Study Guide for Test 1
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nurit Elovic on Thursday September 11, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 240 at Kansas taught by Victor Gonzalez in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Human Anatomy in Biology at Kansas.
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Date Created: 09/11/14
I Anatomical terminology and skeletal divisions Anatomical position body erect feet parallel eyes forward arms at the side palms forward Coronal plane divides the body front and back Transverse plane cross the body divides it superior and inferior Sagittal plane cuts the body in half Midsagittal middle line Parasagittal anything parallel to the midsagittal Superior closer to the head Inferior closer to the feet Medial Proximal close to midline Lateral Distal away from the midline Ventral anterior front Dorsalposterior back Ipsilateral on the same side of body Contralateral on opposite side of body Superficial close to skin Deep close to the axis of the body II Regional terms you need to know the general regions of the axial and appendicular regions terms in bold in the figures of your book and lecture slides Axial head neck and trunk Appendicular limbs everything that hangs off axial III Body cavities Body cavities house and support organs compartmentalize organs so diseases cannot be spread Dorsal body cavity contains the vertebral cavity and cranial cavity Ventral body cavity Thoracic cavity Abdominal cavity pelvic cavity abdomino pelvic cavity Cranial cavity contains brain Vertebral cavity contains spinal cord Thoracic cavity contains heart and lungs Thoracic cavity contains heart and lungs superior mediastinum pleural cavity pericardial cavity within the mediastinum Abdominal cavity contains digestive vescera Pelvic cavity contains urinary bladder reproductive organs and rectum IV Body membranes Body membranes cover separate and support visceral organs and line body cavities Cutaneous Membrane skin dry membrane that secretes oil Synovial membrane lining of movable joints Mucous membrane secretes mucus digestive and respitory Serous membrane line the thoracic and abdomino pelvic cavities Double layer that secretes uid covers visceral organs and reduces friction o Parietal outer wall of cavity O Pleura Lines the pleura cavity in the thorax and covers the extrernal surface of the lung Peritoneum Lines the interior of the abdominopelvic cavity and covers the surfaces of organs in this cavity Pericardium Double lined sac that encloses the heart and forms it39s superficial layer V Overview of cells Cytology study of cells All cells contain a plasma membrane nucleus and cytoplasm Water the most abundant compound in the cell excellent solvent thermoregulator chemical reactions take place within the water Plasma membrane allwas cells to communicate allows the entrance of some substances but not all of them 0 Double membrane hydrophobic layer that doesn39t allow water to pass Selective membrane allows some materials to enter and blocks the entry of other Factors in uencing membrane permeability are the proteins membrane structure concentration gradient and ionic charge Passive transport go with the ow high to low concentration no energy Ex osmosis and diffusion Active transport Against concentration from low to high Uses energyATP Ion pump or bulk transport I Exocytosis large molecules are secreted from the cell increased cell size I Endocytosis usually receptor mediated decreased cell size Cytoplasm internal to plasma membrane and external to nucleus consists of uid cytosol that contains dissolved solutes Organelle small structures within the cytoplasm Divided into 2 groups those that have membranes and those that don39t Ribosomes produce proteins Endoplasmic reticulum system of interconnected membranes function is synthesis I Rough ER produces protein I Smooth ER metabolizes lipids and stores calcium Golgi apparatus is the packaging and shipping division it packages proteins for use either within or outside of the cell Lysosome contain cell enzymes that break down and digest the cells waste Mitochondria make energy Has it39s own DNA Probably originated as endosymbiotic bacteria Functions in energy synthesis Peroxisomes are the toxic waste treatment facility they neutralize and remove toxic substances within the cell Cytoskeletal elements maintain cell shape and structure and transport materials within the cell 0 Nucleus directs operation of the cell 0 Centrosome important in forming cilia and agella VI Cell Life Interphase Prepare for the next cell division Divided into gap 1 synthetic phase and gap 2 Mitosis replicates DNA Prophase metaphase anaphase and telophase Cytokinesis division of entire cell into 2 new cells Meiosis cell division in sex cells 4 daughter cells genetically different chromosomes number reduced by half 2 cell divisions VII Tissues Histology study of tissues and relationships within organs Hypertrophy increase in cell size Atrophy Decrease in cell size Hyperplasia Increase in the number of cells compensation for damage in tissue Metaplasia Change in form or cell type Tissues are composed of cells living and matrix non living but each tissue varies in composition liquid solid semisolid 4 types of tissues Nervous Muscular epithelial Connective Nervous tissue Transmits stimuli made up of neurons Skeletal tissue Elongate cells fibers that respond to stimulation Skeletal muscle Striated with peripheral multi nuclei voluntary Smooth Muscle non striated with single central nuclei visceral organs blood vessel walls propels substances or objects along internal passageways involuntary Cardiac Muscle Striated with single central nuclei Intercalated disks heart wall involuntary Epithelial tissue Protect produce secretions absorption diffusion sensory reception exposed to body cavity or to a change in environment regenerative avascular innervated mostly made of cells Microvilli increase surface area and absorb nutrients Cell junctions Help cells be attached preventing outside substances from coming inside Basement membrane connects to different kinds of tissues Psuedo Stratified ciliated columnar epithelial Transitional protection stretches to accommodate distention of urinary structures Classification 0 Number of cells 1 Simple 2 Stratified 3 Psuedostratified 0 Cell shape Squamos cuboidal columnar transitional Endothelium Simple squamous epithelium lines lumen of blood and lymphatic vessels Simple columnar epithelium nuclei position Goblet cells secrete mucin Simple columnar epithelium Mesothelium serous membrane abdomino pelvic cavity Glands Epithelial cells that make and secrete a product form glands o ER and Golgi apparatus are more well developed o Unicellular and multi cellular I Multicellular classified by shape and by how the products are delivered o Exocrine Secretions in sweat saliva Transported by ducts don39t need to be close to target cells located within highly vascular areas well nourished regenerative large matrix few cells Mesenchyme first connective tissue to emerge gives origin to all other tissues Connective tissue Most diverse abundant widely distributed and microscopically variable of all tissues o Functions protect support storage binding transport immune Specialized cells fibroblasts adipocytes chondrocytes Protein fibers collagen elastic reticular Ground substance matrix Highly vascular well nourished with some exceptions regenerative large matrix and few cells Cells of connective tissue o Resident cells support maintain repair Fibroblasts produce fibers adipocytes fat cells fixed macrophages Eat damage cells pathogens mesenchymal embryonic stem cell cell replacement 0 Wandering cells Leukocytes white blood cells Mast cells inhibit blood clotting secret histamine plasma cell synthesize antibodies free macrophage mobile eat damage cells Fibers of connective tissue o Collagen protein collagen abundant exible but strong thickest of all 3 o Elastic protein elastin stretch thinner than collagen o Reticular form a net made of protein similar to collagen Aerolar Connective tissue surrounds nerves and vessels binds skin to muscles subcutaneous layer of skin abundant blood vessels major site of in ammation Adipose connective tissue Easy to gain hard to get rid of storage fat 0 O O 0 Regular connective tissue White collagen fibers with at dark fibroblast Ligaments and tendons poorly vascularized Irregular connective tissue white collagen fibers in different planes makes up fibrous capsules that surround organs skin dermis perichondriumperiosteum Cartilage Matrix has many sugar molecules up to 80 water avascular and non innervated chondrocytes and lacunae cells and spaces holding them support and withstand deformation nose and ears o Hyaline Cartilage most cartilage in body supports soft tissue weakest of cartilages Fetal skeleton articular cartilage nose trachea ribs sternum o Fibrocartilage Dense collagen fibers found in intervertebral discs pubic symphysis meniscus o Elastic Cartilage Contains numerous elastic fibers in matrix ear epiglottis very exible Bone connective tissue More solid and more support than cartilage Collagenous fibers give exibility to bone calcium phosphate in matrix gives the bone its hardness 13 organic components remaining inorganic two types ofbone tissue Fluid connective tissue Matrix is liquid plasma Composed of cells and cell fragments Formed elements erythrocytedred blood cells no nucleus light stain transport oxygen and carbon dioxide leukocyteswhite blood cells thrombocytes platelets VIII Integumentary system Consists of skin nails hair sweat and sebaceous oil glands Dermatology study of integumentary system Skin Largest organ 154 mm in thickness 7 15 bodyweight o Functions Coloration protection prevention of water loss regulation of temperature synthesis excretion 0 General layers Epidermis dermis hypodermis 0 Specific layers Stratum corneum stratum lucidum stratum granulosum stratum spinosum stratum basale dermis o Coloration due to melanin protects UV rays I Freckles patches of melanin I Vitiligo Absence of melanocytes I Albinism Melanocytes normal but lack the enzyme to produce melanin o Dermis Papillary layer and reticular layer I Papillary layer fingerprints dermal papillae epidermal ridges I Reticular layer collagen and elastic fibers oriented in parallel bundles Stretch marks tears in collagen fibers o Hypodermis Not considered part of integumentary system Composed of areolar connective tissue adipose connective tissue highly vascular I Functions Bind and stabilize dermis Pads and protects body Storage and insulation Epidermal appendages Nails hairs sweat and sebaceous glands o Nails Similar to claws made of dead keratinized cells keratin tougher than of epidermal cells 0 Hair Protection heat retention facial expression sensory reception visual identification I Arrector pili muscle Smooth muscle erect hair emotional response goosebumps Lanugo baby hair shed and replaced by vellus hair Vellus hair short fine light colored barely extends from follicles Terminal hair Coarse longer than vellus unlimited growth 0 Exocrine glands Skin cancer Eccrine found on palms soles and forehead Lies deep in the dermis or hypodermis opens on skin surface in a tunnel shaped pore Appocrine Confined to the axillary anal and genital areas Larger than eccrine Ducts open into hair follicles Sweat consists fatty substances and proteins giving it a milkyyellow color Source of body odor Sweat glands watery solution eccrine gland apocrine gland Sebaceous gland oily material that coats hair Merocrine gland all body mostly in soles palms forehead typical sweat o Basal cell carcinoma Most common type least dangerous originates IX Random in stratum basale appears as small shiny elevation treated by surgical removal radiation therapy Malignant melanoma Most deadly skin cancer arises from melanocytes in pre existing mole treated by surgical removal Squamos cell sarcoma keratinocytes of stratum spinosum lesions usually appear on scalp ears lower lip or back of hand later lesions form concave ulcers with elevated edges treated by early detection and surgical removal Chemical level atoms combine to form molecules molecules combine to form the macromolecules Cellular level Cells and their surroundings are made up of molecules Tissue level tissues are made up of similar types of cells and associated extracellular material Organ level an organ is a discrete structure made up of multiple tissue types Organ system level An organ system is a unified group of organs and tissues that perform a specific function Organism level the whole person is the result of simpler levels working inerdependently
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