SOC 240 exam one study guide
SOC 240 exam one study guide Soc 240
Popular in People In Places: Understanding and Developing Community
Popular in Sociology
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Daniel Meyer on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 240 at Illinois State University taught by Michael Dougherty in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 289 views. For similar materials see People In Places: Understanding and Developing Community in Sociology at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
1 The sociological imagination Connects personal troubles of milieu and public issues of social structure Private issues are embedded in greater and more powerful social forces C Wright Mills the quality of mind which allows one to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within society Economies contractexpand value of goods rise and fall beyond the control of any one individual 0 These are dependent variables 0 Dependence on a web of social forces I Diverse interactions of many individuals When people get fired from a job it is a bummer but it may not have been their performance that hurt them The state of the economy and the price of goods produced by the employer caused the individual to get fired 2 Communities of place vs communities of interest Communities of interest are groups of people who are bonded by similar interests Sports teams are communities of interest 0 Members are there for intrinsic reasons 0 Enjoymentsomething to ll time o No borders it could be argued their eld is on a map I Members can t live within the team I No trade or economy within the team Sports teams are not capable of being autonomous in society 0 Cannot support itself with production of goods service or trade The team is an institution the way a family is 0 Families aren t communities of place 3 The criteria of community of place Bounded territories The community takes up space within a region 0 It is a place on a map Social interaction Members of the society communicate and come in contact with each other Institutions 0 Churches Schools 0 Shopping centers Places of high public traf c Can be broad too Collective history Collective memory Cultural understanding 0 0 Mitsubishi plant closes in Normal People lose jobs and town is scarred The community of place is one to live work and consume inside of Interactions of the economy in uence community criteria 4 Amenityled growth Amenities are things like national landmarks national parks and waterfronts Man made amenities include things like ski resorts Natural amenities are places that people agree are scenic and pretty These places are great for outdoor activities O 0000 0 Boating Biking Hiking Fishing Hunting Camping Bounded territories with natural amenities can create a local economy based on the amenities The amenity based economy provides stability to the bounded territory Towns like Galena Illinois and Lake Geneva Wisconsin are rural bounded territories that rely on amenity based economies 5 The Community Question How is nature of community changing What are the power dynamics within communities Why are some communities weak and others strong Changing nature of rural Social management of natural resources 0 O 0 Parks who keeps them looking pretty Sprawl who organizes how land and natural resources are used Tourism how will tourists be attracted to a community and how will they be accomodated Pollution what is the solution to waste and who will physically control waste 6 Gemeinschaft Gesellschaft Gemeinschaft Gesellschaft society community Stay local family People leave emphasis community to join societyweak social tiesGobs More personal Impersonal Less formal More formal Intimate relationships Vaguefake relationships Motivated by common Motivated by self interest interest Community Vs Society Driven by tradition Embraces change Desire to conserve tradition Organic and real Vs Mechanical imaginary True relationships based on true desire Automatic and based on self interest Private vs Public Relations intimate anonymous Morals vs Laws Farmer s Market gemeinschaft Walmart gesellschaft Actual producer provides facetoface service to consumer Producer is thousands of miles away and good passes through many hands Producer values craft of production All about making pro t Geminschaft is Tonnies ideal social construct It is a regionlocation populated by people united by a common goal 0 Vibranthealthy community Members don t harm each other because that would sacrifice the health of the community Under gemeinschaft Actions governed by collective will Decisions based on betterment of community Everyone makes sure everyone else is okay Under gesellschaft Actions governed by rational will Desire to serve own interests 7 Persistentlypoor communities Community relies on one industry Industry tends to be extractive Extractive goods are primary commodities 0 Primary commodities have volatile prices in the market 0 The prices go up then drop 8 Rural and remote communities Very far away from large cities 0 No bene t from proximity to urban center Small place amongst a vast void of land 9 Rapid growth eXurban Used to be rural now becoming a suburb Encompassed by urban sprawl o Chicagoland keeps expanding further and further from the city center I Bolingbrook used to be ruralfarming now it is the edge of the suburbs 1 0 Human capital People go to work earn wages spend money shareexhibit skills and teach inside the community 1 1 Political capital Rulesregulations 0 People with the power to set the rules can make laws that bene t the community or bene t themselves Ability to in uence distribution of resources 0 Individuals with this ability determine what groups will be taken care of in terms of need for resources 1 2 The seven community capitals Human People go to work earn wages spend money teach and shareexhibit their skills inside the community hdoney Currency when spent on goodsservices Capital when invested to create dividend pro t Natural Natural resources I Amenities lakes mountains etc I Central Illinois has incredible soil great for crops Built I Infrastructure I Bridges I Roads I Street lamps Political power I Ability to set rulesregulations I Ability to in uence distribution of resources Cultural People have access to aspects of society 0 Upbringingconnections 0 Education I FloraFlora the culture of a community can be developed into a product 0 Cultural festival Corn Fest 0 Chinatown Little Italy I Used to be ethnic enclaves I Still has concentration of ethnicity but behavior is less uniform I A product is popularauthentic ethnic restaurants Social Value substance of our relationships I Connections and ties between community members relationships 0 Passage of information networks 0 Foundation of trust between individuals If people are more focused on group there is less focus on selfinterest 1 3 Professionalization Individuals are dependent on the services of others I Individuals pay for intelligence knowledge and skill when we seek help from professionals DeTocqueville a Frenchman observed Americans in community meetings diagnosing and determining solutions to community problems Communities within society require professionals to build infrastructure provide relief for ailments and keep the community clean Teachers lawyers doctors and the social service sector 0 These professionals have the power to label ailments When individuals become too complacent with professionals the community deteriorates The labeled ailment can become a bigger problem than it actually is Occupational groups considered marginal professions push to be considered full fledged professions The professional model includes certain attributes o Performs functions in response to societal needs I Belief that these functions are a vital service 0 Training schools which re ect the base knowledge I Entrance standardsregulations 0 Professional associations and ethics I Those who don t fit in are unprofessional o Autonomy the professional makes the best decisions I feedback from the client un credible isn t useful 1 4 Globalization Intensified movement of stuff Flow of capital moves outside the community Groups of countries have come together to form a global economy 0 Capital moves around the globe When we pay for socks we are hiring a sweatshop worker thousands of miles away Same process as hiring our neighbor to mow the lawn 0 Service is provided for payment The payer receives a service and the service gets paid Sentimental capitalism justi es violent means with good ends that are always in the future increases in marginal wages We keep hiring sweatshops because without them we would need to live in selfsufficient communities Sweatshop workers suffer violence to produce our goods They are earning more than before still very little still marginal lifestyle 0 rising tide raises all boats 0 some boats are immensely better than others 1 5 The movement of stuff The stuff includes any of the seven community capitals When a job provided by a local company goes to a person overseas it a irects ow of human capital out of the community When people and money leave the community it isn t thriving 1 6 Community versus neighborhood Neighborhood Increased emphasis on geography and less on social dimensions 0 Primarily focused on residence Community Increased emphasis on social aspects interaction between individuals 1 7 C Wright Mills Born 1916 in Waco Texas Graduated from University of Wisconsin in 1941 Theorized history affects us today while we shape history in the present Every push is responded to by a pull and vice versa Shaping society consists of interplay between individuals 339 One man protest has no power to change anything That one man can inspire one other person One by one a movement is created 339 Society shapes individuals The interplay between individuals determines how individuals act in public Society fills individuals with social interaction 39339 Determined a correlation between education level and economic status The correlation is a relationship between the economy and society He conceptualized A Series of Traps 0 Social norms are constantly changing kids these days Older generations disagree with the cultural tastes of the younger generation 0 Older generations are alienated by a collapse of tradition o Refusal of contemporary art what kids these days like Some people think electric dance music EDM is nothing but garbage People fear change because we get set in our ways 0 New class registration systems irritate us and we think it is bad 0 There is a chance it is actually a lot better I The fact that it is different makes us believe it is bad I This is a trap 0 People will always be uncomfortable in society because we are unsure of our roles 0 Contemporary art may bother older individuals because it makes them feel dated or irrelevant o This is a trap too older folks rejected the social norm 0 The solution is to let the social norm shape them maybe give contemporary art another try 1 8 Peter Berger The sociologist peers behind the scenes 0 They explore human interactions Why do people in certain positions of power or groups of people in certain places behave in various ways Sociology is a comparison and critique of human relations 0 The study explains why real things are the way they are 1 9 Wendell Berry Kentuckyborn novelist poet and farmer Newagrarianism o Neogemeinschaft Advanced capitalismwe can t make our own stuff We should all be self suf cient and have survival skills Believed the cause of the environmental crisis can be traced to our human economy and households being at odds with nature We are proxies for corporations who produce all our food clothes and shelter We should take pride in good work working with hands 0 The environmental crisis can only be solved if we take back responsibility from the proxy holders 0 Growing our own food 0 Producing our own fertilizers o Producing certain crops for material fibers for clothes This solutions is very radical because it reduces e iciency we don t want to compromise how efficient and easier our lives are At the very least all citizens need to involve themselves with their communities 20 Ferdinand Tonnies Believed the basis for social cohesion was a collective will Analogous to group norms Group norms are those that benefit and unify the group Conceived the idea of gemeinschaft and gesselschaft in 1897 Tonnies was from a wealthy farming family in Kiel Germany 0 He believed he grew up in the ideal environment for a human being Mass production global economy had not emerged The economy was totally localized o Goods and currency were exchanged between members of the community within the community 0 In his village he experienced people working and consuming in unison Experienced the industrial rise of capitalism in Eastern Europe Factories new to humanity were pulling individuals out of their localities to the factory s common point of intersection 0 Life was dirty and dangerous People from various cultures and regions met at the point of intersection 0 There was no common language or culture People were easily frustrated and confused by each other Speci c cultural behaviors were easily misinterpreted No common language or culture Some behaviors considered odd to some and normal to others 0 The lack of communication led to misunderstanding even violence 21 Community vs society vs culture vs identity Communityterritory institutions interactions Societyexercise of sovereignty over a territory geography Lacks face to face interaction in comparison to community 0 Matter of scale Cultureshared norms ritual world view Connected through social relations NO GEOGRAPHY Identitycrystallization 0 A strong interpersonal understanding and connection 0 Within an individual of the socialculture relation in which he or she is involved and which he or she is lead to reproducerej ect Communitysociety identi cationquestion of scale 0 There are many American s but fewer Midwesterners Citycommunity where all included individuals don t interact face to face There are subsets of identities within the city small enough units within city are communities Jews of the Diaspora form communities within societies 0 Other ethnicities also form enclaves 22 The Professional Problem Our main economic practice is designating economic practice to others professionalization Our economy is problem based If a problem is eradicated from the community the corresponding professional has no work to do 0 The nature of some professionals is iatrogenic they don t want the problems to be totally solved or else they would be out of a job When we have problems we ask others to solve it for us 0 Interaction is purely economic not for personal gainpleasure If we don t rely on professionals then nothing will get done 0 If garbage men were eliminated there would be excess waste in the public domain 0 If doctors were eliminated there would be no knowledge about providing relief for disease and ailments 23 Three explanations for professional problem Iatrogenic providing solutions while creating another problem College professors convince students they are deficient without degrees create problem 0 If students didn t feel deficient without education then teachers would have no purpose Doctors don t rid the earth and society of disease the provide solutions to ailments o The ailments never cease the exist we have specific people who tell us how to get rid of them Many professionals are arrogant They believe themselves to be better than the people their job delegates them to help 0 Doctors are impersonal and are always Dr insert last name 0 Never ask you to call them by their first name I Patients are empty vessels to fill with information Poorly organized professions are inefficient Police forces are a necessary force in stopping crime without the force crime is rampant 0 There are more police officers but also more crime why Shouldn t the increase in the service drop crime Certain services are ineffective 0 Some police organizations are better than others organization and function is better 24 The transformation from citizens to clients Professionals turn citizens into clients when using political capital to label citizens Labeling citizens delegates them into problem sub groups At risk communities get labeled a lot by professionals Because interactions are professionalclient rather than citizencitizen there is an arrogant and iatrogenic effect to the proposed solutions 0 This deteriorates the community 25 Hyperindividualism WorkEconomic Pressure 0 Everyone is busy and stressed out Studying 18 credit hours or working full time are both demanding Some students do both 0 Everyone is too busy with their own schedule to block off time for civic engagement and recreation S uburbsSprawl Our homes are vary large compared to the past 0 Many are fenced off We commute in private vehicles Individual s habitats are isolated from the habitats of other individuals There are various types of screens TV we focus on instead of facetoface interaction Busy schedules isolated habitats and distracting screens caused the Ideological Generation Change 0 Millenials feel different about the frequency and nature of interaction with others 0 A majority of our daily business is conducted alone without interaction 26 Strong versus weak social ties Weak ties are how we get jobs Networks of weak ties connect individuals with opportunities Our strong social ties are our best friends They aren t the people who nd us jobs because they know our aws 27 Growth Doctrine We must have growth Growth NEEDS to expand Produce produce and produce more 0 More is always better McKibben points to the steam engine as the starting point for the growth obsession The steam engine did the work of 500 horses 0 It freed humans from creating their own energy for production 0 Growth makes things easier and more ef cient for us 28 Social capital Citizens are those who are active in the community 0 Routinely go to town hall for meetings and do community service Citizens are engaged because they think they can unite the community Flora and Flora claim social capital is the engine under all seven capitals When social capital is healthy and functioning all seven capitals will be healthy and functioning The density of social ties determines the value of social networks 0 Density consists of intensity and extensity o Intensity is how well one individual knows another 0 Extensity is how many individuals each individual knows Norms of reciprocity and trust 0 If one individual does something for another the favor will be returned This is a naturally occurring phenomenon It is greedy and un natural to expect things in return 0 It is a phenomenon that simply occurs One individual helping another is a functioning characteristic of a healthy community The concept Density of Acquaintanceship explains more intensity and extensity are better Interaction occurs with multiple people 0 Those multiple people have ties to more people Common acquaintances connects individuals with opportunities to those in need of the opportunity 29 Bridging versus bonding social capital High Bridging Low Clientelism Progressive High change driven participation externally change driven professional by broad problem coalitions Bonding Extreme Strong Bonding Individualism Boundaries poor get left out mistrust among groups little cooperation racism xenophobia result Low Bridging Bridging with communities and groups outside your own develops weak ties Bonding is a strongintimate relationship with others You have each other s trust Bonds are tight woven relationships 30 The social organization of convenience 31 The challenges to the growth doctrine Physical challenge Space Natural resources 0 Environmental challenges Political challenge Big differences in opinion 0 Inequality and insecurity are 0 Bad for stability 0 Cause outrage o The US is most unequal in household income out of all developed nations Psychological challenge Those at the plateau aren t thrilled by more money
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