Ed Psych Study Guide Exam 1
Ed Psych Study Guide Exam 1 Psyc3200
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc3200 at Tulane University taught by Sarah Grey in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Educational psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Study Guide Exam 1 Please remember that these are just suggestions and may not get at overarching themes offered either in class or in the text for which you will also be held responsible Relationship between theory hypothesis and data Theory created by psychologist based on experience and data Hypothesis a belief derived form the theory Data results from the test of the hypothesis is the hypothesis adequate Evidencebased practice practices backed by research and studies Quantitative research numerical data experimental quasi experimental data Describes the way things are Descriptive study asks how many good for testing the state of affairs Correlational study shows what things occur together Good for making Predictions when you are interested in a relationship but cant experiment Does not prove causation Positive correlation as one variable increases so does the other Negative correlation as one variable increases the other decreases Experimental study asks why things are Only method of research that can determine causation Contains an independent and dependent variable Random sample and extraneous variable are constant and controlled Quasiexperimental study not randomized Asks why things are but in a quali ed way Used when all factors cannot be controlled With quasi experimental studies one must consider alternative explanations Qualitative research ask how things are Not generalizable But descriptive theorygenerating and contextual Mixed Methods research combines both quantitative and qualitative methodologies Theory the place where researchers draw their data into meaningful and coherent methodologies Re ective Teaching Regular ongoing examinations and critiques of one s assumptions and instructional strategies and revision of them as necessary Self Efficacy the belief in your own ability to succeed and have a positive affect on ones students Domains of development physical cognitive and social emotional All very interconnected achievement in each domain in uence other domains Periods of development prenatal infancy early childhood middle childhood and adolescence Universality amp Diversity in development what we refer to as typical or atypical development is in uence by cultural values beliefs and expectations The sequence of development is somewhat predictable but children develop at Different rates Continuity amp Discontinuity in development Continuity is slow and steady development height and word attainment Discontinuity is abrupt development walking voice drop Plasticity the degree to which development is open to change and intervention Sensitive periods developmental period when certain biological or environmental events have especially profound effects Critical period developmental period when certain biological or environmental event are REQUIRED for normal development to occur Myelination insulates the neuron and increases the speed of reactions the last part of the brain to become myelinated is the prefrontal cortex decisionmaking planning and judgment Synaptic Pruning gets rid of unused synapses Constructivist cognition based theory Learn by doing Problem solving cannot formally be taught must be discovered Children construct their own reality based on how they interact with the world Accommodation changing old understanding because of new information After encountering disequilibrium you have to change the rules of your schema Assimilation addition of new understanding to old understanding Disequilibrium when knew information come into contrast with your created schema Something that is round and small and I can throw to mom ball tomato is small round and I can throw it but mom wasn t happy must not be a ball Schema mental concept that provides a model for understanding each aspect of the world Children have schemata for everything A unit of understanding according to Piaget Piaget s stages all of them Sensorimotor 02 sensory perception motor skills Lack object permanence Preoperational 26 basic representations of reality words gestures basic schemas egocentric thinking lack conservation of number mass volume if it looks longer or higher kids will think it has more regardless of shape Centration tendency of children to focus on one element of an object at a time Brown and white wooden beads Concrete operational 612 cant thinks abstractly Formal operational 1219 abstract thinking Understanding of others thoughts and perspectives Can answer hypotheticals More efficient problem solving Object permanence the understanding that an object still exist when it is out of view Equilibration when existing schema and sufficient to explain what a child perceives in the world around them ConservationCentration conservation the understanding that the amount of water in a glass stays the same when it is put in a different shape glass Or that the amount of beads stays the same even if you spread it out over a longer area Centration the tendency of children to focus on one element of an object at a time The bead is brown or wooden rather than both at the same time Critiques of Piaget s stages can occur earlier for some children age ranges are too strict Stages are oversimpli ed and it may over estimate adolescents Egocentrism belief that the world revolves around you don t realize that people aren t seeing the world from your perspective point of view when a kid stands in front of a TV screen they don t understand that other people aren t seeing it as well as them now English language learners amp bilingual concerns Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills BICS Day to day English but no suf cient for academic success Cognitive academic language pro ciency CALP mastery of English vocab and syntax sufficient to achieve academic success in English only curriculum Subtractive bilingualism when immersion in a newlanguage environment leads to a de cit in a child s native language Bilingual education from text 0 Teach early reading skills in child s native language o If you don t speak the language recruits other to help provide instruction in native language Use bilingual software Speak English slowly and clearly Use visual aids as supplements During small group activities encourage communication in native language Encourage but don t force participation in class discussion in English 0 Work in pairs to understand textbooks or readings 0 Have students read and report about their native country 0 Create art of native countries cultures 0000 O Vygotsky emphasized the importance of society and an outline promoting learning and development Self Talk talking yourself through it From external to internal regulations lnternalization is the process of consolidating and embedding one39s own beliefs attitudes and values when it comes to moral behavior Sociocultural theory emphasized the importance of society and an outline promoting learning and development Zone of proximal development when child is best able to master a skill The experience of a learner who works successfully with the support of another and extends hisher knowledge in the process Scaffolding applying the appropriate level of assistance and fading with time Mediated learning experience discussions between individuals where one is more knowledgeable or skilled than the other The more skilled individual helps the learners make sense of an event that they are mutually experiencing Ecological systems theory any large society encompasses various layers of environment that all have signi cant impact of development Microsystem directly impacts daily life parents siblings friends neighbors Mesosystem where locations kids spend their time Schools neighborhood Religious settings Exosystem systems at work that effect daily life Norms and regulations local gov mass media parents work place Macrosystem dominate cultural beliefs and ideologies Sense of self de ned as the way a person thinks about and views his or her traits beliefs and purpose within the world Ethnic ldentity having a strong ethnic identity is correlated with academic success Risk high probability of failing to acquire minimal academic skills necessary for Success in the adult world low SES single parents low self efficacy Socioeconomic status one s general social and economic standing in society encompasses family income occupation and educational level Protective factor reduce negative outcomes feeling included and empowered in educational experiences a role model or constant source of support Resilience success despite exceptional hardship Erikson s stages through adolescence lnfancy de ning event mutual af rmation trust v mistrust Toddler de ning event terrible twos Autonomy v shame and doubt Preschool de ning event play age initiative v guilt School age de ning event learning new skills industry v inferiority Adolescence de ning event delity and devotion to friends and causes identity v role confusion Young adulthood de ning event mutually satisfying love and af liation intimacy v isolation Middle age de ning event resolves quotmidlife crisisquot generativity v stagnation Retirement de ning event wisdom re ection and a sense of ful llment integrity v despair Moral development the development of prosocial behaviors Morality general standards of right and wrong Moral development is at its heart social development but relies on social cognition and the capacity for abstract reasoning Morality develops within a certain culture so schools and families may have e their own contradicting ideas on how things should be Kohlberg s stages all of them Preconventional moral reasoning is controlled by external rewards and punishments no he could go to jail 1 Obedience and punishment orientation if you get in trouble its wrong 2 Selfinterest exchanges self interested exchanges Conventional internal standards are imposed by others maintaining the expectations and rules of ones family group or nations yes he must protect his wife 3 Good boy good girl what would please someone else 4 Respect for authority and social order what would please someone else Post conventional morality is internal not based on external standards Autonomous moral principles life is more important than money 5 Law and order follow the law 6 Human rights and social welfare morality abstract human principles foster our moral principles Induction think about what you ve done and how it will affect someone else Heteronomous morality Piagets early stages of development Rules are seen as unchangeable Intentions are not considered Autonomous morality second stage in Piaget s theory Understanding that rules can and may be modi ed Take intention into considerations not just consequences Rejected students actively disliked Neglected students people don t care about them either way Diversity in moral development range in emphasis from individuals right and fairness justice orientation to compassion for others care orientation Social loa ng if you are working in a group you put forward less effort than when working alone Group differences consistently observed differences averages among diverse groups of students There is considerable variability within groups and considerable overlap between groups Examples Languages and dialects African American English is its own dialect Talkativeness and assertiveness African American cultures are more talkative Asian cultures are more tentative Physically active Boys are temperamentally predisposed to be active Girls tend to have advantages in reading and writing After puberty boys tend to have advantage in mathematically problem solving But why Socialization cultural expectations Stereotype threat being at risk of con rming as selfcharacteristic a negative stereotype about ones groups Students who are members of academically stigmatized groups are more susceptible to teacher expectancy effects lmplicit Bias attitude or stereotypes that are by de nition not deliberate of explicit Teachers are more likely to discipline minority children or interpret their behavior as less innocent Teacher expectations teachers show more negative expectations about Latinos and African American students relative to European students Direct less positive speech and less encouragement to students of color may be due to implicit prejudices Social identities a person s sense of who they are based on their group membership Race a categorization system that groups people by distinguishable physical differences Socially constructed Ethnicity ones values beliefs and norms that are shared with a particular cultural group usually related to shared national or geographic origin Culture behaviors and belief systems of a social group students with strong ethnic identity tend to have higher academic achievement Cultural mismatch situation in which a child s home culture and the school culture hold con icting expectations for behaviors Culturally responsive teaching use of instructional strategies that build on students existing knowledge and skill and are consistent with their culturally preferred ways of learning and behaving Differentiated Instruction practice of individualizing instructional methods to align with each students existing knowledge skills and needs Individual differences diversity in abilities and characteristic among students at a particular age and within a particular gender or cultural group Intelligence theories including Spearman s g theoretica general factor in intelligence that in uences one s ability to learn and perform in a wide variety of contexts Fluid intelligence ability to acquire knowledge quickly and adapt effectively to new situations CA39ITELL Crystallized intelligence knowledge and skills accumulated from prior experiences schooling or culture CA39ITELL Multiple intelligences At least 8 independent abilities linguistic spatial musical bodily interpersonal intrapersonal naturalist GARDNER Cognitive styles way in which someone tends to think and process information typically not by choice Dispositions general inclination and desire to approach and think in a particular way Flynn Effect Average IQ scores have increased over time around the world Entity vs Incremental view of intelligence entity is focused on true ability when faced with challenged more likely to avoid the task and are more affected by stereotype threat lncremental focused on improving rather than proving more likely to increase effort to overcome hard tasks And less affected by stereotype threats
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