know as much about technology as people born in later years 20005 repeated exposure to the measures of the abilities The person becomes familiar to the content Crosssectional research Studies cohort groups at one speci c period of time Evaluating the differences between cohort groups age differences Advantages ess time consuming ess expensive more exible less of a concern of participant loss and practice effect Microgenetic Research Very short term longitudinal design Has been used to study children39s cognitive development and problem solving Disadvantages Can only really observe signi cant changes due to the short time pe od Expensive and labor intensive Research Measures Behavioral Resoonses any behavior that infants show spontaneously can be used as a dependent variable Psychophysical measures Response to stimuli Ex when an infant is oriented to new stimuli their heart rate tends to slow down Or when a researcher is trying to measure an infant39s stress level they use psychophysical measures Uses tests such as electroencephalography EEG that test cognition Orienting response attentive response that the infant shows often to a new stimulus New image stimulus catch the baby s attention Ex baby turns head looks at stimulus and sometimes may even grab for it 0 Preference resoonse present two stimuli if visual you are measuring the amount of time the infant pays attention to each object the object that is looked at the longest tells us that the infant had a preference for that object performed with sounds tastes and smells as well HabituationDishabituation Habituation is if stimulus is repeated the infant will respond to it less and less eventually ignoring it Dishabituation is when the stimulus that has been habituated is switched to something new that new stimulus now catches the babies attention This measures if they can tell the difference between stimuli Conditionino reinforcing a response positively or negatively Create associations with stimulus and responses Ex Head turning You can condition train the infant so that when they turn their head they are reinforced with food But they are only reinforced with food when a stimulus is presented Stimulus present Head Turn l reinforcement Stimulus absent D D No reinforcement Parental Reports Data reported about infants39 behavior and development by their parents of caregivers Disadvantages parents may misunderstand instructions or may fail to give accurate reports about their children39s behavior or development Archival Research Of cial sources of information Such as census records birth certi cates from different points in time that may answer questions about changes in birth weight family size maternal age or infant mortality rates Issues in research with infants Behavioral State includes four awake states three transition states between sleep and waking two sleep states and one transition sleep state The most optimal state out of the 10 is the state at which the infant is the most awake and alert actively scanning the environment Disadvantage ess than 10 of average newborn infant39s day is spent in this state Inference and interpretation Working with children who cannot talk yet Since they cannot talk yet researchers rely on responses such as changes in heart rate and cortisol levels as well as behaviors like sucking looking and in some studies reaching or crawling Ethical Concerns Before researchers39 begin their study they must obtain approval from an independent institutional review board IRB making sure that the researchers39 plan meets the guidelines for ethical conduct in research Parents must also give informed consent for their infant to participate in a study that may have risks
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