Making Business Work
Making Business Work COMM 1800
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Jerald Daugherty Sr.
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Jerald Daugherty Sr.
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Business Administration
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jerald Daugherty Sr. on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 1800 at University of Virginia taught by Robert Kemp in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Making Business Work in Business Administration at University of Virginia.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Chapter 7 Management 7 process used to accomplish goals through planning organizing leading and controlling people Functions of management include planning organizing leading and controlling 0 Flaming 7 set goals and standards strategies and tactics o Organizing 7 allocating resources making structure 0 Leading 7 guiding explaining clarifying giving feedback creating vision 0 Controlling 7 monitoring rewarding corrective action enforcing standards Vision 7 encompassing explanation of why and for what the organization exists Mission statement 7 outline of fundamental purposes of an organization 0 Includes organization s selfconcept company philosophy and goals longterm survival customer needs social responsibility the nature of the company s product or service Goals 7 broad longterm accomplishments to attain Objectives 7 specific shortterm statements on how to achieve goals SWOT analysis planning tool used to analyze an organization s strengths weaknesses opportunities and threats hence SWOT 0 used when company is trying to figure out goals objectives and figuring out the direction of the company Flaming process 1 Strategic planning 7 process of determining organization s goals and the policies and strategies for obtaining and using resources to achieve those goals Done by top managers 2 Tactical planning 7 identifying shortterm objectives about what is to be done who will do it and how they will do it Done by lowerlevel managers 3 Operational planning 7 Setting work standards and schedules to implement tactical objectives 4 Contingency planning 7 making backup plans in case primary plans fail Decision making 7 choosing between two or more alternatives 1 Define the situation 2 Describe and collect needed information 3 Develop alternatives 4 Develop agreement among those involved 5 Decide which alternative is best 6 Do what is indicated 7 Determine if the decision was a good one and follow up Problem solving 7 calls for quicker action than decision making and involves solving everyday problems Brainstorming 7 coming up with many solutions to a problem in a short time without censoring ideas PMI 7 listing Pluses Minuses and Implications of a solution in columns Organization chart 7 visual device that shows relationships among people and divides work shows who is accountable for what and who reports to whom Top management 7 highest level of management president key company executives Middle management 7 plant managers division heads branch managers people responsible for tactical planning and controlling Chapte Supervisory rstline management 7 managers who are directly responsible for supervising workers and evaluating their daily performance Technical skills 7 skills that involve the ability to perform tasks in a speci c discipline or department more important for rstline managers Human relations skills 7 skills that involve communication and motivation allowing managers to work through and with people equally important at all management levels Conceptual skills 7 skills that involve the ability to picture the organization as a whole and the relationship among its various parts important for top managers Staf ng 7 a management function that includes hiring motivating and retaining the best people available to complete objectives Autocratic leadership 7 leadership style that involves making decisions without consulting others Participative democratic leadership 7 leadership style that consists of managers and employees working together to make decisions Freerein leadership 7 leadership style that involves managers setting objectives and employees being relatively free to do whatever it takes to accomplish those objectives Enabling 7 giving workers the education and tools they need to make decisions key to empowering workers Knowledge management 7 nding the right information keeping the information in a readily accessible place and making the information known to everyone in the rm Controlling process 1 Establish clear standards 2 Monitor and record performance 3 Compare results against standards 4 Communicate results 5 Corrective action if needed 6 Feedback to see if standards are realistic then go back to number one EXtemal customers 7 dealers who buy products to sell to others and ultimate customers end users who buy products for their own personal use Internal customers 7 individuals and units within the rm that receive services from other individuals or units Standards must be speci c attainable and measurable r 10 Intrinsic reward 7 the personal satisfaction you feel when you perform well and complete goals Extrinsic reward 7 something given to you by someone else as recognition for good work extrinsic rewards include pay increases praise and promotions Scienti c management 7 originating from Frederick Taylor studying workers to nd the most ef cient ways of doing things and then teaching people those techniques Timemotion studies 7 also Taylor studies of which tasks must be performed to complete a job and the time needed to do each task Principle of motion economy 7 theory developed by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth that every job can be broken down into a series of elementary motions Hawthome effect 7 the tendency for people to behave differently when they know they are being studied Maslow s hierarchy of need 7 theory of motivation based on unmet human needs like Physiological needs 7 basic survival needs food water shelter Safety needs 7 feel secure at work and at home Social needs 7 feel loved accepted Esteem needs 7 recognition acknowledgment selfrespect feeling of status Selfactualization needs 7 need to develop to full potential The above hierarchy goes bottom up from number 15 Frederick Herzberg s motivators 7 from his theory of motivating factors motivators are job factors that cause employees to be productive and that give them satisfaction Frederick Herzberg s hygiene maintenance factors 7 job factors that cause dissatisfaction if missing but that do not always motivate employees if increased Job enrichment 7 motivational strategy that emphasizes motivating the worker through the job itself Job enrichment advocates value skill variety task identity task with visible outcome from beginning to end task significance autonomy and feedback to be important in affecting individual motivation and performance Job simplification is the opposite of enrichment because it takes a complicated job and simplifies it into simple steps with people at each step Job enlargement 7 a job enrichment strategy involves combining a series of tasks into a harder and more interesting assignment Job rotation 7 job enrichment strategy moving employees from one job to another Theory X Management 7 Busy very watchful management More penalties for bad work than rewards for good work Assumptions include 1 Average person dislikes work 2 Due to work disliking workers must be forced and threatened with punishment 3 Worker doesn t want responsibility therefore wants to be directed 4 Motivators are fear and money Theory Y Management 7 relaxed managerial atmosphere empowerment US trend towards this type of management Assumptions 1 People like work they work towards goals they work based on anticipated rewards people seek responsibility Ouchi s Theory Z 7 came from a miX of Japanese management with lifetime employment and other things and American management with shortterm employment and other things 1 Longterm employment Collective decision making Individual responsibility Slow evaluation and promotion I Employees need guaranteed employment and will accept this as a result 5 Implicit informal control with explicit formalized control 6 Moderately specialized career paths 7 Holistic concern for employees including family Goalsetting theory 7 setting ambitious but attainable goals can motivate workers and improve performance if the goals are accepted accompanied by feedback and facilitated by organizational conditions Elk WP 59 Management by Objectives MBO 7 system of goal setting and implementation that involves a cycle of discussion review and evaluation of objectives among top and middlelevel managers supervisors and employees Expectancy theory 7 Victor Vroom s theory that the amount of effort employees exert on a task depends on expected rewards from the outcome Reinforcement theory 7 theory that positive and negative reinforcers motivate a person to behave in certain ways Equity theory 7 idea that employees try to maintain equity between inputs and outputs compared to others in similar positions is it worth it to do a good job is it fair Teamwork built by open communication which is encouraged by 1 Create an organization culture that rewards listening 2 Train supervisors and managers to listen 3 Remove barriers to open communication 4 Actively undertake efforts to facilitate communication Chapter 11 Human resource management 7 process of determining human resource needs and then recruiting selecting developing motivating evaluating compensating and scheduling employees to achieve organizational goals Job analysis 7 study of what is done by employees who hold various job titles result in 1 Job description 7 a summary of the objectives of a job the type of work to be done the responsibilities and duties the working conditions and the relationship of the job to other functions 2 Job specifications 7 a written summary of the minimum qualifications required of workers to do a particular job Recruitment 7 the set of activities used to obtain a suf cient number of the right people at the right time Selection 7 the process of gathering information and deciding who should be hired under legal guidelines for the best interests of the individual and the organization Contingent workers 7 workers who do not have the expectation of regular fulltime employment Training and development 7 all attempts to improve productivity by increasing an employee s ability perform Training focuses on shortterm skills whereas development focuses on longterm abilities Employee orientation 7 activity that introduces new employees to the organization to fellow employees to their immediate supervisors and to the policies practices and objectives of the firm Onthejob training 7 training in which the employee immediately begins his or her tasks and learns be doing or watches others for a while shadowing and then imitates them all right at the workplace Apprentice programs 7 training programs involving a period during which a learner works alongside an experienced employee to master the skills and procedures of a craft Offthej ob training 7 training that occurs away from the workplace and consists of internal or external programs to develop any of a variety of skills or to foster personal development Online training 7 training programs in which employees take classes via the intemet Chapte Vestibule training 7 training done in schools where employees are taught on equipment similar to that used on the job Job simulation 7 the use of equipment that duplicates job conditions and tasks so that trainees can learn skills before attempting them on the job Management development 7 the process of training and educating employees to become good managers and then monitoring the progress of their managerial skills over time Networking 7 the process of establishing and maintaining contacts with key managers in one s own organization and other organizations and using those contacts to weave strong relationships that serve as informal development systems Mentor 7 an experienced employee who supervises coaches and guides lowerlevel employees by introducing them to the right people and generally being their organizational sponsor Performance appraisal 7 an evaluation in which the performance level of employees is measured against established standards to make decision about promotions compensation additional training or firing Fringe benefits 7 benefits such as sickleave pay vacation pay pension plans and health plans that represent J Jquot r im to mp1 J beyond base wages Cafeteriastyle fringe benefits 7 fringe benefits plan that allows employees to choose the benefits they want up to a certain dollar amount FleXtime plan 7 work schedule that gives employees some freedom to choose when to work as long as they work the required number of hours Core time 7 in a eXtime plan the period when all employees are expected to be at their job stations Compressed workweek 7 work schedule that allows an employee to work a full number of hours per week but in fewer days Job sharing 7 an arrangement whereby two parttime employees share one fulltime job Civil Rights Act of 1964 made Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC EEOA Act Affirmative action employment activities designed to right past wrongs by increasing opportunities for minorities and women Reverse discrimination discrimination against whites or males ADA American s with Disabilities Act ADEA 7 Age Discrimination in Employment Act 9 outlawed mandatory retirement r 12 Union 7 an employee organization that has the main goal of representing members in employeemanagement bargaining over jobrelated issues Craft union 7 organization of skilled specialists in a particular craft or trade Knights of Labor 7 the rst national labor union formed in 1869 American Federation of Labor AFL 7 an organization of craft unions that championed fundamental labor issues founded 1886 Industrial unions 7 labor organizations of unskilledsemiskilled workers in mass production industries Congress of Industrial Organizations C10 7 union organization of unskilled workers broke away from the AFL in 1935 and rejoined in 1955 Review Acts on p 325 Yellowdog contract 7 a type of contract that required employees to agree as a condition of employment not to join a union NorrisLaGuardia Act prohibited it Collective bargaining 7 process by whereby union and management representatives form a labormanagement agreement for workers Certi cation 7 formal process whereby a union is recognized by the National Labor Relations Board NLRB as the bargaining agent for a group of employees Decerti cation 7 process by which workers take away a union s right to represent them Negotiated labormanagement agreement labor contract 7 agreement that sets the tone and clari es the terms under which management and labor agree to function over a period of time Union security clause 7 provision in a negotiated labormanagement agreement that stipulates that employees who bene t from a union must either of cially join or at least pay dues to the union Closed shop agreement 7 clause in a labormanagement agreement that speci ed workers had to be members of a union before being hired outlawed by TaftHartley Union shop agreement 7 clause in a labormanagement agreement that says workers do not have to be members of a union to be hired but must agree to join the union within a prescribed time period Agency shop agreement 7 clause in labormanagement agreement that says employers may hire nonunion workers employees are not required to join the union but must pay a union fee Righttowork laws 7 legislation that gives workers the right under an open shop to join or not join a union if it is present Open shop agreement 7 agreement in righttowork states that gives workers the option to join or not join a union if one eXists in their workplace Grievance 7 a charge by employees that management is not abiding by the terms of the negotiated labormanagement agreement Shop stewards 7 union of cials who work permanently in an organization and represent employee interests on a daily basis they negotiate and resolve most grievances with supervisorylevel managers Bargaining zone 7 the range of options between the initial and nal offer that each party will consider before negotiations dissolve or reach an impasse Mediation 7 the use of a third party mediator who encourages both sides in a dispute to continue negotiating and often makes suggestions for resolving the dispute Arbitration 7 the agreement to bring in an impartial third party a single arbitrator or a panel of them to render a binding decision in a labor dispute Strike 7 union strategy in which workers refuse to go to work purpose is to further workers objectives after an impasse in collective bargaining Coolingoff period 7 when workers in a critical industry return to their jobs while the union and management continue negotiations Primary boycott 7 when a union encourages both its members and the general public not to buy the products of a rm involved in a labor dispute Secondary boycott 7 attempt by labor to convince others to stop doing business with a rm that is the subject of a primary boycott banned by TaftHartley Lockout 7 attempt by management to put pressure on unions by temporarily closing the business Injunction 7 a court order directing someone to do or refrain from doing something Strikebreakers 7 workers hired to do the jobs of striking workers until the labor dispute is resolved Givebacks 7 concessions made by union members to management gains from labor negotiations are given back to management to help employers remain competitive and thereby save jobs Chapter 13 Marketing 7 the process of planning and executing the conception pricing promotion and distribution of goods and services to facilitate exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives Marketing concept 7 a three part business philosophy 1 A customer orientation 2 A service orientation 3 A pro t orientation Customer relationship management CRM 7 the process of learning as much as possible about customers and doing everything you can to satisfy them or exceed expectations with goods and services over time Marketing mix 7 the ingredients that go into a marketing program product price place and promotion Product 7 any physical good service or idea that satisfies a want or need plus anything that would enhance the product in the eyes of consumers such as brand Test marketing 7 the process of testing products among potential users Brand name 7 a word letter or group of words or letters that differentiates one seller s goods and services from those of competitors Promotion 7 all the techniques sellers use to motivate people to buy their products or services Marketing research 7 the analysis of markets to determine opportunities and challenges and to find the information needed to make good decisions Secondary data 7 information that has already been compiled by others and published in journals and books or made available online Primary data 7 data that you gather yourself not from secondary sources like books and magazines Focus group 7 a small group of people who meet under the direction of a discussion leader to communicate their opinions about an organization its products or other given issues Environmental scanning 7 the process of identifying the factors that can affect marketing success Consumer market 7 all the individuals or households that want goods and services for personal consumption or use Business to business B2B market 7 all the individuals and organizations that want goods and services to use in producing other goods and services or to sell rent or supply goods to others Marketing segmentation 7 the process of dividing the total market into groups whose members have similar characteristics Target marketing 7 marketing directed toward those groups market segments an organization decides it can serve profitably Geographic segmentation 7 dividing the market by geographic area Demographic segmentation 7 dividing the market by age income and education level Psychographic segmentation 7 dividing the market using the group s values attitudes and interests Bene t segmentation 7 dividing the market by determining which bene ts of the product to talk about Volume or usage segmentation 7 dividing the market by usage Niche marketing 7 the process of nding small but pro table market segments and designing or nding products for them Onetoone marketing 7 developing a unique mix of goods and services for each individual customer Mass marketing 7 developing products and promotions to please large groups of people Relationship marketing 7 marketing strategy with the goal of keeping individual customers over time by offering them products that exactly meet their requirements Chapter 14 Value 7 good quality at a fair price When consumers calculate the value of a product they look at the bene ts and then subtract the cost to see if the bene ts exceed the costs Total product offer 7 everything that consumers evaluate when deciding whether to buy something also called a value package Product line 7 a group of products that are physically similar or are intended for a similar market Product mix 7 the combination of product line offered by a manufacturer Product differentiation 7 the creation of real or perceived product differences Convenience goods and services 7 products that the consumer wants to purchase frequently and with a minimum of effort Shopping goods and services 7 those products that the consumer buys only after comparing value quality price and style from a variety of sellers Specialty goods and services 7 consumer products with unique characteristics and brand identity Because these products are perceived as having no reasonable substitute the consumer pts forth a special effort to purchase them Unsought goods and services 7 products that consumers are unaware of haven t necessarily thought of buying or nd that they need to solve an unexpected problem Industrial goods 7 products used in the production of other goods Sometimes called business goods or B2B goods Brand 7 a name symbol or design or combination thereof that identi es the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and distinguishes them from the goods and services of competitors Trademark 7 a brand that has been given exclusive legal protection for both the brand name and the pictorial design Manufacturers brand names 7 the brand names of manufacturers that distribute products nationally Dealer privatelabel brands 7 products that don t carry the manufacturer s name but carry a distributor or retailer s name instead Generic goods 7 nonbranded products that usually sell at a sizable discount compared to national or privatelabel brands Knockoff brands 7 illegal copies of national brandname goods Brand equity 7 the combination of factors such as awareness loyalty perceived quality images and emotions that people associate with a given brand name Brand loyalty 7 the degree to which customers are satis ed like the brand and are committed to further purchase Brand awareness 7 how quickly or easily a given brand name comes to mind when a product category is mentioned Brand association 7 the linking of a brand to other favorable images Brand manager 7 a manager who has direct responsibility for one brand or one product line called a product manager in some rms Product screening 7 a process designed to reduce the number of newproduct ideas being worked on at any time Product analysis 7 making cost estimates and sales forecasts to get a feeling for profitability of newproduct ideas Concept testing 7 taking a product idea to consumers to test their reactions Commercialization 7 promoting a product to distributors and retailers to get wide distribution and developing strong advertising and sales campaigns to generate and maintain interest in the product among distributors and consumers Product life cycle 7 a theoretical model of what happens to sales and profits for a product class over time Cost based pricing 7 price based on cost ofproducing good Target costing 7 designing a product so that it satisfies customers and meets the profit margins desired by the firm used for demandbased pricing Competitionbased pricing 7 a pricing strategy based on what all the other competitors are doing The price can be set at above or below competitors prices Price leadership 7 procedure by which one or more dominant firms set the pricing practices that all competitors in an industry follow Breakeven analysis 7 the process used to determine profitability at various levels of sales Breakeven point BEP total fixed cost FC price of one unit P 7 Variable Cost VC of one unit FCPVC Total fixed costs 7 all the expenditures that remain the same no matter how many products are made or sold Variable costs 7 costs that change according to the level of production Skimming price strategy 7 strategy in which a new product is priced high to make optimum profit while there s little competition Penetration strategy 7 strategy in which a product is priced low to attract many customers and discourage competition Everyday low pricing EDLP 7 setting prices lower than competitors and then not having any special sales Highlow pricing strategy 7 setting prices that higher than EDLP stores but having many special sales where the prices are lower than competitors Bundling 7 grouping two or more products together and pricing them as a unit Psychological pricing 7 pricing goods and services at price points that make the product appear less expensive than it is Chapter 15 Marketing intermediaries 7 organizations that assist in moving goods and services from producers to industrial and consumer users Channel of distribution 7 a whole set of marketing intermediaries such as wholesalers and retailers that join together to transport and store goods in their path or channel from producers to consumers Agentsbrokers 7 marketing intermediaries who bring buyers and sellers together and assist in negotiating an exchange but don t take title to the goods Wholesaler 7 a marketing intermediary that sells to other organizations increases exchange efficiency Retailer 7 an organization that sells to ultimate consumers Utility 7 in economics the wantsatisfying ability or value that organizations add to goods or services when the products are made more useful or accessible to consumers than they were before Time utility 7 adding value to products by making them available when they re needed Place utility 7 adding value to products by having them where people want them Possession utility 7 doing whatever is necessary to transfer ownership from one party to another including providing credit delivery installation guarantees and followup service Information utility 7 adding value to products by opening twoway ows of information between marketing participants Service utility 7 adding value by providing fast friendly service during and after the sale and by teaching customers how to best use products over time Merchant wholesalers 7 independently owned firms that take title to own the goods they handle Rack jobbers 7 wholesalers that furnish racks or shelves full of merchandise to retailers display products and sell on consignment Cashandcarry wholesalers 7 wholesalers that serve mostly smaller retailers with a limited assortment of products Drop shippers 7 wholesalers that solicit orders from retailers and other wholesalers and have the merchandise shipped directly from a producer to a buyer no product handling Intensive distribution 7 distribution that puts products into as many retail outlets as possible Selective distribution 7 distribution that sends products to only a preferred group of retailers in an area Exclusive distribution 7 distribution that sends products to only one retail outlet in a given geographic area Electronic retailing 7 selling goods and services to ultimate customers over the intemet Telemarketing 7 the sale of goods and services by telephone Direct selling 7 selling to consumers in their homes or where they work Direct marketing 7 any activity that directly links manufacturers or intermediaries with the ultimate consumer Corporate distribution system 7 a distribution system in which all of the organizations in the channel of distribution are owned by one firm Contractual distribution system 7 a distribution system in which members are bound to r through Administered distribution system 7 a distribution system in which producers manage all of the marketing functions at the retail level Chapte Supply chain or value chain 7 the sequence of linked activities that must be performed by various organizations to move goods from the sources of raw materials to ultimate consumers Supplychain management 7 the process of managing the movement of raw materials parts work in progress nished goods and related information through all the organizations involved in the supply chain managing the return of such goods if necessary and recycling materials when appropriate Logistics 7 the marketing activity that involves planning implementing and controlling the physical ow of materials nal goods and related information from points of origin to points of consumption to meet customer requirements at a profit Inbound logistics 7 the area of logistics that involves bringing raw materials packaging other goods and services and information from suppliers to producers Materials handling 7 the movement of goods within a warehouse from warehouses to the factory oor and from the factory oor to various workstations Outbound logistics 7 the area of logistics that involves managing the ow of finished products and information to business buyers and ultimate consumers Reverse logistics 7 the area of logistics that involves bringing goods back to the manufacturer because of defects or for recycling materials Freight forwarder 7 an organization that puts many small shipments together to create a single large shipment that can be transported costeffectively to the final destination Intermodal shipping 7 the use of multiple modes of transportation to complete a single longdistance movement of freight r 16 Promotion 7 an effort by marketers to inform and remind people in the target market about products and to persuade them to participate in an exchange Promotion mix 7 the combination of promotional tools an organization uses Integrated marketing communication IMC 7 technique that combines all the promotional tools into one comprehensive unified promotional strategy Advertising 7 paid nonpersonal communication through various media by organizations and individuals who are in some way identified in the advertising message Product placement 7 putting products into TV shows and movies where they will be seen Infomercial 7 a fulllength TV program devoted exclusively to promoting goods or services Interactive promotion 7 promotion process that allows marketers to go beyond a monologue where sellers try to persuade buyers to buy things to a dialogue in which buyers and sellers work together to create mutually beneficial exchange relationships Personal selling 7 the facetoface presentation and promotion of goods and services Prospecting 7 researching potential buyers and choosing those most likely to buy Qualifying 7 in the selling process making sure that people have a need for the product the authority to buy and the willingness to listen to a sales message Prospect 7 a person with the means to buy a product the authority to buy and the willingness to listen to a sales message Trial close 7 a step in the selling process that consists of a question or statement that moves the selling process toward the actual close Public relations PR 7 the management function that evaluates public attitudes changes policies and procedures in response to the public s requests and executes a program of action and information to earn public understanding and acceptance Publicity 7 any information about an individual product or organization that s distributed to the public through the media and that s not paid for or controlled by the seller Sales promotion 7 the promotional tool that stimulates consumer purchasing and dealer interest by means of shortterm activities Sampling 7 a promotional tool in which a company lets consumers have a small sample of a product for no charge Wordofmouth promotion 7 a promotional tool that involves people telling other people about products they ve purchased Viral marketing 7 the term now used to describe everything from paying people to say positive things on the intemet to setting up multilevel selling schemes whereby consumers get commissions for directing friends to specific web sites Blog 7 an online diary web log that looks like a web page but is easier to create and update by posting text photos or links to other sites Podcasting 7 a means of distributing audio and video programs via the intemet that lets users subscribe to a number of files also known as feeds and then hear or view the material at the time they choose Push strategy 7 promotional strategy in which the producer uses advertising personal selling sales promotion and all other promotional tools to convince wholesalers and retailers to stock and sell merchandise Pull strategy 7 promotional strategy in which heavy advertising and sales promotion efforts are directed toward consumers so that they ll request the products from retailers Bonus Chapter B Data processing DP 7 name for business technology in the 1970s included technology that supported an existing business and was primarily used to improve the ow of financial information Information systems IS 7 technology that helps companies do business includes such tools as ATMs and voice mail Information technology IT 7 technology that helps companies change business by allowing them to use new methods Virtualization 7 accessibility through technology that allows business to be conducted independent of location Business intelligence BI 7 any of a variety of software applications that analyze an organization s raw data and take out useful insights from it Intranet 7 a companywide network closed to public access that uses internettype technology Extranet 7 a semiprivate network that uses intemet technology and allows more than one company to access the same information or allows people on different servers to collaborate Virtual private network VPN 7 a private data network that creates secure connections or tunnels over regular intemet lines Intemet2 7 the private intemet system that links government supercomputer centers and a select group of universities it runs much faster than the public infrastructure and supports heavyduty applications Network computing system clientserver computing 7 computer systems that allow personal computers clients to obtain needed information from huge databases in a central computer the server Shareware 7 software that is copyrighted but distributed to potential customers free of charge Public domain software freeware 7 software that is free for the taking Cookies 7 pieces of information such as registration data or user preferences sent by a web site over the intemet to a web browser that the browser software is expected to save and send back to the server whenever the user returns to that website
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