Bone Structure Study Guide
Bone Structure Study Guide Bio 3310
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melanie Queener on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 3310 at Bowling Green State University taught by Dr. Ray Larsen in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 226 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Exam 1 Study Guide The Skeletal System What is the difference between the axial and the appendicular skeleton Appendicular appendages of the body primary function is movement 0 Pectoral shoulder girdle I Clavicle 2 I Scapula 2 0 Upper Limbs I Humerus brachium 2 I Ulna antebrachium 2 I Radius antebrachium 2 I Carpals carpus 16 I Metacarpals manus 10 I Phalanges manus 28 o Pelvic Girdle I Pelvic coxal 2 0 Lower Limbs I Femur femoral 2 I Patella femoral 2 I Fibula Crural 2 I Tibia Crural2 I Tarsels tarsalpedal16 I Metatarsels tarsalpedal10 I Phalanges tarsalpedal 28 Axial protection and support 0 Skull I Cranium 8 I Face 14 Hyoid l Auditory Ossicles 6 Vertebral column 26 0000 Thorax I Sternum 1 I Ribs 24 Bone Structure What is the difference between long and at bones Long bones 0 Structure I Diaphysis long central shaft made of compact bone I Epiphysis peripheral ends 0 Mostly spongy bone 0 Filled with red marrow when young 0 Capped by cartilage I Metaphysis middle area 0 Epiphyseal plate growth plate 0 Hyaline cartilage 0 Growth zone I Articular Cartilage ends of bone 0 Smooth surface for motion I Periosteum outer layer 0 Covers bone Two layers 0 Outer dense irregular CT 0 Inner cells Nourishment Attaching ligaments and tendons 0 Protection I Medullary CaVity inside bone 0 Filled with marrow or adipose tissue I Endosteum lines medullary caVity 0 Single layer of cells 0 Flat bones two layers of compact bone enclosing a middle layer of spongy bone cranium I Periosteum outer surface I Diploe spongy layer in cranium 0 Absorbs shock due to exibility What are some disorders associated with bones Osteogenesis Imperfecta 0 Genetic defect in collagen Bones fracture easily Spinal curvature Discoloration of Sclera 0000 Poor muscle tone 0 Hearing loss Rickets o Skeletal and dental deformities o Easily broken bones 0 Growth distrurbances 0 Vitamin D deficiency I Complicated by lack of dietary calcium I Lack of adequate nutrition or sunlight I Bowed bones What are the differences between compact and spongy bone Spongy bone trabecular o Rapidly remodels I Constant osteoblast and osteoclast activity 0 Contains red marrow when young I Bone marrow 0 Soft tissue that occupies marrow cavity 0 Produces blood cells 0 Lamellae are arranged in a lattice of thin columns called trabeculae I Supports and protects marrow o Spaces make bones lighter Compact bone dense o Lamellarlayers are formed 0 Haversian formation of osteons I Circular formation How do bones form Ossification process of making bones o In embryo I Intramembraneous ossification 0 Forms the at bone of the skull and mandible I Endochondral Ossification 0 Replacement of cartilage by bone 0 Most of the bones in the body are formed this way 0 Including long bones I Growth at epiphyseal plate I Chondrocytes hyaline cartilage I Replacement of cartilage by bone tissue 0 Until adulthood growth 0 Remodeling 0 Repair of fractures What are disorders affiliated with bone growth Achondroplastic dwarfism 0 Failure to metaphysal chondrocyte division 0 Defective fibroblast growth factor receptor FGFR3 o Autosomal dominant 0 Head and trunk develop normally but limbs are stunted I Long bones don t grow 0 No effective treatment I In dogs 0 Defective fibroblast growth factor receptor FGFR4 What hormones are associated with bone growth Insulinlike growth factors are produced by the liver 0 Stimulates osteoblasts and promotes cell diVision at epiphyseal plate and enhance protein synthesis Thyroid hormones promote bone growth through osteoblasts Insulin promotes collagen production Estrogen and testosterone causes growth spurt 0 Changes in females widen hips 0 Women hit growth spurt sooner but have a faster period of growth What are the different parts of the skull and what are the bones in them Cranium the brain case 0 Frontal bone forehead upper portion of the sinuses o Parietal bone anterior sides I Sutures sagittal coronal lambdoid squamous 0 Temporal bone squamous region tympanic region hearing I Mastoid I Carotid canal and jugular foramen I Styloid process 0 Occipital bone I Foramen magnum I Occipital condyles I Hyperglossal canal I External occipital protuberance I Superior and inferior nuchal lines o Sphenoid bone helps hold frontal lobe I Sella turcica I Optic canal I Foreman ovale I Foreman spinosum o Ethmoid bone only a small portion is cranial I Crista galli I Cribriform plate I Facial 0 Superior and middle nasal conchae 0 Superior portion of nasal septum Nasal labyrinth Orbital plates Viscerocranium facial o Maxilla bones I Upper jaw I Incisive foreman o Palatine bones I Hard palate o Zygomatic bone cheekbones I Forms with zygomatic process of temporal bone 0 Lacrimal bone 0 Nasal bone 0 Inferior nasal concha o Vomer o Mandible strongest bone in the skull I Temporomandibular joint I Coronoid process 0 Orbit I Bones 0 Orbital plate of frontal bone 0 Lesser wing of sphenoid bone 0 Orbital plate of ethmoid bone 0 Lacrimal bone 0 Frontal process of maxilla 0 Orbital surface of zygomatic bone 0 Greater wing of sphenoid bone 0 Zygomatic process of frontal bone 0 Sinuses I Serve as resonating chambers that intensify and prolong sounds o Dentition I Teeth form from oral epithelium I 32 in adults 20 in infants 0 Takes 625 years to replace I Dentin hard yellowish tissue that makes up most of the tooth I Cementenum covers root I Enamel covers crown and neck 0 Cannot regenerate How does bone repair itself Calcium and phosphorous needed 0 strengthen and harden new bone Steps 0 Formation of fractured hematoma I Blood leaks and forms a fist 0 Formation of fibrocartilagenous callus I Fibroblasts invade fracture sight 0 Formation of bony callus I Osteoblasts begin to produce spongy bone 0 Bone remodeling I Compact bone replaces spongy bone What effect does calcium have on bone Bone is the body s major calcium reservoir 0 Hypocalcemia blood calcium deficiency I Muscle tremors o Hypercalcemia blood calcium excess I Sluggish depression cardiac failure 0 Hormonal regulation I Cacitriol decreases blood Ca I Calcitriol enhances dietary uptake of Ca I Parathyroid increases blood Ca o Increases osteoclast activity What effect does aging have on bone Females begin losing bone mass at 30 and men at 60 Osteoporosis present in fractures under circumstances that would cause them 0 Effect about 110 million a year 0 Hip wrist and vertebral collapse
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