Exam One Study Guide
Exam One Study Guide 11762-002
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Colean Notetaker on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 11762-002 at Kent State University taught by John Updegraff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Psych Study Guide Exam 1 Lecture amp Chapter 2 0 De nitions Independent variable The cause Dependent Variable The effect Operationa De nition statement of procedures that you will use to de ne your research variables Falsifiable possibility that hypotheses can be shown false by an observation or experiment 0 Hormones travel throughout the body either in the blood stream or in the uid around cells looking for target cells Once hormones find a target cell they bind with specific protein receptors inside or on the surface of the cell and specifically change the cell s activities 0 Case Study It is used to study something rare that happened to somebody EX participant loosing part of a brain due to an injury It is usually not representative of everybody EX gender age ethnicity etc 0 Survey It asks people to report their behaviors and opinions as well as asks what do people do EX how often do you exercise It is easy to do it is a good way to measure attitudes and opinions It is not good at identifying the causes of people s behavior what people say and do can be different people are often less than honest in surveys 0 Naturalistic Observation Records peoples actual behaviors in their natural environment Goal is to observe what people do record their behaviors and try to be as unobtrusive as possible 0 Experimental Method Researchers making participants do something that they would not normally do Key aspects Two different groups those groups differ only in how much of that independent variable is there ex violent video games vs nonviolent video games Random assignment ensures that participants in each group are essentially identical in terms of age gender attitudes or anything else Controlling the environment ensures that the only difference between the two groups is the independent variable 0 Random Sampling Important Issue To Consider A group of people that fairly represents a population because each member of the population has an equal chance of inclusion I How random truly is it when you look at who s filling out these surveys 0 Correlation Positive Correlation if one variable goes up because the other is going up Correlation does not prove causation EX aggression due to violent video games I even if violent video games lead to being aggressive or if being aggressive leads to playing violent video games there can also be a third party that leads to the person either being aggressive andor playing violent video games Negative Correlation if one variable goes down because the other goes down ex higher the age the less hair a person has on their head No Correlation no relationship between two variables NeuroscienceChapter 4 0 Definitions fMRI Functional magnetic resonance imagining is a tool used by a growing number of scientist who seek to investigate the brain mechanisms underlying psychological phenomena 0 Afferent Nerves into the brain 0 Efferent Nerves leaving the brain 0 Sympathetic nervous system arousing Dilates pupil Accelerates heartbeat Inhibits Digestion Stimulates glucose release by liver Stimulates secretion of epinephrine norepinephrine Stimulates ejaculation in males 0 Parasympathetic nervous system calming Contracts pupil Slows heartbeat Stimulates digestion Stimulates gallbladder Contracts bladder Allows blood ow to sex organs 0 Parts of the neuron amp what they do Cell body the cells life support center Dendrites receive messages from other cells Axon passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons muscles or glands 0 The synapse Vesicle containing neurotransmitters Synaptic Gap Receptor sites on receiving neuron Sending neuron Action potential Axon Terminal Neurotransmitter 0 Behaviorsemotions associated With 5 key neurotransmitters Dopamine neurons that send messages regarding movement learning attention and positive emotion Serotonin Regulating sleep appetite arousal pain suppression mood implication in depression common depression medications are SSRI s SSRI Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Norepinephrine NE Increases heart rate arousal slows digestion Acetylcholine ACH Muscle action cognitive functioning memory Gammaaminobutyric acid GABA major inhibitory neurotransmitter low levels associated With anxiety disorders 0 Major functions of the following Brain parts Brain Stem Controls heartbeat and breathing Crossover point Where nerves from one side of body connect With opposite side of brain The Cerebellum Coordinates voluntary movement and balance Tells brain What to expect from body s own movement Limbic System Our Basic Motivations Hippocampus Essential for forming new memories Amygdala In uences aggression and fear Hypothalamus Regulates thirst regulates hunger regulates sexual behavior regulates pleasure The Cerebral Cortex Frontal lobe Making plans judgments our moral compass Includes motor cortex sends output to muscles Parietal lobe Includes sensory cortex receives input from skin muscles Occipital lobe Visual processing Temporal lobe Auditory processing Hemispheric Specialization Left hemisphere Perceives right visual field Controls right side of body Rationalizer Interpreter of behaviors Speech generation Speech perception Calculations Making literal interpretations ANALYTIC Right hemisphere Perceives left visual field Controls left side of body Sensation and Perception Chapter 5 0 Definitions Absolute Threshold The smallest possible stimulus that can be detected at least 50 of the time Sensory Adaption reduced response to an unchanging stimulus High intensity stimuli such as bright lights and loud noises invariably draw our attention because the situations that produce these stimuli such as a nearby explosion can have obvious consequences for our safety Bottom up processing the brain s use of incoming signals to construct perceptions Top down processing we use the knowledge we have gained from prior experience with stimuli to perceive them Context effects the context in which an object resides can in uence our interpretation of it Perceptual set a mental predisposition that in uences what we perceive Lightness Constancy the tendency to perceive little variation in the lightness of objects despite enormous differences in the amount of light falling upon them and in the amount of light reaching the eye from them luminance Subliminal stimuli any sensory stimuli below an individual s threshold for conscious perception Figureground perception used to describe the tendency of the visual system to simplify a scene into the main object that we are looking at the figure and everything else that forms the background or ground
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