Introduction to Eastern Religious Traditions
Introduction to Eastern Religious Traditions RELG 1040
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IANUARY 14 2009 Eric Imhof Janet Nguyen LECTURE Indus Valley a Indus River runs up Pakistan b Earliest known civilization circa 25001SOOBC c No deciphered script i No Rossetta Stone ii Longest expression of characters 23 characters d Some think Hinduism goes back this far i Not strong supporting evidence e Had global trade i Evidenced by seals found in Rome and East Africa II AryaThe Aryans meaning quotnoblequot a Pastoral and Nomadic i Did not build cities ii Did not care for land so moved often b Some traveled towards Europe Iran from North Kazakhstan i IndoAryaones that went to India c Probably wrecked Indus Valley civilization i Knew chariots and their weapons d Spoke Sanskritwhich we can translate e Cognate termsIranAryalreland i Hitler interested because it gave Germans pedigreehistory READINGS Embree Sources of Indian Tradition 328 39239 Vedic Period from 1500 to 600 BC 39239 Brahmanical Tradition system of ideas beliefs and rituals practices associated with the social dominance of the Brahmans class that provided a welldefined and coherent interpretation of normative social and religious behavior and thought throughout history 39239 The whole of Vedic literature consists of4 Vedas gt Samhitas several expository ritual texts attached to each of these Vedas gt Brahmanas texts giving secret and mystical explanations of the rituals gt Aranyakas speculative treatises gt Upanishads concerned chiefly with a mystical interpretation of the Vedic ritual and its relation to men and the universe v Rg Veda recounts the deeds of lndra 39239 Divine parents Heaven and Earth the cosmic law rta and the sustainer of that law Varuna fire was regarded as the liaison bt gods and men 39239 Aryans were nomadic pastoral people v Darkskinned people were called Dasas slave 39239 Vedic Aryans believed that the creation of the universe and the procreation of the human race were the result of a primeval sacrifice the selfimmolation of a cosmic being 39239 Heaven and Earth are symbolic of the vastness brightness and bounty of nature 39239 Varuna is the administrator of law lord of human morality counterpart of lndra 39239 Soma is the third most important deity in the Rg Veda after lndra and Agni 39239 3 principle category of sacrifice gt Cooked food sacrifice offered to the domestic fire gt Oblation sacrifice gt Soma sacrifice offered on the sacred fire Hopkins 39239 Hindu beginnings come from the remains of the great Indus Valley Civilization and the religious literature of the Aryans 39239 Hymns praise the prowess of the Aryans and also celebrated their god s control over nature and demonic powers 39239 Unique feature of the Indus cities the elaborate system of bathing and drainage facilities found in both the lllower city and the citadel 39239 lndus Art gt Terracotta figurine favorite figurine subject is male animals usually a humped bull human figures were usually female rather a crude standing woman with a wide girdle a necklace and an elaborate head dress sometimes shows signs of pregnancy 39239 Explanations of the different gods Notes in Class Jan 14 Indus Valley Civilization ZSOOBC15OOBC 1 Not much is known about their writing system or text they are a precursor for the Aryans 15OOBC 2 Aryans Vedic Language and chant Ireland and Iran are cognate for Aryans brought over Sanskrit which is in the Veda Aryans noble were Pastoralist people traveled in on foot and horses slash and burn types of techniques they were also great warriors warriors pastoralist poets who were intensely interested in language and at the same time very tough people 1 There are two classes of people a Aryans are those who knew the Sanskrit b Dasas quotservantquot or quotslavesquot VedaSanskrit term comes from a root vid meaning to know 1 Samhitas means a collection Rg the oldest means quotHymn Yaju r Sama Athavra need to know this Aryans believed that language had power and belonged to people who had birth rights to it Veda means knowledge Vedic Gods 1 lndra King of Godspart of the creation of the myth 2 Surya Sun 3 Agni Fire god 4 Varuna administrator of cosmic law 5 Somaplant juice means to press got them high intoxicating drink used in rituals to gain some connection with the divine don t worry about the Creation Myth Aryans bought with them their hymns and memorized them 1 Text tells us how to recite them 2 When British got to India they heard it at the 4 corners of India and they were exactly the same in pronunciation 3 Therefore the Aryans had memorized the text phoneme by phoneme Gods elements are personified Ritual the language is powerful and the idea is that language is a template and it is the map of the universe hymns to God with various powersclosely associated to the gods hymns are to a level like god mantra if you say the word in the right way than you can affect the results that you want also called mantric causation 1 The ritual did not make Obama President it s just the celebration vs getting married in a church bc those words have power need quotI do to get married the ritual has power the other was just a ceremony Aryans had language that were reality 1 If said the hymns the right way and at the right time with the right ritual the Gods will do what you say Mantras create real things in the world mantric causation say mantra and do ritual and will get results Rta means the order of the world there is an order to the world the order could be known and make changes by saying mantras and doing rituals Apauruseyanot of human design the Veda was not written by humans its structure of language is the structure of the universetimeess connects to mantra Apurva not before the eyes Ultimate goal is Heaven if do the ritual the right way Theory of Mantra Sanskrit and Veda bought by Aryans When Araya got in India they stayed and they got to know the people who lived there Caste system Priest Warrior Merchanttraderbusinessman servant 1 In the Aryan pd had Aryan and Dasas those who got knowledge and those who were servants so when got to India they mixed it up they had 4 caste bc they mixed with other people Don t have to know the Sanskrit term for the above Aryans got to India they mixed things that allowed for the development of Hinduism Today in India Caste is illegal caste is hereditary when caste was created it was not hereditary it was based on ones job Samsara to turn around is the cycle the rebirth cycle of rebirth a world where one is reborn over and over again 1 Sam means to flow and sara means round 2 Human birth is the best birth IANUARY 21 2009 Kathy Dam Mina Park LECTURE Indus Valley Civilization Aryan Invasion 15OOBC Brought Sanskrit with them Nomadic and pastoral people Great horsemen and fighters Called themselves noble Two classes of people 0 Aryans o Dasas servants or slaves Brought the Veda comes from vid which means knowledge 0 Four Vedic hymnals samhitas collection I Rg oldest I Yajur I Sama I Atharva The language belonged to people who had a birth right to it it had power Vedic Gods o lndra king of the Gods o Surya sun god 0 Agni god of fire 0 Varuna god of the social order 0 Soma plant that was pressed forjuice Sanskrit language Creation myths o Gods have elemental qualities Hymns are mantras o Mantric causation if you say a word in the right way you produce the result that you want 0 The words are the gods I Honor the gods in the right way and they ll give you what you want Ritual the language is a template or the universe 0 Has power must be done in a certain way I Power lies in the language Rta the order of the world 0 That order can be known o If you know it you can affect changes in that order 0 You can change the world with ritual actions The ritual works because of apauruseya and apurva o Apaureseya not of human design 0 Apurva not before the eyes I It ll give you a result that s not right in front of you 0 The ultimate goal is heaven 0 Do the ritual the right way and you ll assure yourself heaven o The Aryans get to India and stay 0 Culture changed when they got to know the people already in India 0 The first thing to change was social 0 Developed castes priest warrior merchanttraderbusinessman servant I Priests memorized the Veda access to the ritual I Warrior kings 0 Created an environment in which Buddhism grows o Castes are illegal in India today 0 Today castes are hereditary I When it was first created it wasn t hereditary o Samsara to turn around 0 Cycle of rebirth THREE PHASES 1 INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION 2 ARYAN INVASION O Brought with them Sanskrit perfected wellmade O Nomadic people pastoral O Slashandburn and then move on 0 Great horsemen great fighters O Called themselves quotAryanquot meaning quotnoblequot 0 Two classes of people Aryans vs Dasas servant slave 0 Warriors Pastoralists Poets O Brought with them the Vedas Root vid quotto knowquot Four Vedic hymns or Samhitas I Samhitas to put together collectionscolections of hymns Rg Yajur Sama Atharva Rg is the oldest Veda 0 Language was very important perfected how to pronounce wordsgtanguage had power belonged to the people who had a birthright to it 0 Vedic Gods Indra king of the gods Surya sun god O O O O O I Agni god of fire sacrifice I Varuna god of social order I Soma plant that was pressed for juice I Root su Sanskrit language Creation myths I A bunch of gods gods have elemental qualities to them Rituals the language is powerful language is a template the map of the universe I Hymns to gods who are various elements to power rain winds etc I The hymns are closely associated to gods I Hymns are known as mantra I Mantric causation if you say the words in the right way with the right pronunciation you produce the results you want I The words are the gods I If you honor the gods in the right way the gods give you what you want gt classic ritual I Want to succeed in battle want to have wealth etc I Ex can39t become married without a ceremony without the oath quotI now pronounce you husband and wife Barack Obama took an oath of faith to become president I One is a ceremony one is a ritual in which a ritual has power I The ritual has power the power lies in the language Rta the order of the world I There39s an order to the world that order can be known if the order is known you can change the world with ritual action I Why does the ritual work 1 Apauruseya not of human design 2 Apurva not before the ice I Give you a result that39s not right in front of you I Ex you want a laptop gt say a mantra Heaven if you do the ritual the right way you can ensure yourself heaven I The Aryans believed in heaven 3 ARYANS STAY IN INDIA 0 0 Actual artifacts found When they stayed they started to get to know the people who were already in lndiacuture changed a bit as well as their notion of how the world works First thing that happened was social I Caste Priest Warrior MerchantTraderBusinessman Servant I Priest memorized Veda I Warrior kings I Merchant third level I Servant last level 0 Today in India caste is illegal I In India today caste is hereditary O In India when caste was created it was not hereditary it was created based on your occupation O Samsara to turn around I Rebirth common belief in Hinduism and Buddhism I Reborn into samsara I Samsara is the cycle of rebirth where you are reborn site of rebirth READINGS Embree Chapter 8 Dharma The First End of Man Older Brahmanism of the Samhitas and Brahmanas consolidated reorganized and revitalied the Brahmanic way of life and thought 0 Synthesis was achieved between older Brahmanical ideal of action life as a ritual and newer quietistic ideal of withdrawal and renunciation developed in the Upanishadic period 0 Found expression in the Sacred Law epics Mahabharata and Ramayana Rama seen as the embodiment of dharma Sacred Law and the spics form the smrti remembered tradition o CSOOBC AD c500 0 Gave lndia an integrated philosophy of life and social organization that stood the test of foreign invasions and rule over several centuries The Vedas are sruti revealed tradition o Smrti is based on sruti Hinduism presided over by the Sacred Law of the brahmans 0 Hindu culture produced in the Gupta Age Smrti elaborated and emphasized dharma o The Sacred Law is the codification of dharma o Dharma is allcomprehensive o Dharma has adjusted to changing contexts of time place and social environment 0 Principle ideals of dharma I Social life should be organized through welldefined and wellregulated classes varna I An individual s life within those classes should be organized into definite stages asrama o Dharma came to mean varnaasramadharma the dharmas ordained duties of the four classes and the four stages of life I An ideal society is divided into 4 classes essential component of Brahmanic view and later preserved by Hinduism o The multitude of castes jatis though is how the world actually is Division between 3 upper Aryan social orders and the 4 h the shudras was strict o Denied all access to the Veda the Vedic sacrifices and the sacraments Classes were distinguished with regard to roles they played in communal sacrifice An individual s life was organized into 4 stages ashramas so that the individual could realize the four ends of life 0 Stages student householder hermit or recluse and ascetic o Resolves conflict between consolidation of society and spiritual emancipation of individual What is dharma Duty law obligation proper action right behavior Foundation of the universe Sources of dharma Vedic scriptures Sacred Law practices of the good whatever is agreeable to one s own self Dharma isn t static changes with changing circumstances Four ages Krita Treta Dvapara and Kali Characterized by increasing physical and spiritual deterioration Highest dharma of each age 0 Krita austerities tapas o Treta sacred knowledge 0 Dvapara performance of sacrifice o Kali giving alone Each class has its own set of duties and obligations and was expected to act up to the following teaching of the Bhagavad Gita Four classes born from Purusha Brahman priest kshatriya warrior vaishya trader shudra serf o Excluded castes were below these Vratyas twiceborn castes degraded by neglect of the Vedic rites o Eligible to enter caste system Brahmans teaching studying performing and making others perform sacrificial rites and giving away and receiving gifts Kshatriya protection of the people giving away of wealth performance of sacrifical rites study and nonattachment to sensual pleasures Vaishya tending of cattle giving away of wealth performance of sacrificial rites study trade and commerce usury and agriculture Shudra service without malice Selfexistent One said the mouth is Mans purest part Brahman is the lord of this entire creation Brahman created by the Selfexistent One DHARMA THE FIRST END OF MAN 0 O The movement found expression in the texts fo the Sacred Law in the epics the Mahabharata and Ramayana and in literature generally For the vast numbers of Hindus throughout the ages there has been a no more inspiring symbol of dharma than the hero of the epic Ramayana a text that gives expression to both the social and devotional tendencies of the new revivalist movement Rama39s devotion to duty to his father and to his people and Sita39s longsuffering fidelity to Rama have been regarded as religious and ethical ideals through the centuries Rama is seen as the embodiment of dharma The Sacred Law and the epics are Viewed by the Hindus as only slightly less sacred that the Vedas and together form the body of semicanonical scriptures called smrti remembered traditionas opposed to the Vedas which as srutl39 revealed tradition O 0 Sacred Law Vedic scriptures and the support of orthodox Brahmanism joined together to become Hinduism Hinduism presided over the by the Sacred Law of the brahmans The central concept that was elaborated and emphasized by smriti was that of dharma Denoted different ideas such as Vedic ritual ethical conduct caste rules and civil and criminal law The Sacred Law is the codification of dharma Dharma was limited to two principle ideals Social life should be organized through welldefined and wellregulated classes varna An individual39s life within those classes should be organized into definite stages asrama Dharma almost came to mean varnaasramadharma the dharmas ordained duties of the four classes and the four stages oflife Four classes Priest teaching studying performing sacrificial rites making others form sacrificial rights giving away and receiving gifts Warrior protecting the people giving away wealth performance of sacrificial rights study nonattachment to sensual pleasures Trader tending of cattle giving away of wealth performance of sacrificial rites study trade and commerce usury and agriculture Serf service without malice of even these other three classes In the Rig Veda the line dividing the upper three Aryan social orders from the fourth that of the despised shudras was very strict The four main classes were distinguished from one another with regard to the specific roles they played in the communal sacrifice Determined by definite concepts of taboo pollution and purification Corresponding to their roles in the ritual these classes were assigned distinct colors An individual39s life was to be organized into four distinct stages the student the householder the hermit or recluse and the ascetic Done to resolve con ict between two ideals the consolidation of society and the spiritual emancipation of the individual Dharma duty law obligation proper action right behavior highest good First three ends ofa man pleasure material gain and virtue Five great daily sacrifices offering of the food oblation offering with the utterance svadha performance of the Vedic sacrifices study of the sacred texts and honoring of guests IANUARY 26 2009 Kristine Weatherwax Hassan Mansoor LECTURE o Mantric causation words affect outside world 9 Produce real tangible results 0 Hindus resort to the unseen only if under duress o Apuruseya not written by men 9 Veda is not of human origin 9 Veda is a template of the universe 0 Apurva quotnot before the eyes 9 Gives result that you do not see immediately 0 Ultimate goal in Vedic period heaven 0 Hindus uncomfortable with untestable results want to know cause and effects 0 Notion of rebirth comes out of untestable idea of heaven 0 Began to doubt the permanence of heaven 0 Buddha grew up in Hindu India 0 Samsara world where you re reborn over and over includes beauty and heaven 0 Human is best birth of any birth 0 Solution to suffering is getting out of samsara no more rebirth o Hinduism said there are many legitimate goals in life 9 Dharma lawduty 9 Artha wealth prosperity power success 9 Kama pleasure sensual aesthetic 9 Moska liberationultimate goal of life 0 How do you become liberated in Hinduism 9 Many many births 9 Desire to know who you really are atman 9 Atman self true nature very fact that you exist unchanging eternal part of you 9 Moska is a direct experience of atman o Brahman god of all existence compared to a spider can put out web and create 9 Both created universe and is beyond it at the same time 9 Brahmanatman 9 Everything in its right place is divine 0 Place you occupy in society determines your dharma 4 castes 0 Stages of life asrama also affects dharma 9 Studentcelibate servant of teacher 9 Householder responsible 9 Retiree contemplate existence 9 Renunciant go into a monastery or become a wandering monk Rahula pp xvxvi The Buddha s name was Siddhartha and his family name was Gotama He lived in North India in 6 h century BC He was a prince who had every luxury at his disposal and he married a princess and they had a child When he was 29 he left the palace in search of a solution to universal suffering For 6 years he was an ascetic and tried a bunch of different religions and listened to many different teachers but none of them satisfied him At age 35 while sitting under the Bodhi tree the Buddha achieved enlightenment His first sermon was to 5 ascetics For the next 45 years he taught all different castes of people The Way he preached was open to everyone who would listen The Buddha passed away when he was 80 There are now over 500 million Buddhist worldwide READINGS Buddhist Scriptures Edward Conoze pp 3466 Birth of the Bodhisattva The King of the Shakyas and his wife the beautiful Great Maya conceived a child and Maya had a dream that she had a dream right before her conception that she should go to a pure place so that she could practice trance The son of Maya came out her side without causing her any pain and was born completely aware and fully engaged in the practice in meditation He was instantly able to walk up seven steps and he told the world that this is the last time that he is going to be born into this world N Asita s visit Asita the great seer came to visit the birth the miraculous child and he explained to the king that he was upset with himself because he would not be able to witness the release from suffering and then the boy will be free of the bonds of this world W The Bodhisattva s youth and marriage Queen Maya departed to heaven and the child was raised by his aunt He grew up in the palace and never experienced anything but pleasures in his life He never experience serious illness in his life The Bodhisattva must first experience all the pleasures that the world can give them and then after they have a son can depart into the forest P The awakening The prince goes on three pleasure excursions and on them he sees an old man a man with a diseased body and a corpse The prince then discovered the impermanence of the world U39I Withdrawal from the women The prince decided that since his realization of the world s impermanence there is no delight in purely sexual pleasure because there is more to the world than just that Fquot The flight The prince left the castle and went to the forest to find peace He sat down under a roseapple tree and reached the first level of trance He then realized that he sadness and grief for people that are sick or dying comes from one s own self strength and youth The prince was content and sensuous experiences no longer influenced him and did not think about hatred and contempt for others l 9 to 0 N UJ U39I 9 to The apparition of a mendicant A man glided toward the prince and explained how he had no possessions or expectations and then he flew up into the sky The prince then decided that he must leave the palace so that he could lead the homeless life and the gods made sure that the palace doors were open The dismissal of Chandaka The prince gave a message and his jewels to Chandaka The message said that people should not grieve for the prince departing but for people who greedin cling to sensuous passions The practice of austerities The prince then proceeded to become a very religious person and he limited himself to one very small meal a day He eventually started to waste away and he realized that this is not the way to reach enlightenment and without proper nourishment it is impossible to reach this Nandabla s gift The prince went to bathe in the river before his first meal again and Nandabala the daughter of the overseer of the cow herds saw him and begged him to take milkrice from her The prince s body immediately returned to normal and he was now able to be enlightened The prince then went to the sacred fig tree and was told that he would today become a Buddha by The Sage The defeat of Mara The great Sage now had to conquer Mara who was a foe of the Dharma The Mara was easily defeated by the Bodhisattva and his army was destroyed The Enlightenment Now the Bodhisattva was intent on understanding the world He started by remembering his former births and realized that the world is like a wheel without ever stopping and Samsara is unsubstantial He then was able to see the world as it truly is and he saw that the disease and rebirth of beings depended on the deeds done in life He then realized that he had obtained the ultimate truth like many of the great past seers The meeting with the mendicant The Buddha ran into a mendicant on the street and he asked the Buddha who his teacher was The Buddha replied by saying that he had no teacher and that he had this much power and control over his senses because he had reached enlightenment The mendicant then left the Buddha The meeting with the five mendicants The Seer visited the city of Kashi and the people who lived there planned not to be overly friendly toward him because of he broke his vow The closer he got to them though the more welcoming the people became They then asked the Buddha what were his grounds for saying that he had seen the truth Turning the wheel of Dharma The Buddha explained the middle way and explained the holy eightfold path and the four holy truths to the five mendicants The meeting of father and son The Buddha went back home and explained his enlightenment and preached the Dharma to his father His father was very happy that he could be released from suffering Further conversions After the Buddha visited Shravasti he then traveled to heaven and spread the word of the Dharma to his mother and other gods who wanted to be saved Devadatta Devadatta the Buddha s cousin was jealous of his greatness and success and he decided to let loose a giant king elephant who rushed toward the Buddha and all of his followers Everyone left the Buddha s side except for Ananda and when the elephant came near enough he was calmed by the Buddha and Devadatta fell to the regions below The desire for death Mara appeared in the grove where the Buddha was sitting and told him that it was now time for him to enter Nirvana The Buddha replied to him by saying to be patient and in three months time he would enter the final Nirvana The Buddha then entered a deep trance and the world experienced an earthquake because he had chosen to only exist for three more moths 20 The leavetaking from Vaisali the final couch instructions to the Mallas After three months the Buddha turned himself round like an elephant and told Ananda to go arrange a couch between the twin Sal trees for it was now time for him to enter Nirvana He also told him to fetch the Mallas The Buddha told the Mallas and Ananda that this was not the time for grieving because the Buddha was about to be rid of so much suffering All of the Mallas were crying with grief and the Buddha instructed them not to cry and told them that if they wanted to get rid of their suffering all had to thoroughly understand his Dharma N Parinirvana The Buddha then entered into Nirvana and the Earth trembled rivers boiled and flowers grew out of season The gods were so well practiced in the Dharam by this point that they did not shed tears for the passage of the Sage into Nirvana and they celebrated 22 The Relics Everyone who was not enlightened grieved the passage of Buddha into Nirvana They then tried to light the pyre with the Sage s body with the torch three times but it refused to burn Kashyapa then came to visit the Sage with pure thoughts and then the Sage burned and all of his body burned except his bones which were placed in golden pitchers in the city of the Mallas The Mallas then split the relics into eight parts and kept one part and gave one part each to each of the kings Each of the kings erected Stupas for the relics of the Seer People then gathered to hear the sayings of the Buddha by Ananda who started of all the sayings with llthus have I heard These sayings then lead many people to the passage to Nirvana Buddhist Scriptures Lopez pp 105115 The Nobel Search There are not many biographical texts pertaining to the Buddha s life Biographical sections that do occur are with one of the Buddha s early disciples Sariputura In this selection there is no mention of the Buddha s early life including his youth or his wife The Buddha refers to himself as a bodhisattva In the passage the Buddha wanders and considers the dhamma and tries to understand it He then realized that teaching the dhamma is an extremely difficult task Then the Brahma asked the Buddha to teach him the dhamma The Buddha asked himself who he should first teach the dhamma to and decided to teach the group of five that attended to him while he was striving The Buddha then traveled to the Deer Park of lsipatana and for the bhikkus of the group of five The dhikkus originally had decided that they would not pay homage to the Buddha but as he got closer they were not able to keep their pact They began to call the Budhha lfriend but the Buddha instructed them not to do so and he told them that he would now instruct them in the ways of the dhamma He explained to them that once they understood the dhamma that they would be able to live the holy life IANUARY 28 2009 Ashley Bagwell Christopher Post LECTURE A Final Note on Hinduism Varnaasramadharma four stages of life student householder retiree renunciant 0 During the fourth stage samsara is not important You are focused on identifying your atman with Brahman o Varna means color it was part of the caste system that established hierarchy o ramana someone who is striving to do something during last stage of life Some go to extreme aestheticism by denying their bodies of the inessential things in life to know their true atman like raising your arm over your head The Historical Buddha 0 First name Siddhartha quotone whose goals are accomplished akyamUni bodhisattva preenlightenment Last name Gotama Pali Gautama Sanskrit 0 Born in Lumbini hometown was Kapilavastu o m means the stories of his life and previous births 0 His father He had very good father who was king Buddha was prince His father didn t want his son to suffer so he gave Buddha everything best food wine women servants The gods say that Buddha has destiny to achieve but since his father wanted the Buddha to be king he keeps the Buddha in the palace so he would not see the suffering of the world and want to leave 0 Buddha leaves the palace 3x and he sees 1 an old wrinkled man 2 a sick person 3 a corpse o Samsara the world of transmigration became worthless to the Buddha because he realized that it didn t last forever He realizes he has to go his own way to become aware of the nature of reality He tried going to teachers but he didn t find the truth in them 0 He gained the knowledge of who he truly is and he was looking to overcome the suffering of the world 0 He discovers Nirvana nibbana The first wing of Buddhism wisdom he found on his own The second wing compassion was achieved through teacher others and he taught every aspect of his found truth 0 Buddhism allowed for conversion and there were no caste restrictions Buddhism spreads peacefully along the silk road routes to East Asia 0 What did the Buddha think of Samsara and Moksa 0 Not as important as the things of this world I Self Realization lmperminance Big in Buddhism 0 Nothing lasts people grow old and die The Buddha understands karma while under a tree 0 Cause and Effect cyce Why bad things happen to good people 0 By realizing it he knows how to not participate in the cycle of Samsara The Buddha doesn t initially want to teach Why can there only be one Buddha o The world would be stressed too much and it create a lack of unity o Universe would rip apart 0 More Buddhas More Universes 0 That s ok 0 The Buddha saw bad people in the world and didn t want to teach them A god changes the Buddha s mind 0 It s worth the effort even though not everyone will listen to him 0 Feels compassion for the people Early Buddhism Why would one want to escape Samsara 0 Everything is constantly in flux 0 Nothing is stable Life is suffering I Material gain was a good virtue of Hinduism Not so good in Buddhism 0 What is Nirvana o The Buddha became enlightened but stuck around for 50 more years didn t just disappear o llBlowing Out 0 Like lighting a candle with another candle I Cuts off future chance of rebirth o Moksa vs Nirvana o Moksa you have gotten out of the system by understanding yourself I Goes with Atman I Focus is on the self 0 Nirvana focuses on the understanding of karma and the Universe 0 Hell Sucks 0 Being an animal isn t as bad as being in hell READINGS Rahula p 115 Who was the Buddha o The only teacherfounder of religion who didn t claim to be other than a human being 0 He claimed no inspiration from any god 0 All of his teachings were selfdiscovered through human endeavor His teachings o Man s position is supreme o Advocates being a refuge to yourself and not seek refuge in others individual responsibility leads us to our own emancipation o Doubt o It is one of the five Hindrances to the clear understanding of Truth 0 The root of all evil is ignorance and false views The Buddha was eager to dispel doubt because getting rid of it was necessary for spiritual progress 0 o Encouraged freedom of thought tolerance of other religions and understanding not just beieving 0 To a person seeking truth it does not matter from where the truth comes labels are insignificant o Emphasis laid on seeing knowing and understanding not on faith or belief o Saddha confidence born out of coviction o Buddhist philosophy quotcome and see 0 One must not be too attached to any one object idea or teaching 0 The Buddha taught only those things that were necessary for attaining Nirvana he did not waste time teaching metaphysical questions of nature to satisfy curiosity FEBRUARY 2 2009 Kestrel InnesWimsatt Susan Chalker LECTURE week goals know 4 noble truths understand the buddha39s rationale for the doctrine of no self to understand the buddha39s prescription for getting out of samsara to understand why the buddha39s philosophy might fairly be described as a middle way Buddha means quotawakenedquot quotthe awakened onequot page 19 of rahula the 4 noble truths 1 2 3 4 dukkha suffering 3 kinds a ordinary dukkha b dukkha caused by change c dukkha fo conditioned states comes from assuming all things are permanent Samudaya the arising or origin of dukkha thirstcraving Nirodha the cessation of dukkha is possible nirvana realizing anatman no self Magga the way to the cessation of dukkha the 8 fold path veda gt Atman Brahman there is no quotatmanquot in Buddhism there is no unchanging self we do exist just not in a permanent way the five aggregates called the khandas in Pali Sanskrit skandhas the self exists as an adding up of these 5 aggregates 1 rupa aggregate of matter form vedana aggregate of sensation samjna aggregate of perception samakara aggregate of mental formations consciousness vijnana aggregate of consciousness anatman no self Buddha believes this is true essential element of the Buddha there is nothing in the world or about a person that does no change samkharas Sanskrit samskaras impressions life is suffering because you want things to last being attached to your thoughts and feelings causes suffering let it be READINGS Rahula the heart of the buddhas teaching lies in the 4 nobel truths 1dukkha 2 3 samudaya the arising or origin of dukkha nirodha the cessation of dukkha 4 magga the way leading to the cessation of dukkha Buddhism is neither pesemistic nor optimistic it takes a realistic view of the world The Buddha does not deny happiness in life when he says there is suffering On the contrary he admits different forms of happiness both material and spiritual for laymen as well as for monks The Buddha was realistic and objective He says with reard to life and the enjoyment of sensepleasures that one should clearly understand three things 1 attraction or enjoyment assade 2 evil consequences or danger or unsatisfactoriness adinava 3 freedom or liberation nissarana the conception of dukkha may be viewed from three aspects 0 dukkha as ordinary suffering dukkhadukkha o dukkha as produced by change viparinamadukkha o dukkha as conditioned states samkharadukkha the five aggregates what we call a 39being39 or an individual or an 39l39 is only a label given to the combination of the five aggregates in brief the five aggregates of attachment are dukha They are not the same for two consecutive moments They are a flux of momentary arising and disappearing the middle path or the 8 fold path generally leads to calm insight enlightenment nirvana practically the whole teaching of the Buddha deals in some way or other with this path right understanding right thought right speech right action right livelihood right effort right mindfulness right concentration in order for a man to be perfect he must develop equally compassion karuna and wisdom panna the doctrine of no soul anatta Buddhism stands unique in the history of human thought in denying the existence of such a soul self or atman According to the theaching of the Buddha the idea of self is an imaginary false belief which has no corresponding reality and it produces belief which has no corresponding reality and it produces harmful thoughts of 39me39 and 39mine39 selfish desire craving attachment hatred illwill conceit pride egoism and other defilements impurities and problems In short to this false view can be traced all the evil in the world two ideas are psychologically deeprooted in man self protection and self preservation For self protection mas has created god on whom he depends for his own protection safety and security For self preservation he has conceived the idea of an immortal soul or atman which will live eternally page 53 conditioned genesis 12 factors on this principle of conditionality relativity and interdependence the whole existence and continuity of life and its cessations are explained in a detailed formula which is called paticcasamuppada 39 conditioned genesis39 consisting of 12 factors 0 through ignorance are conditioned colitional actions or karmaformations through volitional actions is conditioned consciousness through consciousness are conditioned mental and physical phenomena through mental and physical phenomena are conditioned the six faculties ie five physical senseorgans and mind through the six faculties is conditioned sensorial and mental contact through sensorial and mental contact is conditioned sensation through sensation is sondieioned desire 39thirst39 through desire 39thirst39 is conditioned clinging throught clinging is conditioned the process of becoming through the process of becoming is conditioned the process of birth through birth are conditioned decay death lamentation etc the buddha39s teaching particularly his way of 39meditiation39 aims at producing a state of perfect mental heath equilibrium and tranquility There are two forms of meditiaton one is for the development of mental concentration and the other is for the complete liberation of the mind FEBRUARY 4 2009 Eunice Min Christina Mattaliano LECTURE Nirvana a blowing out of 3 fires anger greed and delusion Sui generis nothing exists in and of itself everything exists in relation to everything else Pratityasamutpada quotcodependent coarising a number of things have to happen for something to exist consist of 12 phases 1 Ignorance conditions volitional actions 2 Volitional actions condition consciousness 3 Consciousness conditions mental and physical phenomena 4 Mental and physical phenomena condition the five senseorgans and the mind 5 The five senseorgans and the mind condition sensory and mental contact 6 Sensory and mental contact condition sensation 7 Sensation conditions desire 8 Desire conditions clinging 9 Clinging conditions the process of becoming 10 The process of becoming conditions birth Birth conditions 12 decay death lamentation pain etc The twelfth stage in turn conditions ignorance and the cycle begins again Goals for the week To know the 4 noble truths To come to understand the Buddha s rationale for the doctrine of no self To understand the Buddhas prescription for getting out of sams39ara To understand why the Buddha s philosophy might fairly be described as a middle way Buddha literally means quotawakenedquot quotThe Awakened Onequot The Four Noble Truths used the word quotnoblequot to make fun of the Aryans for thinking that they were noble 1 dukkha Sanskrit duhkha the world is suffering anything you see in the world doesn t last forever though good it can break down Pg 19 3 types of suffering 1st physical pain 2quotd pain involved with change 3rd pain with impression 2 samudaya arising source to suffering desire quotthirstquot Suffer when desire something and its not there 3 nirodha there is a stop to suffering you can stop suffering by following noble truth four 4 magga Sanskrit m39arga quotpathquot follow the path Eightfold path pg 45 thinking acting speaking mediating etc in the right way The five aggregates called the khandas in P39ali Sanskrit skandhas nothing the same for your whole life 2 aggregate of sensations vedan39ao series of sensations with sense organs mind the 6 h feeling you get associated with each sense 3 aggregate of perceptions sa n n 39a0 samj n39aO in Sanskrit see color blue cognition of seeing blue content of an experience 4 aggregate of mental formations samkh39araO samsk39araO in Sanskrit have impressions in your consciousness likes and dislikes based on your experiences Ex bending the branch til it has an impression of bending Impressions can be mad very slowly or quickly 5 aggregate of consciousness vi n n39anaO vij n39anaO in Sanskrit awareness to the fact of having an experience separate from your experience ex drive somewhere and ask how did I get here Can have a perception with out being aware until later 0 Buddha said something like this certain fictions about the world are making you suffer experience the world as it is and let it be be rational the world is always changing nothing in the world that doesn t change so it is not forever samkh 39aras Sanskrit samsk39aras Introduction to Eastern Religious Traditions 02042009 lecture six supplemental handout The two quotwingsquot of the quotBuddhist birdquot karun 39a compassion praj n 39a quotwisdomquot P39ali v Sanskrit The Eightfold Noble Path given by the Buddha 1 Right Understanding knowledge of things as they are le 4 Noble Truths study the Buddhist scriptures what reality is about etc Right Thought thoughts of renunciation detachment love amp nonviolence Right Speech refrain from lying harsh speech foolish gossip etc Right Action moral honorable and peaceful action Right Livelihood the job you dodon t be a butcher Right Effort the energetic will to prevent evil produce good develop good mind Right Mindfulness dilligent awareness of one s body feelings mind thoughts pOlcnU1JgtUJN Right Concentration awareness of ones breathing yogic practice p48 of Rahula nirv39ana your goal blowing out blowing out the 3fires of the Vedic belief which are angry greed and delusion seen as a joke towards Hinduism these are things that cause suffering wasting time with ritual study the world instead 0 Buddha never directly attacked the Vedic writing and never discarded the culture use their marriage ritual The problem was with the philosophy and how the Brahmans saw the world 0 Buddha studied the world and realizes that nothing last forever things break down neglect doesn t led to profit cycle to life and nothing last forever being empirical Everything about you changes constantly o Sui generis nothing exist in and of itself Conditioned Generis prat39ltyasamutp39ad llcodependent coarising a number of things have to happen for something to exist nothing exist without causation the twelve phases ignorance conditions volitional actions volitional actions condition consciousness consciousness conditions mental and physical phenomena mental and physical phenomena condition the five senseorgans and the mind the five senseorgans and the mind condition sensory and mental contact sensory and mental contact condition sensation sensation conditions desire desire conditions clinging OWNQ WPWNH clinging conditions the process of becoming 11 birth conditions 12 Decay death lamentation pain etc 10 the process of becoming conditions birth The twelfth stage in turn conditions ignorance and the cycle begins again 0 Simply just recognize reality why mediate not blowing out self bc never there just fire of anger greed and delusion do this and you are awakened READINGS Rahula What the Buddha Taught p 1675 Chapter II The First Noble Truth Dukkha to be understood as complete fact Dukkha contains many meanings suffering imperfection impermanence and includes happiness whatever is impermanent is dukkha WTBT about sensepleasures Attraction or enjoyment when you seemeet a pleasant person you enjoy this experience 8 Evil consequence or danger or unsatisfaction when you cannot see this person and the experience changes you are become sad and may act irrationally and foolishly 3 Freedom or liberation without attachments to this person you can truly be free Conception of dukkha from 3 aspects 1 Dukkha as ordinary suffering all kinds of physical and mental suffering in life ex Child birth 2 Dukkha as produced by change happy feelings don t last forever When they change suffering is produced 3 Dukkha as conditioned stages the five aggregates There is no self just a combo of always changing impermanent physicalmental energies called the Five Aggregates The Five Aggregates 1 Aggregate of Matter includes the traditional Four Great Elements solidity fluidity heat and motion also includes the Derivatives of Four Great Elements the 5 sense organs and their corresponding objects 2 Aggregate of Sensations all sensations experienced through contact with the external world Experienced through eyes ears nose tongue body and mind which is like any other organ 3 Aggregate of Perceptions six kinds that relate to the six internal faculties Perceptions recognize physical or mental objects 4 Aggregate of Mental Formations all volitional activities or all acts of choosing pertains to will includes karma six kinds as well that relate to the six internal faculties 5 Aggregate of Consciousness a reaction or response with one of the six internal faculties as its basis and one of the six corresponding external objects as its subject become of aware of something but perception is when you recognize it No beginning or end to life Life is constant movement One should not be angry with suffering patience and understanding is necessary to get rid of it Joy is one of the seven quotFactors of Enlightenment Chapter III The Second Noble Truth SAMUDAYA quotThe Arising of Dukkhaquot to discard eliminate and destroy it Thirst desire greed and craving gives rise to all forms of suffering This thirst is also dependent for its arising on sensation and this sensation depends on another contact and so on Everything depends upon something else known as Conditioned Genesis Thirst refers to desiring for material objects as well as to attachment to views ideals etc All trouble in the world arises from this thirst WTBT the causes for the arising and the cessation of dukkha are both included in dukkha Karma volitional acts Good karma creates good effects while bad karma creates bad effects This is not the practice of justice but a natural law or cause and effect When the body dies the forces and energies of will karma desire and thirst is manifested again rebirth Rebirth the five aggregates are reborn with potentail as there is no permanent self Chapter IV The Third Noble Truth Nirodha quotThe Cessation of Dukkhaquot to realize it There is freedom from dukkha The cessation of dukkha nibbana nirvana the extinction of thirst Nirvana cant be described but it is the Absolute Truth or Ultimate Reality or Freedom There is not quotentering into Nirvana as it is not a realm or state Parinibbuto means quotfully passed away quotfully blown out or quotfully extinct When the Buddha or an Arahant dies those things matter sensation perception mental activities and consciousness are completely destroyed never to be reborn again Dukkha arises because of thirst and ceases due to wisdom both apart of the 5 aggregates Nirvana can be attained in life Once the Truth is realized he who has achieved Nirvana is happy lives in the present free of worries and trouble and free from the illusion of Self Chapter V The Fourth Noble Truth Magga quotThe Pathquot to follow it and keep to it The Way leading to the cessation of dukkha the quotMiddle Path middle between two extremes the search for happiness through pleasing of the senses and the search for happiness through selfmortification in certain forms of asceticism The Noble Eightfold Path to be developed simultaneously aim at perfecting 3 ideals of Buddhist discipline ethical conduct mental discipline and wisdom Ethical conduct a perfect man should equally develop two qualities compassion love charity kindness tolerance and other noble qualities of the heart and wisdom intellectual side and qualities of the mind supported by right speech action and livelihood 1 Right Understanding understanding of the Four Noble things which explains things as they really are 2 Right Thought thoughts of selfless detachment love nonviolence to all beings wisdom 3 Right Speech abstain from lying slander harsh speech gossip talk that will create disharmony one should keep noble silence if one cant say something useful 4 Right Action abstain from killing stealing dishonest dealings illegitimate intercourse lead a peaceful and honorable life 5 Right Livelihood abstain from jobs that hurts others such as killing animals or weapons dealing 3 Right Effort energetic will to prevent evil produce good and maintain and perfect wholesomeness 1 Right Mindfulness to be aware of one s body mind and thoughts 3 Right Concentration breathing exercises for mental development meditation yoga four stages of Dhyana or trance include 1 unwholesome thoughts are maintained 2 all intellectual activities are suppressed Happiness is retained 3 joyous feelings disappear 4 all feelings disappear Only awareness remains Chapter VI The Doctrine of NoSoul Anatta Buddhism ls unique denies existence of a soul self or atman False belief of self produces illwill that is the source of all conflict Men want to believe in a permanent soul Buddha s teaching goes against the current Buddhist theory of relativity doctrine of Conditioned Genesis everything is conditioned relative and interdependent consists of 12 factors 1 Through ignorance are conditional volitional actions or karmaformations 2 Through volitional actions is conditioned consciousness 3 Through consciousness are conditioned mental and physical phenomena 4 Through mental and physical phenomena are conditioned the six faculties 5 sense organs mind 5 Through the six faculties is conditioned sensorial and mental contact 6 Through sensorial and mental contact is conditioned sensation 7 Through sensation is conditioned desire thirst 8 Through desire thirst is conditioned clinging 9 Through clinging is conditioned the process of becoming 10 Through the process of becoming is conditioned birth 11 Through birth are conditioned aging death lamentation pain etc Free will cannot be free It is conditioned and relative like any other thought lt s connected with ideas of God Soul justice reward and punishment Anatta NoSoul or NoSelf the Buddhist doctrine stating that the idea of an immortal part of man called atman or soul or self or ego is a false belief a mental projection Conventional truth we do not lie when using expressions such as l or being in daily language however the ultimate truth is there is no I or being Those who want to find a Self in Buddhism may argue that Buddha never said there s not self in man apart from the aggregates This can t hold though because Buddha taught that a being is made up only of the 5 aggregates and nothing more and he also denied the existence of Atman within man or anywhere else In the Dhammapada there are 3 important verses The first two say quotAll samkhara conditioned things are impermanent and quotAll samkhara things are dukkha The third says quotAll dhammas are without self Difference between samkhara and dhamma dhamma is wider than samkhara Includes not only the conditioned things and states but also the nonconditioned Absolute Nirvana Thus there is no Atman anywhere Some translate Buddha s teaching incorrectly and misinterpret them to find a Self Stories p 6063 Four ways of dealing with questions 1 answer directly 2 analyze them 3 counterquestion 4 put them aside Buddha said that the body should be seen more as a Self than the mind because it changes less In a convo between a bhikkhu named Khemaka and his peers Khemaka says he cannot be an Arahant because he has a feeling or quotI AM but he can t clearly see quotThis is I AM He eventually became Arahant free from all impurities and go rid of I AM p 66 CHAPTER Vll 39Meditation39 or Mental Culture Bhavana Meditation serves to produce a state of perfect mental health equilibrium and tranquility Bhavana means culture or development mental culture or mental development aimed to cleanse the mind of impurities and disturbances will lead to the attainment of Nirvana Two forms of meditation 1 development of mental concentration to onepointedness of mind towards mystic states not to do with reality or truth Existed before the Buddha He thought these mystic states did not do much for him bc they didn t give complete liberation or insight into Ultimate Reality 2 there other form of meditation vipassana lnsight into the nature of things was created by the Buddha to liberate the mind to the realization of Nirvana This is true Buddhist mental culture Satipatthanasutta The SettingUp of Mindfulness most important discourse given by the Buddha Recited often It is divided into four main sections that deal with our body our feelings and sensations the mind and with various moral and intellectual subjects How to Meditate quotthe Mindfulness or Awareness of inandout breathing calls for a certain posture crosslegged Mindful of breathing deep Forget all other things You may be able to experience a moment when you focus only on your breath and cannot hear any other sound Practice until these moments occur more often Other forms of meditation you can sit stand walk or lie down Also be awaremindful of whatever you re doing during your day Whether it s dressing or keeping silent be fully aware and mindful of the act Mindfulness is not thinking I am doing this It is living in the present moment In the Zen way you have to be mindful and aware of whatever you do in your usual daily life The Zen and Mindfulness or Awareness of inandout breathing are both connected with the body To practice mental development with regard to sensations or feelings you should examine your feelings Try to see clearly why this feeling has arisen what caused it and how it will stop Examine it from the outside Do not think I am angry but only be aware and mindful of the state of an angry mind quotThe convo between Khemaka and the group of monks was a form of meditation which led to the realization of Nirvana Five Hindrances Nivarana 1 lustful desires 2 illwill hatred or anger 3 torpor and languor 4 restlessness and worry 5 skeptical doubts Hindrances to any kind of clear understanding or to any kind of progress On can also meditate on the Seven Factors of Enlightenment 1 Mindfulness awareness in all activititesmvmts both physical and mental 2 Investigationresearch into various problems of doctrine lncludes religious studyconvo 3 Energy to work with determination till the end 4 Joy keep a good attitude of mind 5 Relaxation of both body and mind Should not be stiff 6 Concentration 7 Equanimity to face life in all vicissitudes with calf of mind tranquility without disturbance Besides these seven FOE there are many subjects on which one can meditate Rahula pages 1675 Chapter 2 The Four Noble Truths First Noble Truth Dukkha o The Buddha gave the four noble truths in his first sermon 0 Four Noble Truths listed above 0 First noble truth known as The Noble Truth of Suffering interpreted to mean that life according to Buddhism is nothing but suffering and pain 0 Buddhism is neither pessimistic nor optimistic it is realistic it takes a realistic view of life and of the world 0 The Buddha is seen as the wise and scientific doctor for the ills of the world 0 Dukkha Pali or duhkha Sanskrit suffering quotpainquot quotsorrowquot etc o Dukkha means that there is suffering in the world 3 aspects of dukkha1 Dukkha as ordinary suffering old age sickness death separation from loved ones not getting what one desires etc 2 Dukkha as produced by change happy feelings of life not permanent changes creates unhappiness 3 Dukkha as conditioned statesno concept of self 0 5 Aggregates listed and explain above if want more detail look to Rahula pages 2028 Chapter 3 The Second Noble Truth Samudaya quotThe arising of dukkhaquot Suffering or dukkha is caused by quotthirstquot which is desire or greed etc Karma quotactionquot lldoing literal meaning in Buddhism volitional action not all action Never means effect its effect is known a quotfruitquot or result of karma good karma creates good effects bad karma creates bad effects 0 The theory of karma should not be confused with moral justice or llreward and punishment 0 The theory of karma is a theory of cause and effect of action and reaction As long as there is quotthirstquot to be and to become the cycle of continuity samsara goes on It can stop only when its driving force m this quotthirstquot is cut off through the wisdom which sees Reality Truth and Nirvana Chapter 4 The Third Noble Truth Nirodha quotThe Cessation of dukkhaquot 0 3rd noble truth is that there is emancipation liberation freedom from suffering from the continuity of dukkha Absolute truth is that there is nothing absolute in the world that everything is relative conditioned and impermanent and that there is not unchanging everlasting absolute substance like Self Soul or Atman within or without Nirvana is to be realized by the wise within themselves If we follow the path patiently and with diligence train and purify ourselves earnestly and attain the necessary spiritual development we may one day realize it within ourselves without taxing ourselves with puzzling and high sounding words Chapter 5 The Fourth Noble Truth Magga quotThe Pathquot 0 4 h noble truth is the Way leading to the Cessation of dukkha 0 Following the 8th fold path listed above in lecture notes pg 45 in Rahula Chapter 6 The doctrine of No Soul Anatta o This chapter explains that there is no self or concept of a soul The five aggregates and the concept of everything being dependent on something else heightens this point Chapter 7quotMeditationquot or mental cultureBhavana o Buddha s teaching way of quotmeditationquot aims at producing a state of perfect mental health equilibrium and tranquility o 2 forms of meditation 1 Development of mental concentration 2 Insight into the nature of things leading to the complete liberation of mind to the realization of the Ulimate Truth Nirvana o Buddhist mediation Buddhist mental culture 0 When meditating think about the 5 hindrances pg74 Rahula or on the 7 factors of enlightenmentpg 75 Rahula Lopez Buddhist Scripture Pg 193199 0 This scripture describes how the monks created places to keep Buddha s reicsstupa Pg 441444 0 A story about a wealthy merchant named Citta donated a forest to the sangha Was one of the Buddha s exemplary lay disciples renowned both for his ability to teach the dharma and for his skills as a meditator o Citta discusses how he is living his life Embree Sources of Indian Tradition pg 100114 0 These stories discuss the four noble truths the major theories of Buddhism and o The agreement against a theory of existence of the soul and o The importance of components and o All of these stories discuss thoughts in Theravada Buddhism FEBRUARY 9 2009 Shawn Harris Anne Harris LECTURE Basic thought in early buddhism was that llnothing is permanent Goal to end suffering Nirvana Samsara Problem that everything is codependent Question Where did I come from Dosnt matter in buddhism example was that if tou get shot in the leg with an arrow you wont ask pointless questions about what the arrow is made of ectyou will only worry about what you need to do inorder to live What does nirvana mean 5 Skundas always changing parts that make you up are changing anatman you can blow outstop the next lifestream Stops the stream of causality Tathagata llthus gone The world is larger than ourselves and our desires attach us to it they are small compared to the large picture Karma thought become reality past actions result in future outcomes Whatever you want cannot last forever is a reality The Buddha sees the world how it is no wanting the world to be something that it is not the skundas dissipate they don t attach to anything else The three refuges Buddha dharma buddhas teachings sangha quotconferencequot community of monks Bhikkhu monk Arhat someone who is enlightened not buddha Sanskrit language of the gods Buddhist teachings where in pali making them easier for more people to read and learn this reveals the llopen hand philosophy of buddhist teachings Pali literally means book it is written down ect 10 precepts rahula 5 general 5 extra for monks Embree 114125 llThe Ethics of Theravada Buddhism 4 cardinal virtues of Buddhism Friendliness compassion joy equanimity llthe dicourse od admonition to singala stresses the virtue of thrift goal is a society in which each individual respects the different realationships that they have with one another husband wife student teacher ect IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII Embree p114125 0 The ethics of Theravada Buddhism 0 The four cardinal virtues of Buddhism are friendliness compassion joy and equanimity o The Discourse ofAdmontion to Singaa is the most important passage on lay morality in the Pali scriptures It sets forth an ideal society in which each individual respects the other s personality and there is an intricate network of warm and happy human relationships o The moral virtues of the Buddha are those after which every monk should strive and the monk s example should be followed as far as possible by the layman live modestly don t steal be chaste no false speech no slander or harsh speech etc o By charity goodness restraint and selfcontrol people can store up a quotwellhidden treasure which cannot be given to others and cannot be stolen o 4 vices of action injury to life taking what is not given base conduct in sexual matters and false speech I 4 motives of evil deeds partiality enmity stupidity and fear I Six ways of squandering wealth addiction to drink roaming the streets frequenting fairs gambling keeping bad company and idleness I 4 types who should be enemies a grasping man a smoothspoken man a man who only says what you want to hear and a man who helps you waste your money I 4 types who should be looked on as friends a man who seeks to help you a man who is the same in weal and woe a man who gives good advice a man who is sympathetic o The true six quarters mother and father as the east teachers as the south wife and children as the west friends and counselors as the north slaves and servants as below and ascetics and brahmans as above Rahula p 7689 The Buddha s teaching is meant for everyone the Noble Eightfold Path is meant for all without distinction of any kind o If a man can follow Buddhism while living the life of an ordinary layman why was the Sangha the Order of monks established by the Buddha It provides the opportunity for those who are willing to devote their lives not only to their own spiritual and intellectual development but also to the service of others The Buddha told Sigala to worship the six directions see above in Embree these six family and social groups are treated as sacred worthy of respect and worship One is considered a Buddhist if one takes the Buddha the Dhamma the teaching and the Sanghathe Order of Monks generally called the the TripleGem as one s refuges and undertakes to observe the Five Precepts 1 Not to destroy life 2 Not to steal 3 No to commit adultery 4 Not to tell lies 5 Not to take intoxicating drinks Poverty is the cause of immorality and crimes such as theft falsehood violence hatred cruelty etc The Buddha suggests that in order to eradicate crime the economic condition of the people should be improved 4 things which are conducive to a man s happiness in this world 0 1 He should be skilled efficient earnest and energetic in his profession o 2 he should protect his income with the sweat of his brow o 3he should have good friends who will help him along the right path away from evil 0 4he should spend reasonably 4 virtues conducive to a layman s happiness hereafter o 1Saddhafaith and confidence in moral spiritual and intellectual values 0 2Sila should abstain from destroying and harming life from stealing and cheating from adultery from falsehood and from intoxicating drinks o 3Caga practice charity generosity without attachment and craving for his wealth o 4Panna develop wisdom which leads to realization of Nirvana o lThe Ten Duties of the King or government 1 Liberality generosity charity 2a high moral character 3 sacrificing everything for the good of the people 4 honesty and integrity 5 kindness and gentleness 6austerity in habits 7 freedom from hatred illwill and enmity 8nonviolence 9patience forbearance tolerance understanding 10 nonopposition nonobstruction o Asoka the great Buddhist emperor of India applied this teaching of nonviolence peace and love to the administration of his vast empire Lopez p 223268 0 The evolution of ordination The sangha came into existence when the group of five who heard the Buddha s first sermon requested his permission to go forth and be ordained the Buddha ordained them simply by saying llCome monk which was used also for the next group to hear the dharma and then another larger group They then had to repeat the refuge formula 3 times That system was unsatisfactory so it was changed so that the right to confer admission was given to members of the sangha the transition proved to be difficult so the system evolved to where the ordination requires the permission of at least ten monks of good standing who have been monks for at least ten years 0 Making men into monks the candidate must undergo an elaborate interview first in private asking a series of questions after the monk has successfully passed this interview in public and in private he is then asked whether he is willing to subsist on the requisites of the monastic life The ceremony turns next to the four deeds that cause ldownfall or expulsion from the sangha o A murderer becomes a monk This story is about a child Angulimala whose teacher demanded the little fingers cut from the right hand of one thousand people The boy set upon that path wearing the fingers of his victims around his neck The Buddha set out to find him and employed his magical powers to prevent Angulimala from approaching him and admitted him to the order of the monks The disapproval that resulted from the ordination of Angulimala led the Buddha to make a rule forbidding criminals from becoming monks or nuns In order for Angulimala to heal a mother and her child his lact of truth was to say that since he was born llof noble birth he has not intentionally deprived a living being of life 0 The ascetic ideal llone should wander lonely as a rhinoceros horn P 335339 0 Living in the degenerate age The nature of reality is unchanging regardless of whether buddhas appear in the world to reveal that reality the Buddha predicted that as a result of his decision to admit women to the order his dharma will last for only 500 years the poem is a lament about just how bad things have become since the time of the Buddha p 343349 0 The direct path to enlightenment Buddhist meditation classically is divided into two forms stabilizing meditation and analytical meditation Stabilizing meditation involves the development of deepening levels of mental concentration and analytical involves the development of insight into the nature of reality The Buddha describes the four objects of mindfulness The first is the mindfulness of the body The second is the mindfulness of feelings physical and mental experiences of pleasure pain and neutrality The third is the mindfulness of the mind and the fourth is the mindfulness of dharmas contemplating the five aggregates and the four truths p 445 449 o Nuns triumph over evil The Discourses Connected with Nuns describes ten encounters with Mara the deity of desire and death who seeks to discourage the nuns in their meditation His derisive words to the nuns indicate contemporary attitudes to women seeing them as lustful and intellectually inferior to men READINGS Rahula 7689 quotwhat the buddha taught and the world today Six directions East parents southteachers westwife and children north friends relatives and neighbors nadir servants workers and emplotees zenith religious men These again stress the relationships in ones life and the dharma of an individual to do what is expected with each 1 parents are sacred to their children 2The relationship between teacher and pupil 3 husband and wife 4friends relatives and neighbors 5master and servant 6 relationship between the religious and the laity 5 precept of the lay Not to destroy life don t steal don t commit adultery don t lie don t drink Buddha says that there are 4 things that are conducive to a mans happiness in the world 1 he should be skilled efficient and know it well 2 he should protect his income which he has earnes righteously 3 he should have good friends who are faithful ect 4 he should spend reasonably Then the buddha expounds the 4 virtues for a laymans happiness hereafter 1 saddha he should have faith and confidence in moral spiritual and intellectual values 2 sia he should abstain from destroting and harming life 3 Caga he should practice charity generosity wo attachment and craving for his wealth 4Panna he should develop wisdom which leads to the complete destruction of suffering to the realization of nirvana 10 duties of the king how a king should rule in the mind of the buddha 1iberality generosity charity 2high moral character 3sacrificing everything for the good of the people 4honesty and integrity 5kindness and integrity 6 austerity in habits 7 freedom from hatred 8non violence 9patience forbearance tolerance understanding 10 nonopposition nonobstruction 0 One thing to know about Buddhism nothing is permanent when you realize the way the world is you realize why we suffer o In the question of where the universe comes from the Buddha gives silence you do not need to know 0 Problem the world of samsara solution to escape it by nirvana o What happens to the Buddha when he gains enlightenment We know that nirvana means the end of suffering 0 You re made up of parts you need to recognize those parts and see what they are you don t need to know where the suffering came to solve it you just need to know how it works 0 Samsara works by codependent coarising there is no truly permanently independent thing and so there is no unchanging permanent self anatman o The tathagata quotThus Gone early Buddhism the Buddha stops the five streams of causality 5 skundhas from interacting with one another no wanting the world to be other than what it is o 4 noble truths 1 Suffering 2 ArisingthirstDESlRE 3 Cessation 4 Path 0 Karma past actions have consequences now and they change your mindset o If the Buddha can do it we can do it because he is human too 0 The Three Refuges 0 Buddha his life is the example he s shown us how to follow the path and achieve nirvana o DharmaDhamma the Buddhist teachings o Sangha a conference of people the communitycollection of monks o Bhikkhubhiksu Skt monks o Arhat Pali arahant someone who is enlightened not the Buddha o Buddhist teachings are recorded in Pali similar to Sanskrit language that is not a supersecret elite hidden language like Sanskrit Pali is more accessible a lot like the vernacular Pali means book 0 5 precepts Rahula p 80 Sources p 115116 0 No killing 0 No stealing o No lustadultery o No lying o No intoxication o 5 additional precepts for monks Sources p 115116 0 Eat only before noon 0 No singing and dancing 0 No fancy clothes 0 No soft high bed 0 No possessionsvaluable property FEBRUARY 11 2009 Pei Du Zachary Karr LECTURE Buddha Councils 1 3 months after passing of Buddha 2 100 years after death of Buddha 3 called circa 250BC Ashoka 27323250 Mauryan Empire Ashoka Charkravatina world ruler second turner of the wheel The first turner is the Buddha Ashokan Inscription engraved on pillars showed the map The Gange River Brahamas were there teaching bc 1 good lands for crops 2 convenient transportation Sanchi have many stupas there Became important bc of the transportationcenter from both directions and trade Kabel same w Sanchi Global trade help the spread of the Buddhism Tathagata gone thust Reinterpreted to Tathagata lnternal coherence btw philosophy and history 0 Buddha dies and their history organized around beliefs of their religion Teachings of utmost importance Dharma SanskritDhamma Pali Early Buddhists wrote in a diff language but one that people could pick up quickly Sangra Monks Practice their posterities five precepts and 610 Take Vows Buddha agrees that women can become monks 0 Early Buddhism says his teachings dhamma will get disintegrated much quicker I Originally skepitical o If you put women around men men will behave badly Buddha s concern Relationship btw lay amp clergymen Dependent on each other Monks can only get food once a day and it is what is begged for 0 Get it from the patronage of lay community Monastery provides teachings Buddha predicts that his teachings will fade away over the centuries MeritGifts Monks need to advance on the path why they do physical precepts Lay community study when they can but they gain merit by supporting monks when they can 0 Monk looks his feet so he is not tempted by the wife who usually gives them alms Monks get together to make sure they have teachings write so they don t fade away like the Buddha predicted Arhat are people who use Buddha s teachings to become enlightened The Three Baskets 1 Vinaya monastic rules 2 Sutta discourses of Buddha sayings 3 Ahbidamma nature of the world philosophy All scriptures start w quotThus I heard Showing the delicacy of each teaching Recording what the Buddha said from their recollection Why 3 Baskets Three baskets in which they put recollections into to splitting up the teachings and the rules Ganges River Transportation Route Rich farm land 0 Where being made and where rich cultural amp modern centers were Buddha went to Sardhat to give first sermon Branis where all the smart Brahman s were 0 Want to have smart people amp intellectuals to hear you Buddha start to be remembered in diff ways Shrines being built to remember him stupas Worship of relics one thing Buddhism gave us Also gave us repetition of mantras What happens to Buddha when he dies He s gone 9 why worship relics 0 People are people one thing that is not perfectly consistent Buddhism expanding through trade routes Buddhism becomes state religion Adopted by a Mauryan Emperor Asoka 0 One of the best generals of his time Chuckravartan llWheel Turner 0 Makes it happen 151 wheel turner is Buddha who turns dharma Asoka is the 2quotd himself Spreads Buddhism throughout his empire Consistency and Inconsistency btw doctrine and practice Some way shown by how the religion and teachings are set up consistency Relics inconsistent not permanent READINGS Lopez P 3745 The word of the Buddha and Sutra has many immediate qualities the sounds of its words and the pages that record themare a source of power and blessing Then use the Sutra of Golden Light as an example to explain this point Embree P125152 Buddhism do contain instructions esp for layfolk together w occasional passages w a social or political message Nevertheless one reason it disappeared in the land of birth is Buddhism was too often willing to compromise with the existing ways of everyday life Buddhism generally tended to mitigate the autocracy of the India King stating that a king s right not comes from his birth or succession but on the efficient fulfillment of his duty On the question of war the ideal emperor of Buddhism gains his victories by moral suasion which is seldom true in the real cases Ashoka third of the line of Mauryas became a Buddhist and attempted to govern lndia according to the percepts of Buddhism as he understood them His new policies was promulgated in a series of edicts which are engraved on rocks and pillars in many parts of India Sources oflndian Tradition 125152 Society and the State in Theravada Buddhism 0 Really not a whole lot of importance in this section that is worth while and this book is kind of difficult to summarize bc it is all over the place 0 One kind of interesting quote llNo Brahman is such by birth No outcaste is such by birth An outcaste is such by his deeds A Brahman is such by his deed llThe great emperor Ashokabecame a Buddhist and attempted to govern lndia according to the precepts of Buddhism as he understood them 0 Then goes through a bunch of different edicts that he supposedly setrealy nothing of much substance 0 llAshoka felt a moral responsibility not only for his own subjects but for all men and he realized that they could not lead moral lives and gain merit in order to find a place in heaven unless they were happy and materially well cared for Buddhist Scriptures 3745 Story of four divine kings praising the Sutra of Golden Light and describing its powers 0 Many stories of Buddha reciting a Sutra and miracles occurring when the sutras were recited The Kings offer their protection to any monk who will travel to another land to preach the Sutra of Golden light They also mention the cardinal directions Buddha always depended on support from the kings considered kings amongst his most loyal disciples FEBRUARY 16 2009 Harman Sodhi Rachael Eller LECTURE o Tathagatta 9 thus gone Buddha leaving the world of transmigration or making a release from Samsaara o The Middle Way 9 happy medium in between extreme asceticism and no renunciation at all 0 Deems selfrenunciation and selfflagellation as unnecessary 0 Three refuges 0 Buddha 9he himself the enlightened one his life acts as an example 0 Dharma 9Buddha s lifeteachings o Sangha 9the community of monks Enlightenment do it yourself process 0 The only way to experience it is through practice have right mindset etc I Follow the 8fold path as a way to achieve samsaara Arahant someone who achieved enlightenment themselves 0 One Buddha everyone 0 Boddhisattva major idea in Mahayana Buddhism 9 in order to help other people achieve enlightenment he acted out of compassion to willingly teach and assist others I Desire to be enlightened desire to free oneself of desire desire to follow the 8fold path 9 good desires I On the path to becoming a Buddha you need to give up desire for enlightenment you must take the o Bodhisattva vow9 which says that one will forgo his enlightenment until you ve assisted all others being to achieve that level before you I Buddha was a Bodhisattva who was enlightened and strived to come back to teach more individuals 0 Ex Dalai Lama 9 will be reincarnated and help people on their path to enlightenment o Tathaagata 9 thus come back one o Hinayana 9 lesser vehicle 0 The only means for achieving nirvana is to follow the Buddha s example thus making him the only vehicle to enlightenment o Mahayana 9 greater vehicle can carry more people 0 Truly compassionate Buddha helps one along the path to enlightenment acts as a Bodhisattva o Mahayana is more encouraging of greater amt of devotional practices building monasteries worship towards Buddha etc Sanghabeda 9 division amongst monastic order Think what you want but don t create factions or schisms in the order 0 Thus allows for small differences but nothing to cause a feud Read Rahula before exam connect terms early context stuff read kanza live of the Buddha legend How does the legend tell us a story that gives us an illustration of Buddhist thought Middle Way Medium between extremes No asceticism too extreme No sheltered privileged life either Depicted with eyes half open half closed World is just what it is Early Buddhism 3 Refuges Buddha Dharma Buddha s teachings Sanga community of monks Do it yourself No one can give you enlightenment Must experience on your own must practice Follow Eightfold Noble Path Every era has one Buddha Arahant enlightened person from the teachings of the Buddha Universe is hundreds of millions of years old Later Buddhism says if taking refuge in Buddha should mean something Bodhisattva Quests for knowledge Acts out of wisdom amp compassion like the Buddha Help people along the path Being who is intent on knowledge Must give up desire unattached to the world What about desire to become enlightened This is a better amp more pure desire than desire for ex Material goods Path to enlightenment means you even give up desire to become enlightened bodhisattva vow becomes path to enlightenment Forego my right to enlightenment until all others have achieved it If give up all desires you have achieved your goal Nirvana World where enlightened people come back to help others No longer only 1 Buddha Whatever leads to enlightenment is the dharma Tathaghata thus gone one comes back again Mahayana Hinayana lesser vehicle Mahayana greater vehicle Truly compassionate Buddha would help you along the path Superhuman grace Major philosophical difference Mahayana supportive of building monasteries worship devotional acts different kinds perfectly tolerant of each other Sanghabheda splitting of monastic community creates friction Think what you like but don t break up the order READINGS Embree Sources of Indian Tradition pp 153187 Mahayana Buddhism llThe Greater Vehicle I Emergence 1st or 2quotd century onward new amp very different form of Buddhism historic change taking place in northwestern India prey of invaders Iranian amp Western influences New different backgrounds Interested in Buddhism General Characteristics amp Beliefs Offers salvation for all Mahayana Greater Vehicle to salvation Represents final doctrines of the Buddha revealed only to most spiritually advanced followers Buddhism Previously Divinity is not completely transcendent in Indian religions Every great teacher is divine god in human form Gods are liable to error Buddha is omniscient Buddha declares all who have faith amp devotion will be reborn in heaven Buddha gradually becomes worshipped as an image Bodhisattva being of wisdom Other Buddhas are yet to come Maitreya the future Buddha Prophesized by historical Buddha Would purify the world w teachings Active for good somewhere in universe Protected Buddhas Buddhas get the truth amp teach it Pratyekabuddhas llprivate buddhas get the truth but don t share Arhants quotworthiesquot learn truth from others but fully realize it on own Mahayana Characteristics continued Changes the goal aimed for by believer Goal of arhant seen as selfish No use if in Nirvana Belief that arhant chooses to stay amp teach others until all had found salvation Replacement of belief of arhant is basic distinction bt sects old Buddhism don t accept bodhisattva ideal can only save a few very patient souls trikaya llThree Bodies Body of Essence dharmakaya identified with Nirvana Body of Bliss sambhogakaya Body of Magic Transformation nirmanakaya The 2 Sects Flourished together in India during early centuries of Christian era From NW India that Buddhism spread through central Asia amp China Came from NW so was Mahayana Mahayana Characteristics cont Madhyamika Doctrine of the Middle Position Vijnajavada Docrine of the Consciousness Yogacara The Way of Yoga Sunyata emptiness void Emptiness never changes it is real Not pessimists Ultimate emptiness is here and now P 175 Embree Bodhisattvas devoted to saving others but also feel their sufferinglikeness to Jesus Christ Excerpts Mahayana Buddhism was influenced by Christianity missionaries in Persia Suffering does not purify unless done to help others Selfmortification is selfish amp will get the person a worse next life Joy is a cardinal value Even the most painful situations are full of calm inner joy Bodhisattvas have 10 quotPerfectionsquot Emphasis on positive ones Buddha allows followers to eat meat if Meat wasn t killed by them or especially for them Many feel is wrong and are vegetarians Poverty amp hunger are evils Encouraged acts of kindness amp charity Absolute quotsuchnessquot all phenomenal appearances are lost in the one ultimate being Power of the mind Bodhisattva has mind under control so also has all phenomena under control Nirvana is present at all times is everywhere needs only to be recognized Changes view of Nirvana to a positive one Criticism of Hindu ideal of kinship Don t want kings to fight each other wo reason for power amp tribute or to be territorial Not admitted that the King is a god Can be called deva bc holds authority of the gods Belief in magical utterances Certain syllables phrases amp verses are magical Repetition of certain mantras ensures salvation ldeas lead to fully developed tantrism Lopez Buddhist Scriptures pp 388393 350360 172184 269277 The Bodhisattva Vow Achieve buddhahood for the sake of all living things Essential starting point Attitude aspiration interior state Verbally in form of a vow Vow could be taken equally by monastics laypeople men amp women Story explains how to take vow either with teacherguru or privately Humans seek things of intrinsic value Cannot escape samsara llThey are absorbed in actions and afflictions that are like reflections and they fall made destitute by momentary impermanence and by objects whose foundation is like the reflection of the moon in swiftly moving water endowed with great compassion suffer at the suffering of others take vow by guru who knows llthe rite for taking the vow properly in guru s absence take vow in the presence of buddhas and bodhisattvas with image of tathagata pp391393 starting w last paragraph has exact phrases of the vow Wisdom amp Compassion Wisdom of emptiness amp compassion of bodhisattva llCompassion leads to a dedication to provide assistance to other persons yet wisdom brings the understanding that ultimately there are no persons because there is no self notion of Middle Way is given a philosophical sense bt extremes of self amp noself llEmptiness is like a medicine that having cured the illness must not be clung to Not nothingness Not something to be feared Natural state of things no more reason to fear it than to fear empty space around us llThe sutra describes this as being similar to a painter who paints a picture of a demon and then faints in fear when he looks at his works the best ascetics understand emptiness even the Buddha teachings monks samsara amp Nirvana are empty and thus be regarded without attachment counterfeit bodhisattvas seeks material profit and not the dharma seeks fame not good qualities seeks his own happiness not removal of suffering for others seeks group not solitude good bodhisattvas convinced of emptiness accepts nonself great compassion for others intention abides in Nirvana active in samsara gives doesn t receive must find Middle Way for ideas of permanence self mind as real existence pp353 4 Types of ascetics ascetic by virtue of appearancefigure impure bodily acts undisciplined greedy lazy conduct himself in sinful ways deceitful while guarding good behavior behavior not for purification of mind doesn t believe in emptiness interested in fame real correct practice 2242009 112000 PM How the Buddha Became a Bodhisattva Could n t have become Buddha wo first being a Bodhisattva Had to want to liberate all living things in the universe from suffering Story about extended arm little boy getting food for 7 days from the Buddha s owl pp173174 Monks in the Mahayana Story is a dialogue bt the Buddha amp people Questioner is a lay bodhisattva named Ugra which means llLord of the House In order to obtain the final goal of Buddhahood must first become a monk Striking condemnation of family life Ugra believed women were capable of embarking upon the bodhisattva path FEBRUARY 18 2009 Caitlin Mott Alexa Boyer LECTURE Mahayana more of a tradition for lay people Svabhava having no essential essence Nirvana can only be known in relation to something else The way you look at the world determines if you are in samsara or nirvana Nagarjuna C150 0 Emphasizes that the problem is in the mind not the world 0 You don39t die and go to heaven when you achieve nirvana you look at the world in a different way 0 There isn39t a problem with the world just the way you are looking at it There is no one answer to what reality is because there is no one way to define the world Arhant 0 Gets enlightenment from Buddha39s teaching 0 One Buddha per age 0 Theirjob is done once they are enlightened o Buddhist teaching taught by Buddha 0 Small group of monks on a private path 0 Wander 9 months of the year Bodhisattva 0 Big vehicle to get many people enlightened o Desiring enlightenment is selfishself centered 0 Should be worried about other39s enlightenment first 0 Work as hard as you can to help everyone else to enlightenment first 0 Come back to samsara Samsara is nirvana o Develops after Buddhism spreads and there are more people living Buddhist lives without being monks o Is a sign of Buddhism entering the mundane world READINGS Format of Sutra BODY sets forth dharma I Explaining various doctrines and practices Telling parables Describing other universes I Telling pastfuture END explains benefits from revering the sutra Revere it by teaching it offering it a flower etc This part was possibly added at some point after it was created Some Sutras are entirely about the benefits of its worship ie Sutra on Unlimited Lifespan I Anyone who pays homage to itwrites down a special dharani mantra will live for 100 years n This is basically the entirety of the sutra Does not deal with theoreticals such as the nature of reality I Has a singular purpose of bestowing long lifeother benefits Rise of Mahayana led to new sutras called prajnaparamita perfection of wisdom Did not set forth philosophy or speculative arguments More like bold certain revelations I The perfection of wisdom was the knowledge of emptiness sunyata lt Required for anyone who wanted to become a Buddha If a bod hisattva thought of a personal soul living being conception of a person he could not be a bodhisattva I That means the bodhisattva is tainted with the misconception of self X is not x therefore it is x The Sutras are worshiped as a substitute for a traditional site of worship Buddha says that those who do so will be ridiculed Suffering the ridicule will rid them of bad karma A bodhisattva should be intent on all things in such a way that they should not be aware of conceptions of the things Nothing in a person that is permanentunchanging Belief that there is some autonomous self is the cause of suffering Understanding that there is not is the liberation from suffering Emptiness If there is no quotselfquot in a person there is also no intrinsic essences in any other objectphenomena of the universe I Most famously discussed by the Indian monk Nagarjuna Middle Way in Mahayana I Not just the middle way between indulgence and asceticism Middle way between existence and nonexistence All people have the seed of enlightenment in them This does not go against no self because this buddhanature is the very absence of self Nature of reality dharmadhatu I Truth of the nature of reality brings enlightenment Some saw it as emptiness some saw it as the one thing that is eternal and pure Virtuous deeds produce merit which produce happiness in the future Lecture one terms Andrew Connolly Lecture two terms Jolene Nguyen Samsara cycle of life death and rebirth llto turn around the goal of samsara is Moksa Dharma duty law certain moral obligation first goal of life according to the readings there s no single term that can describe dharma Dharma has 2 principle ideals 1 social life should be organized through welldefined and wellregulated classes varna 2 individual s life within classes should be organized into definite stages asrama Artha wealth Moksa liberation from Samara and from birth and death no more rebirth Atman self like a llsoul your true nature Brahman god all of existence the creator out of himself compared to a spider casting out a web creates the universe but is beyond it Caste Priest Warrior MerchantTraderBusinessman Servant dharma depends on where you are in life each caste had different duties read chapter Sin Sources of Indian Tradition to get a more indepth description Varna brahmana ksatriya vaisya sudra the Sanskrit version of the castes Stages of life asrama student householder retiree renunciant duties respectively are to memorize the Veda marriage and raising a family retire and contemplate existence while still being reachable wanderer no marriage a quest of knowing moksa Lecture threefour terms Karen Lee 0 Varnaasramadharma o varna caste I The status that you are born with o llasrama stages of life I 4 stages of life 0 1 Student To study 0 2 Marriage To make a family 0 3 Retiree To leave the communitysociety o 4 Renunciation To request the meaning of life going to the forest for further search 0 quotdharma teachinglaw I In Buddhism Dharma represents quotteachingquot I In Hinduism Dharma means quotlaw dury way of life proper conduct Samsara o continuity of existence cycle of death and rebirth 0 quotTurning wheel Atman 0 One unchanging permanent self in Hinduism o ego Brahman o God 0 Pure existence 0 Creator of universe 0 Trueself 0 Everything you seeexperience is made out of Brahman Buddha o quotAwakened One Born as a prince Prophecy world leader or world sacred teacher Grows up in pampered life Observed 4 sights aging diseased death and mendicants Abandoned luxurious life in palace and went into the forest Meditating under Bodhitree battle w Mara o 4 watches all of his past karma life of everyone else 4 noble truths quotEnlightened one The Historical Buddha o Shakyamuni is simply considered as the historical Buddha O O O O O O u GautamaGotama Buddha o Aclan name of the historical Buddha Lumbini o Buddhist pilgrimage site in the Kapilavstu district of Nepal near the Indian border Kapilavastu o the name of an region of ancient Shakya kingdom that is considered a holy pilgrimage place for Buddhists located close to Lumbini Sakyamuni 0 quotSage of the Sakya Clan 0 An epithet of the historical Buddha Siddhartha o A given name of Gautama the Buddha o llhe who achieves his goal Bodhisattva o llOne who has the intention to achieve enlightenment 0 Those who vow to achieve Buddhahood but have not yet done so In the Mahayana the Bodhisattva path is presented as the ideal to which all should 0 aspire Jataka 0 Stories about Buddha s births as Bodhisattva 0 Previous births as a fish a monkey and a king who gave his head Nirvana nibbana o llBlow out 0 To end the suffering o The solution for samsara which is the cycle of birth and rebirth o The goal of Buddhist practice 4 sites old age sickness death parivrajika o A king Shakyamuni s father did not want his son to be perturbed by anything One day he heard that his son wanted to make a journey outside of the palace The king ordered to clear up the royal highway from beggars aged crazy etc However the Gods of the Pure Abode conjured up the illusion of an old man an ill person and a corpse o Parivrajika The Wanderer o Shakyamuni was finally enlightened and travel to teach others 0 World renunciation o The story of the Buddha how he went out from the palace and observed the realities of life 4 sitesgt old age sickness death parivrajika o Bhiksu Bhikkhu o llThe beggar literally o Monk if translated 0 Those people who followed the Buddha to earn lessons and ordination Lectures fivesix terms Allison Baylor Lectures seveneight terms Joanne Ku tath39agata thus gone early Buddhism BhikkhubhiksuSkt fully ordained male Buddhist monk ArhatP39aliarahant someone who is englightened but not Buddha Begging monks have to beg for alms beggin bowl Merit Merit can be gained in a number of ways It is merit that accumulates as a result of good deeds acts or thoughts and that carries over to later in life or to a person39s next birth Such merit contributes to a person39s growth towards iberationThree bases of merit are giving virtue and mental development Gifts layvsclergyinBuddhism Ashoka27323ZBC his names means quotwithout sorrow ideal emperor of Buddhism who gained victories by moral suasion He put pillars all around India to mark his boundaries To bring peace and harmony to practical life he gave up hunting royal luxuries and the use of meat in the kitchen Ashokanlnscriptions there was a collectin of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka as well as boulders and cave walls These were dispersed throughout the ares of modernday Pakistan and lnida and represent the first tangible evidence of Buddhism The inscriptions detail the first wide expansion of Buddhism by Ashoka MauryanEmpire The Maurya Empire was the largest and most powerful political and military empire of ancient India but started to dissolve 50 years after Ashoka s rule Chakravartin wheel turnerquotwhose wheels are movingquot Wheel of Dharma The first wheel turner was Buddha he spreads the wheel of Dharma The second wheel turner was Ashoka who spread Buddhism through his conquests RELG 104 study guide for unit 3 exam 4222009 The exam will most likely be limited to what is on this study guide There may be some items included within topics on this guide but not listed separately in the guide eg problem cause solution path may include subsidiary items There will be two parts to the exam Part answer four short answer questions choose four out of six Part I answer one essay question choose one out of two There will be no reading identifications Readings on syllabus but not used in the course Chen Zhixu Earhart Hudson Oliver Scripture on Constant Readings in the course but not on the exam Deal Earhart Jorgensen Kendall Readings listed below as examples but not required Confucius Ebrey Lao Tzu DDJ Mencius Seidel Seidel and Strickmann Suzuki Teiser Readings listed below as do check or do use with specific page numbers Andersen App Confucius de Bary Hansen Maspero Mencius Schipper TanahashiDogen l path to social salvation for Confucianism problemcausesolutionpath 325 ime4fvirginiaedu jmb2VdVirginiaedu 2 Dao in Confucianism of sagekings 325 420 ex not req Confucius Analects p965 ime4fvirginiaedu jmb2VdVirginiaedu 3 Heaven in Confucianism 325 ex not req Confucius Analects p7l24 p8528 p965 jmb2VdVirginiaedu wag2gvirginiaedu 4 Filial piety in Confucianism incl how it contributes to a harmonious society 325 ex not req Mencius p82ll p82l2 p8313 p8519 p8727 jmb2VdVirginiaedu wag2gvirginiaedu 5 De virtuous power in Confucianism 325 420 cah7virginiaedu lek2tvirginiaedu 6 sprouts of virtue in Confucianism Ox Mountain 325 do use M encius p127 cah7virginiaedu lek2tvirginiaedu 7 ancestors in Confucianism 325 eX not req Ebrey reading cah7virginiaedu lek2tvirginiaedu a ancestral ritual matters appease the ancestors b lial piety is importantbeing a good son or daughter c how to be lial never fail to comply 8 the rites 1139 in Confucianism incl ritual 325 do check Confucius Analects pp10175 vdh3s virginiaedu jil4bvirginiaedu Confucius wrote Analects o Filial peity 0 Honor Virtue o Gentlemen o Ritualssocial O Dao Dharma more human elementhuman conducts virtues A model gt GREAT SAGE Noble king is the ideal of confucinism In every station ofyour life 0 A king in a subject Husband amp wife Parents to child Older dibbling to younger one Friend to friend 0 YOU HAVE TO PROPERLY ACT BASED ON YOUR STAGE OF LIFE 0000 a the rites are one of the five virtues it s the ultimate virtue b ritual matters to ancestors and to gods c ritual of old religion is important d the concrete details of the ritual are very important 9 comparing philosophical Daoism and religious Daoism 41 420 vdh3s virginiaedu jil4b virginiaedu o Philos Daoism Daode King 7 4th c BCE Written by Lau Zu 7 a sage who was leaving China in a time of political chaos and before he left he wrote a record of his wisdom DDJ has been studied ever since but there has been no DDJ social movement There was some kind of movement when it was first created but don t know anything about it since then just been a book To call someone a Daoist Someone who is a professional religious doaist 0 religious daoist 7 part of structure of Chinese society 0 Religious Daoism xxxxx lt lt lt E g Celestial mastesr 2nd c CE until today Often begin by talking about cosmogony Source of gods and scriptures The goal of meditation is to return to this source 7 Higher gods learned it because scripture existed in beginning of time but cannot be read by human beings cuase written in different language cloudy scripture I felt that my notes on this part are not good enough so I googled Philosophical Taoism is the Chinese tradition of ancient wisdom Early Taoists stressed the importance 0fquot1etting things owquot Humans cannot predict their own future and accordingly must deal with the fortunes 0r misfortunes they face An important goal for Taoists is to discover one39s passion for it can help stabilize an individual39s direction in life This passion can include a love for poetry writing art etc In modern times it could include baseball collecting coins or traveling It is essential to find one39s quotnichequot in life no matter how insignificant it may seem Death is Viewed as another aspect 0f1ife and must be accepted and acknowledged as something we cannot change Religious Taoism has a different emphasis Rather than focusing on the ow 0f1ife there is an emphasis on health and fitness The goal is to postpone death unlike in Philosophical Taoism where death is welcomed as a part 0f1ife This can be achieved though several methods of extending one39s longevity There are also many gods associated with Religious Taoism while in Philosophical Taoism there is not Early Chinese Taoists practiced Alchemy the art of metal conversion They believed humans had the ability to turn themselves into entities that would last forever like gold or stone Many alchemists died trying to find the secret ofimmortality by swallowing rocks or drinking mercury Ifa rock could last throughout infinity could its properties effect human longevity This concept may seem bizarre today but these practices lead to the foundation of traditional Chinese medicine Traditional methods of medicine are increasingly being excepted by Western science a philosophical Daode Jing4th century BCE no social movement i The dao metaphysical psychological state ii Nonbeing cosmic metaphysical practical psychological and meditationrelated iii Cosmogony man models himself on earth earth on heaven heaven on the way and the way on that which is naturally so a The way is the source of all iv Wu wei gaining power and ruling through nonaction selfcultivation and not clinging to the fruits of one s actions v De sel ess action of the Dao b Religious celestial masters 2nd century CE professional religious Daoists i The dao metaphysical reality cosmic source and sustainer of all things ii Nonbeing not that important iii Cosmogony source of gods and scriptures goal of meditation is to return to this source iv Wu wei no political philosophy wu wei is just relevant to meditation v De related to sel ess action as a human quality 10 Celestial Master multiple meanings of the term 41 eX not req Seidel and Strickmann several paragraphs on pp388789 vdh3 virginiaedu jil4b virginiaedu 5 meanings ofquotCelestial Masters o the first CM Zhang Daoling 14 2 CE 0 Secret Learner o Spiritual head of Daoism movement 0 Zhang family lineage of CMs quotDaoist popesquot not really 0 Zhang Daoling said that the master Laozi showed up and gave him full responsibility as a first master 0 the early CM community 14 05 to 215 CE 0 morality worship keeping faith with the Dao o Transcendence seekers ARE NOT CM 0 the liturgical tradition based on this CM community down to Zhengyi priests in the present day 0 CM priests today I It39s not really a path but more like a practice that you need to follow CMs are representing Earth amp Heaven converting people to good CMs are de they are keeping the order Those who help moral transformation 11 Laozi as legend 420 and as a god 4 1 ex not req Seidel and Strickmann 384 388 wa 2 viI iniaedu saa6ivirginiaedu o Laozi as legend 420 and as a god 41 ex not req Seidel and Strickmann 384 388 gt Laozi was a guy turned into a god Probably wasn t a real guy Known from the doade jing Daoism Response to Confucianism Are more passive and mellow Non aggression and inwardness There idea of DAO is everyone and in everything U can be out of touch and out of sync with it thus making life suck or if you are in tune with it life is good A king should act so subtly and such perfect accord with nature you have never known that he had done anything at all They urged ppl to step out of the world and look inward to themselves and cultivate what is natural Wuwei effortless actions To not push against but work in union with things DE virtuous power The king should have DE 12 path to salvation for Celestial Master Daoism problemcausesolutionpath 4 1 W21ng virginiaedu saa6j virginiaedu o path to salvation for Celestial Master Daoism problemcausesolutionpath 41 Causes 1 Of demons the end times are coming 2 Of death just the human condition 3 Of haunting by the ancestors they are seen as unquiet souls why Clelestial masters gained popularity because they offered soultions to these problems Solutions 1 Bcoming a quotseed personquot for heaven on earth to come a through leading a moral life b early Celestial Master community 2 Becoming a transcendent being Xian a through selfcultivation b Or liberation by means of the corpse tricked gods and just didn t die c through selfcultivation transcendenceseekers not CM 3 Salvation of dead ancestors and hungry ghosts a through ritual CM priests then and now 1 Early CM a Morality and worship keeping faith with the Dao 2 Transcendenceseekers not CM a Cultivating yang primal qi ch39i through meditation alchemy ingesting sacred things qi elixers etc 3 CM priests today a quotcarrying out transformation on behalf of Heavenquot through ritual maintaining the community of gods living humans and souls Celestial masters would try to convert ppl to good through ritual l3 demons and seed people in Celestial Master Daoism 41 wag2gvirginiaedu saa6jVirginiaedu o demons and seed people in Celestial Master Daoism 41 gtCeestia Masters 2nd century CE Daoist priests Their concerns demons death ancestors Problem demons death ancestors Demons were a sign of the approach of the end of the world Wanted to be quotseed peoplequot if u do things well you39ll end up in heaven Their concern with death is that The goal to obtain with death is that do good deeds you can be reborn in a good position in the celestial bureaucracy Try to be immortal By purifying urself or cleansing ur insides with chemicals Celestial Masters milinarian cult A group that believed that the end of the world was about to come Everyone will die and things will be reborn All the good ppl would become the seeds for the new world Were celestial master priest who would do rituals and talk to heaven with Had problems with demons and Seed ppl were associated directly with celestial masters Are good ppl who are to be chosen to be quotplantedquot after the end of the world Give transcendence to become immortal l4 ancestors in Celestial Master Daoism 41 eX not reg Seidel pp232734 cs7k virginiaedu pd3hVirginiaedu In CM s thought the dead ancestors need to be salvaged We can save them through ritual And if we don t do the ritual they may come out and haunt us 15 carrying out transformation on behalf of Heaven 41 420 cs7k virginiaedu pd3h virginiaedu CM priests today quotcarrying out transformation on behalf of Heaven through ritual maintaining the community of gods living humans and souls a Represents heaven on earth convert people to do good through ritual b De virtuous power 16 modern Celestial Master Daoist community de nitional ceremony iJiao Offering rites 41 do use the Andersen reading cs7k virginiaedu pd3h virginiaedu Ritual program invite high gods to ritual space feed them and worship them and then send them off Through ritual maintaining a community of Gods living humans amp souls 17 two meanings of the term Chinese popular religion 46 The lecture was based directly on the Teiser reading If you have questions about the lecture check Teiser If no questions Teiser not required jil4bvirginiaedu scg5yvirginiaedu 00 path to salvation for popular religion trick question 46 jil4bvirginiaedu scg5yvirginiaedu 0 Hansen readingipopular religion in an elite family 46 do use the Hansen reading jil4bvirginiaedu scg5yvirginiaedu 2 O elite and folk attitudes toward theism 4 6 The lecture was based directly on the Teiser reading If you have questions about the lecture check Teiser If no questions Teiser not required danielfalkson gmailcom bab5htvirginiaedu 0 Among gentleman the elite class sacrifices are taken as the way of humans 21 among common people they are taken as matters involving ghosts from Teiser Elites take a somewhat secular view of ghosts and gods they care more about the effect that spirit worship has on society The common people revere gods as actual extant beings that must be feared They conduct the same rituals but take very different views of said rituals and the deities they pay respects to When a ghost becomes a god Mazu Matsu do use Schipper pp3843 46 danielfalkson gmailcom bab5htvirginiaedu Someone dies with some kind of abnormality hanging over them such as being an unmarried young woman as was Matsu s case She spent her youth meditating frequently and sending her spirit out to do good deeds such as aid sailors She takes a vow of chastity when she is old enough to marry and soon dies her spirit soon gains reverence as a mother god and patron saint of sailors A cult builds a shrine in supplication to her spirit eventually growing in prominence and gaining state sponsorship and national recognition 22 Soto Zen Rinzai Zen 48 415 danielfalkson gmailcom bab5htvirginiaedu Soto Zen was brought to Japan from China by Dogen His problem if we all have Buddha Nature already why should we practice any form of Buddhism to realize it Our Buddha Nature is covered by our defiled existence and we must practice to find it akin to unwrapping the rags from a golden image the Buddha Nature To do so one would practice zazen core practice of Soto important which is calm and comfortable meditation that makes one aware of the present moment whilst keeping their thoughts stable Focus on one thing only which is doing the zazen In Rinzai Zen Buddhism enlightenment comes instantaneously by experiencing great doubt at a koan that is meditated upon which is known as Kanhua practice Known as a very severe school often people were slapped into enlightenment A koan is a stog dialogue question or statement in the history and lore of Chan Buddhism from Wikipedia Created by Yunmen as the Linji school in China brought to Japan by a monk Eisai probably don t need to know this zazen training koan training 48 415 lee5xvirginiaedu dnp8cVirginiaedu Soto Zen and Rinzai Zen Japanese Zen Zen Chan Rinzai encounter dialogues o Koan Based training 0 Koan an anecdotepublic caseparadoxicalreflect deep wisdom of a zen master WU see below 0 Spiritually understand these deep wisdoms Soto Zazen Training 0 Represented by Dogen Seated Mediation Just sitting Practiced on the assumption that you re already enlightened 24 who was Dogen as a man 48 do use TanahashiDogen pp3712 but names and dates in that reading are not reguired lee5x virginiaedu dnpSc virginiaedu Do en asaMan Tanahashi 112 a Dogen was living in an age where Japanese Buddhists believed in an age of decline of dharma b Belief in Amitabha the Savior Buddha was spreading c Dogen wanted to figure out why we seek enlightment when most Buddhist teachings teach of our true dharma nature Was not satisfied with many of the answers given by various teachers of Zen and Buddhism d Eventually came to the belief in dropping away body and mind and teaching singleminded sitting meditation e Eventually moved to the mountains to pursue a path of monastic practice in a secluded 25 environment and monkhood negative emptiness s nyatc39z Nagarjuna deluded sentient beings Buddha samsara nirvana 48 lee5x virginiaedu dnpSc virginiaedu Negative Emptiness Like Unit One I Nagarjuna s tetra lemma object X is quality y is not both neither I Goal not grasping at self things or even views I Implications 0 Things to don t have an independent existence everything is codependent o Deluded Sentient beings Buddha o Samsara nirvana 26 wondrous emptiness nonobstruction omnipresence vastness radiance H uayan s tra Avatamsaka s tra 48 ba56evirginiaedu aa3svirginiaedu Sutra Tower wide as sky 100000 towers inside this tower Each its own Existence not affecting anything else yet interpenetrating Nothing has its own existence Things do not have independent existence Deluded sentient beings Buddha SamsaraNirvana Wondrous emptiness is now described in terms of non obstruction omni presence oneness vastness formlessness purity radiance etc quotw0ndr0us emptiness In the Huayan sutra emptiness is described in terms of Non obstruction omnipresence oneess vastness formlessness purity radiance in emptinessgt nothing is dependent in omnipresencegteverything is all together at once 27 buddhanature Buddhanature Tathagatagarbha 4 8 bas e virginiaedu aa3s virginiaedu Buddha nature We are all buddhas we just don t know it Does Buddha nature mean Buddha potential Buddha at path s end or Buddha identity Buddha already Buddha nature is optimistic for those practicing it We are all buddhas we just don t know it Buddha nature is in as all it just needs to be revealed by stripping away our layers through study and meditation 28 original enlightenmen doctrine from Japanese Buddhism 4 8 bas e virginiaedu aa3s virginiaedu Japanese Original Enlightenment thought Even grasses and trees have buddha nature but still remain as ordinary grasses and trees The idea of attaining buddhahood is repudiated Everything is Buddha and nothing changes at all This is history behind Dogen s dilemma In China Dogen learned just sitting approach to zazen Just sitting without trying anything Dogen s own addition to just sitting was zazen enlightenment Just sit and manifest yoru original enlightenment Thought that even grass and trees have the Buddhanature but still remain as ordinary grasses and trees This idea repudiates the idea of having to attain buddahood We all have it This leads Dogen to his practice of Zazen 29 sudden enlightenment 48 khI3z Virginiaedu jn7d Virginiaedu a One of the three important ideas in E Asian Buddhism other ones were Buddha nature and emptiness b Sudden enlightenment don39t was effort in unwrapping the image from its rag just penetrate down to that image immediately Can become a Buddha at any second Buddhanature is right there Huineng was a Subitists Direct apprehension of Buddhanature without relying on anything zazen is this No reliance on practices or traditions g Yet Vinaya they were still traditional Buddhist monks man The idea that one has always been a Buddha 30 just sitting Dogen s practice based on buddhanature and sudden enlightenment 48 eX not req Suzuki reading khI3z Virginiaedu jn7d Virginiaedu Dogen s underlying question is Ifwe all have original Buddhanature why do we do difficult practices like meditation Background 1 Buddhanature teaching a golden image Buddhanature wrapped in rags illusory defilements The rags must be stripped away 2 Sudden Enlightenment a Don t waste effort in unwrapping the image from its rags which is the gradual path b Iust penetrate down to that image immediately sudden path 3 A further development the defilements themselves are Buddhanature too a The rags are no less precious than the image inside them b Samsara nirvana 31 classical Mahayana contrasted with early Buddhism new path new cosmologypantheon new Virtue new emptinessbuddhanature 413 khr3zvirginiaedu jn7dvirginiaedu a Very different from early Buddhism in early Buddhism had Arhat became enlightenment after hearing maybe one sermon in Mahayana everyone should want to become a Buddha and not an Arhat i A new vision of the path taking eons ii A new cosmology and pantheon of cosmic Buddhas and bodhisattvas enlighten being the first meaning is anyone who wants to become a Buddha can be called this the 2ml meaning is a cosmic one there are 10 levels they are not Buddhas yet but we can39t tell they can control their rebirth can project manifestation to teach save people in need iii A new virtue of universal compassion in early Buddhism or Theravada Buddhist do care about others but the Mahayana say that the early Buddhist are selfish don39t have the real teachings only caring for their own salvation only care about being an Arhat not saving others not teaching others spreading teaching scriptures to everyone this gives good karma to the one who printed and passed them outthe free literature help people who are on the pt of execution save animals releasing them from cages iv New teachings of emptiness and Buddha nature In classical early Buddhism The problem is suffering The cause of this suffering is desire The solution is to reach nirvana by becoming an arhat The method to do this is known as the 8 Fold Path In classical Mahayana The problem is suffering of all beings The cause of this suffering is desire The solution is to reach nirvana but by becoming a bodhisattvaBuddha The method for doing this are the 10 bodhisattva stages and taking multiple rebirths L N shortening of the path in Pure Land and Zen 413 ajb9avirginiaedu krb7vvirginiaedu a In early Buddhism you can become an Arhat in this lifetime b In classical Mahayana the path is unimaginably long EX Amitabha39s Path i In ChanZ en this is Mahayana the path is shortened Buddhahood is redefined everyone has total Buddha nature just being who you are and knowing it In Pure Land Buddhism Mahayana the path is shortened through Amitabha39s grace by calling on the Buddha Amitabha can hear you call often he comes to where we are Pure land once there are surrounded by the teachings special place after one life time here will be reborn as a Buddha H H somewhere else reborn in the pure land and then path to Buddhahood is shortened In Pure Land Buddhism the path is shortened because of Amitabha s grace Because you are not relying on your own works to get you to the Pure Land you rely on his grace which means that you can get there quicker Also when you are born in the Pure Land the path is shortened to one lifetime Zen there is shortened path because everyone has Buddha nature and is a Buddha Everyone must practice it This is Buddhahood redefined 33 LA UI Amitabha s Amida s mighty vow and long path 413 ajb9avirginiaedu krb7vvirginiaedu Amitabha s path he made 48 vows at predictive moment from Buddha He wanted his path to be the longest so he can build up more karma and good merit He thought that ifhe put it off long enough he would become a different kind of Buddha Pure land Buddha that is different and the best His wanted all people to be on track to buddhahood for there not to be lesser paths Honen and Shinran Pure Land School and True Pure Land School 413 eX not req de Bary reading ajb9avirginiaedu krb7vvirginiaedu Honen was a teacher of the Pure Land school He endorses only the practices which are included in Amida s Vow prescribed by Shakyamuni and endorsed by Buddhas everywhere He insists that one can and should follow Nembutsu alone to the Pure Land Both teach the single practice of Nembutsu recitation ofAmida s name as a central path to the Pure Land They also teach the importance of the grace ofAmida Shinran True Pure Land school was Honen s disciple Shinran went farther by changing the focus of heaven from the monasteries to the families He also said that only one repetition ofAmida was necessary while Honen advocated many repetitions Shinran truly believed that your works could not get you to heaven you needed to reply completely on Amida s grace Thus if you tried to gain merit through works you were relying on your own power not the power of another this is not the right path nembutsu 413 eX not req de Bary reading jrh7hvirginiaedu 1eh4Xvirginiaedu 36 path to salvation for Pure Land Buddhism problemcausesolutionpath note slight difference between Honen and Shinran 413 jrh7hvirginiaedu leh4Xvirginiaedu U gt1 the age of mappo39 Final Dharma 413 jrh7hvirginiaedu leh4Xvirginiaedu 38 Path of Holiness Path of the Pure Land selfpower firikz39 otherpower tarikz39 413 ahh6u virginiaedu hhs3w virginiaedu Path of Holiness classical Mahayana Buddhism the path is unimaginany long takes eons the path Amitabha took in order to accrue enough merit to attain salvation for everyone 0 Selfpower jiriki you attain salvation through your own efforts to become a Buddha Path of the Pure Land In Pure Land Buddhism the path is shortened through Amitabha39s grace All you need to do is repeat his name because Amitabha39s merits have saved us all already 0 Otherpower tariki you attain salvation because of another39s efforts Amitabha Pure land39s problem is the degenration of Dharma aka Age of Mappo The solution to this problem is acheiving a rebirth in Pure Land Land of Bliss To achieve this rebirth people practice quotNembutsuquot This is merely saying Amitaba39s nameReciting The notion of selfpower is emphasized by Honen Iado Shu who said that saying Nembutsu 10 times with sincere conviction will get you a rebirth while the notion of otherpower is emphasized by Shinran J ado Shinshu who said that you are not using your self power rather you are relying on other power the power of Amitaba and reciting Nembutsu just one time with absolute faith on Amitaba will get you a rebirth 39 Fourpart de nition of Chan Zen 415 ahh6u virginiaedu hhs3w virginiaedu o 4part definition of Chan 0 History Chan39s history ofitself Buddha holds up a ower Kasyapa smiles there were 26 Indian and then 6 Chinese patriarchs Chinese Chan is coalescing of several traditions and splits to Caodong vs Linji soto vs Rinzai in Japan 0 Doctrine accepting traditional Indian Mahayana doctrine but criticizing the tendency to grasp at the doctrine transmission of teachings outside the scripturesquot like Kasyapa 0 Practice based on meditation zazen but with a tendency to reject meditation in favor of koan training I Debate bw sudden vs gradual enlightenment o Genealogical character lineage back to the Buddha training as masterstudent interaction Zen Buddhism39s problem is the notion of self and the notion makes one cling to worldly things The cause for the notion of self is craving The solution to this problem is suddenenlightenment and the path to this is divided into two ways The first way is zazen founded by Soto the idea behind this path is that everyone is all aready a buddha and zazen is no longer a meditation but it is a form of practice to show that you are an enlightened being The second path is Koans and is founded by Rinzai With this idea just know the famous question quotDoest the dog have a Buddha naturequot The answer was quotWuquot This means that people cannot approach it logically and the koan teachings try to go past the discursive thinking 40 Chan s history of itself Buddha ower Kasyapa 415 ahh6uvirginiaedu hhs3wvirginiaedu o Chan39s history ofitself Buddha holds up a ower aworldless sermon Nobody gets it except for Kasyapa who smiles This shows how the truth can be transmitted without words and speaks against the reliance on scriptures sakyamuni wanted to transmit the 39true dharma eye39 to his disciple mahakasyapa sakyamuni held up a ower infront of the assembly without saying a word and only Kasyapa smiled this signifies the transmission of sakyamuni kasaya to kasyapa 41 wordless transmission of teachings outside the scriptures 415 res9z irginia edu adw5fvirginia edu Buddha holds up a ower and Kasyapa smiles Kasyapa is the only person to understand Chan Buddhism goes back to the wordless sermon the Buddha gave Buddhist knowledge can be transmitted from mind to mind studying scriptures and the teachings of masters is not the only way to 1eam Transmission of teaching quotoutside the scripturesquot doctrine of chan a transmission not words words are not as important Buddha holds up a ower and Kasyapa understands and smiles Huineng last patriarch emphasized wordless teaching of the Buddha Bodhidharma is recorded as having come to China to teach a quotspecial transmission outside scripturesquot which quotdid not stand upon wordsquot 42 Bodhidharma and Emperor Wu not grasping at merit 415 res9z virginiaedg adw5fvirginiaedu Bodhidharma was the first Zen patriarch of China Emperor Wu thought he had accumulated good merit by giving generously to the Buddhist order but Bodhidharma told him he had accumulated no merit at all because it was all done for his own selfaggrandizement Pure wisdom is true merit Merit can t be found through studying the scriptures or blindly following masters Bodhidharma and Emperor Wu 6th centuryHistory of Chan Bodhidharma the founder of Zen Buddhism when he was over a hundred years old made a three year long journey from India to China to meet with Emperor Wu The Emperor himself was a Buddhist tho unfamiliar with Zen and wanted to brag about all the charity he performed for the religion he asked for merit Bodhidharma says he gets no merit because he is grasping for merit which should not be done should not cling to fruits of actions 43 sudden enlightenment Huineng versus gradual enlightenment ShenXiu in the poetry contest 415 res9z virginiaedu adw5fvirginiaedu ShenXiu was a proud monk who was defeated by the illiterate Huineng The master realized Huineng was to be the next patriarch ShenXiu believed in gradual enlightenment through practice Heineng did not rely on practices or traditions Instead he believed in the direct comprehension of one s buddhanature More specific information in the Jorgenson reading but Jorgenson won t be on the test sudden enlightenment vs gradual enlightenment Practice of Chan Poetry contest of ShenXiu and Huineng 6th patriarch each express understanding of the Bodhidharma ShenXiu gradual enlightenment step by step progression marga through practice Huineng sudden enlightenment direct apprehension of Buddhanature without relying on practices or traditions 44 an outsiders history of Chan 415 emm7m virginiaedu mlm5hzvirginiaedu In An quotoutsiders history of Chan Chan is not quotIndianquot per 59 China coalescing of several traditions 6th c Shenhui 7th c Yunmen 910th c Caodong vs Linji 11th c zuzen vs koun gong un Linji is like Yunmen 45 Zhaozhou s wu mu 415 emm7m virginiaedu m1m5hzvirginiaedu Practice ofChun Buddhism Based on meditation zuzen but with a tendency to reject meditation in favor of koun training The koun quotZhaozhou s wu Q Does a dog possess the buddhanature A quotWu 39 Wu Iap mu quothas not or quotnothingquot 46 kanhua practiceia Rinzai practice 415 emm7m virginiaedu m1m5hzvirginiaedu Kunhuu practice koun meditation Why do Chan Buddhists sit in meditation if they are already enlightened if they already knew it which they do because of Buddha nature they shouldn t be rummaging through notes these people that they are against are quotgradualistsquot why should I practice at all if I already know it all that s just what you re supposed to do as a Buddha Buddha acts awakened and sits in meditation eX Someone says that he is a baseball player but can t throw hit or catch he is not a baseball player HE IS AN IMPOSTER 47 path to salvation for ChanZen problemcausesolutionpath for this item use Yunmen not Dogen do use the App readingimain ideas only 4 15 ssk9e irginiaeduy jhh9f virginiaedu Problem The ignorant view that I have a self Cause Craving Solution Get rid of grasping Subitism Both shortens the path and makes the path problematic 48 Yunmen s approach to liberation no grasping great trust abuse great effort abuse great doubt abuse letting go awakening 415 do use the App reading trusteffort doubtabuseletting go are the path in 51 ssk9e virginiaedu jhh9f virginiaedu No merit comes from good deeds because good deeds are so small in the large scope ofthings there have no reality emptiness There is nothing holy Therefore do not follow meritorious path everyone has a Buddha nature in them you already have a Buddha and you just transform a Buddha from mind to mind Therefore just meditate like a Buddha 49 VI 0 founded religious movements and cumulative religious traditions 420 ssk9e virginiadu jhh9fvirginiaedu compare philosophical Daoism religious Daoism Confucianism etc as in the following items 420 mlt4virginiaedu sk2ubvirginiaedu Dao way in Daodejmg religious Daoism and Confucianism 420 eX not req DDJ chaps 1 25 37 42 pp 5 30 42 49 mlt4virginiaedu sk2ubvirginiaedu nonbeing in Daodejmg vs emptiness in Buddhism 420 eX not req DDJ chaps 5 ll 25 40 mlt4virginiaedu sk2ubvirginiaedu cosmogony and primal chaos in Daode jing religious Daoism 420 eX not req DDJ chaps 25 42 cah7virginiaedu saa6jVirginiaedu o cosmogony and primal chaos in Daodejl39ng religious Daoism 420 eX not req DD chaps 25 42 In religious Daoism source of gods and scriptures the goal of meditation is to return to this source Not important in Confucianism Buddhism or popular religion wuwei nonaction in Daodejz39ng 420 eX not req DDJ chaps 37 38 43 48 64 o wuwei nonaction in Daodejl39ng 420 eX not req DD chaps 37 38 43 48 64 gtWuwei effortless actions To not push against but work in union with things wuwei nonaction In DD 1 gaining power and ruling through nonaction chaps 43 64 2 also selfcultivation chaps 37 48 3 not clinging to the fruits of action chap 38 In religious Daoism no political philosophy per se wuwei is relevant to meditation cah7virginiaedu saa6jVirginiaedu DDJ wuwei governance 420 vs Confucian governance by De 325 cah7virginiaedu saa6jVirginiaedu 0 DD wuwei governance 420 vs Confucian governance by De 325 With Confucian De you should and are encouraged to take action But specifically Virtuous action With the DD and wuwei you are encouraged to not take action and only react spontaneously Chill out and just comply with the universe 1 shortening of the path in Pure Land and Zen 413 The Path the m rga In early Buddhism you can become an arhat in this lifetime at least that s the hope In classical Mahayana the path is unimaginably long Buddha becomes much grander a being not like us but also not cosmiclevel EX Amitabha s path In ChanZen this is Mahayana the path is shortened buddhahood is rede ned as not just being what you are but knowing it everyone has total buddha nature In Pure Land Buddhism Mahayana the path is shortened through Amitabha s grace By calling on Amitabha you re activating a little bit of merit to break thru to Amitabha who will come to you Transfer your immeasurable merit to a living or dying person so that person can be reborn into the Land of Bliss thereby shortening the path Pure Land Buddhism in India just one form of practice available to any Mahayana Buddhist In China 1 available to any Chinese person not just Buddhists 2 or an exclusivistic tradition In Japan 1 same as 1 above 2 or an exclusivistic denomination 2 Amitabha s Amida s mighty vow and long path 413 he bound himself by a mighty vow that he would not enter on Nirvana till he had attained salvation for the human race that is that it should so be that all who should call on his name in faith should pass to heis Pure Land and so to full salvation Amitabha s path want longer path to build up karma By studying Buddha s teachings one knows that there is a long path to Enlightenment which cannot be achieved without complete devotion So one establishes the willingness to cut off worldly activities in order to devote oneself completely to the quest of Buddhahood This is the real meaning of renunciation Once you sense that life is so fragile and short and understand the great bene t of putting efforts into this path then it is only natural that you will want to do the renunciation We have to use our very limited time and energy for a greater purpose 3 H nen and Shinran Pure Land School and True Pure Land School 413 eX not req de Bary reading Shinran was Honen s disciple teachings were similar but Shinran more radical Honen and Shinran began as Japanese Tendai monks 12l3th c Like Dogen they broke away from Tendai most powerful school in Japanese Buddhism at the time and each found their own schools Honen Pure Land School Jodo Shu Shinran True Pure Land School Jodo Shinshu more prevalent but still not very well known Both taught the single practice of nembutsu chanting the name of Amitabha reverence to Amitabha almost like rosary trafer his merit to you so you go to Pure Land after you die More late submissions 1 two meanings of the term Chinese popular religion 46 The lecture was based directly on the Teiser reading If you have questions about the lecture check Teiser If no questions Teiser not requiredJ a Popular religioncommon religion i Forms of religion practiced by all Chinese Examples a FuneralMemorial Service i Confucianism Buddhism Daoism and popular religion can be seen in the funeral ritual b New Year s Festival i The people feed the ancestors who had no family so they will accrue merit and have good karma Confucianists Buddhists Daoists all do this The festival ritual therefore does not solely belong to one religion so it falls under the category of popular religion c Consulting a Spirit Medium i Again elements of this can be seen in Confucianism Buddhism and Daoism but it didn t specifically arise in any one of these religions It cam from popular religion ii you can find elements of folk religion in Confucianism Buddhism and Daoism so it s not an entirely separate religion b Popular religion little tradition or folk religion i the great tradition literate reflective developed by specialists in cities schools temples monasteries belonged in the imperial court ii little tradition typically illiterate customary tradition and habit embodied in common beliefs and practices of villagers 2 path to salvation for popular religion trick questionl 46 a Salvation is less emphasized in popular religion The common people have everyday problems with various causes and no path to salvation to speak of b Ordinary people thus have no need for their souls to be saved given that true salvation occurs in the natural course of things c if they do they can turn to Buddhism or Daoism The multiple religions Confucianism Buddhism Daoism popular religion are not mutually exclusive 3 Hansen readingiipopular religion in an elite family 46 do use the Hansen reading a Daoist Buddhist and popular relgs were not mutually exclusive b Choosing Among Gods to pray to for help i In the reading a ghost possesses a concubine having slipped under the guard of Buddha a Daoist god the stove god and the earth god shows that religions were not mutually exclusive ii it is the lowest god stove god not Buddha who tried to protect the man from the ghost c Popular religion and the Three Teachings Conf Bud Dao in Hansen reading 1 Popular religion common religion i Three Teachings all deal with gods ghosts and ancestors they have this in common ii Buddha and Confucius are seen as gods 2 Popular religion little tradition iii Yet there is a distinctly popular religious attitudeiieclectic local not about high heaven about this household pragmatic and worldly More late submissions 4 Filial piety in Confucianism incl how it contributes to a harmonious society Filial Piety Filial piety at the center of Confucianism respect for yourself respect toward others King to People Older Brother to Younger Brother Father to Son Husband to Wife 7 person on the top preserves the lowers respect while the lower person respects the higher person 0 Kings don t want people at the bottom of society to rise up against them they want to show that the best way to be is to respect the King s position and power Act within your position in the most moral and virtuous way possible 5 De virtuous power in Confucianism De Te virtue Tn Confucianism 0 De is a human quality De Virtue is power central to Chinese thought Moral character has quasi magical affect Leading by example affect the entire populous Virtuous power central to Chinese political philosophyiidea that a moral person esp leader amp the moral character that they have has a major effect on the people around them The way that a true king rules the world is to take his position following the rites of deportment he sits down calmly amp they believed that his power radiated outward from the central point and have invisible effects of everyone around and they all do what they re supposed to If all the people at home practice the virtues the effects can trickle up into the government as well 6 Sprouts of virtue in Confucianism Ox Mountain The five virtues o Benevolencehuman kindness disposition to react compassionately Being good to others 0 Duty justice following the law 0 The rites concrete steps of ritual o Wisdom o Trustworthiness nembutsu 413 ex chanting of the name of Amitabha Buddha is believed that this allows one to obtain birth in Amitabha39s Pure Land of the West It is felt that this act would help to negate vast stores of negative karma that might hinder one39s pursuit of Buddhism de Bary reading In the Pureland tradition it not reg mindfully In addition the Pure Land is a place of refuge where one can become Enlightened without being distracted by the sufferings of our existence 36path to salvation for Pure Land Buddhism problem cause solution path note slight difference between Honen and Shinran 413 Problem suffering as in early Buddhism Cause In the age of mappo Final Dharma human spiritual aptitude is degenerating and the Buddha39s teachings are becoming out of reach The Japanese thought mappo began in 1052 Solution rely on Amida Amitabha he possesses infinite merits resulting from good deeds over countless past lives as a bodhisattva and will ensure that those who say his name with faith will be reborn into his pureland where they will achieve enlightenment Pathpractice Background on Honen and Shinran Honen and Shinran began as Japanese Tendai monks 12 l3th c Like Dogen they broke away from Tendai Honen the founder of the first independent branch of Japanese Pure Land Buddhism known as the Pure Land School or Jodo Shu Shinrana pupil of Honen and the founder of what ultimately became the Jodo Shinshu sect in Japan the True Pureland School Both taught the single practice of nembutsu Honen says that there are two paths that of personal effort jiriki in which one relies on meditation practices etc and that of relying on Amitaba Buddha or other power tariki The latter path is easier and therefore preferable and to follow this path doing the practice of nembutsu without any doubt and with an undivided mind is required One might be reborn in the pureland through one repitition or through constant repitition Holiness and good deeds as stressed in most other Buddhist sects are not necessarily required only the recitation of Amita Buddha39s name is Furthermore Honen said that through the repitition of Amita Buddha39s name faith could be developed Shinran said only one repetition of Amita Buddha39s name was necessary He stressed absolute reliance on other power tariki not even reliance on repetition Repeated repetition was out of gratitude alone He said that one must have faith before one practices Nembutsu and that this faith comes from Amita Buddha Both Shinran and Honen held that ultimate salvation was available in this lifetime as in being reborn in the pure land There was no longer an emphasis on buddha hood in a traditional sense The arising of true faith assurance of rebirth in Pure Land 37 The age of mappo Final Dharma 413 During this degenerate age which is the third age of Buddhism it is believed that people will be unable to attain enlightenment through the word of Sakyamuni Buddha and society becomes morally corrupted Tn Buddhist thought even during the Age of Dharma Decline the teachings of the Buddha are still correct but people are no longer capable of following them The Pure Land schools of Buddhism in China and Japan believe we are now in this latter age of quotdegenerate Dharmaquot attempt to attain rebirth into the Pure Land of Amitabha Buddha Pure Land followers therefore where they can practice the Dharma more readily Note Much of the above information comes from Wikipedia which provides a clear summary of the things that Professor Hudson mentioned in class and that were mentioned in the readings Dao and Confucianism 420 In the Doade jing way in Daode jing religious Daoism Dao has several potential meanings and uses It has both metaphysical and epistemological qualities It is a theoretical quotwayquot that does not exist in the physical world the follower of the way must cultivate his mind to gain the knowledge and From DDJ quotThere is a thing confusedly formed follow the way Born before heaven and earth Silent and void It stands alone and does not change Goes round and does not weary It is capable of being the mother of the world I know not its name So I style it 39the way39quot although it cannot be and the the Dao is very much real It is the In religious Daoism observed in the physical world quotcosmic sourcequot sustainer of all things The Dao holds much religious significance In Confucianism the Dao is a cultural pattern it encourages using virtue and building strong family ties It does not serve as a cosmic power or hold much religious significance like in religious Daoism 52 emptiness in Buddhism 420 non being is a very metaphysical and cosmic sort of In non being in Daode jing vs In Dao Jing being In comparison to Buddhism it is much more a reality Buddhism it is necessary to have the void of silence in order to say a great many things In Daode Jing non being involves the gods believing that all humans are essentially straw dogs and that as such there is simply no we are non beings to them However in Buddhism existance There is no cosmic or metaphysical reality about it
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