Art History final exam
Art History final exam ARTH1001
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Drake Lundstrom on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARTH1001 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Erin Hackmann in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 204 views. For similar materials see History of Art 1 in Art History at The University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 03/16/16
Final Exam study guide: Section 1: Vocabulary review Ambulatory: The passageway around the apse in a church, or around the central place in a centrally planned building Apse: A large semicircular or polygonal recess on an end wall of a building. Often used to hold relics or altars. Arcade: A series of arches carried by columns or piers and supporting a common wall or lintel. Bar tracery: slender, curving bars are placed in a stained glass window to support and divide it, creating a flowery feel. Bay: A unit of space surrounded and defined by columns, piers, walls, or other architectural elements. Clerestory: The topmost zone of a wall with windows. Used to open up a building and allow more natural light into a building. Codex: A very old form of book or manuscript, often ornamented, held together by stitching or other bindings. Compound pier: A pier that has several engaged shafts against its surface, used often in Romanesque and Gothic structures. Crossing: The area of a cross shaped church where the 4 arms meet. Cruciform: Anything cross shaped, like the cross shaped plan of a church Fleurs-de-lis: A stylized symbol and a French symbol of royalty. Example: Flying buttress: An arched bridge over an aisle roof. Example: Illumination: A painting on paper or parchment used as an illustration or decoration. Jamb: In architecture, the vertical element on both sides of a wall that supports an arch of lintel. Lancet window: A tall, thin window with a sharply pointed arch on top. Mandorla: Light surrounded or coming off of a sacred figure. Millefiori: A thousand flowers, a glassmaking technique for creating a multicolored glass window Nave: The central part of a church. Two or three stories high and usually flanked by aisles. Plate tracery: a way to create a stained glass design that involves placing stained glass in hole cut in the wall. Quatrefoil: A four lobed decorative pattern common in Gothic art and architecture Reliquary/relic: A super fancy container used as a repository for sacred relics/a worshiped object associated with a holy figure, such as a saint. Rose window: A round window often filled with stained glass, often found in large gothic churches Side aisle:One of the corridors parallel to the nave of a church or basilica Transept: The crossing arms of the cross shaped churches. Transverse arch: An arch that connects the wall piers on both sides of an interior space Trefoil: An ornamental design made up of three rounded lobes placed next to each other. Tripartite: A architectural design with three vertical levels. Trumeau: A column, pier, or post found at the center of a large portal or doorway, supporting the lintel Tympanum: In medieval and later architecture, the area over a door enclosed by and arch and a lintel Section 2: Art piece review Hinged Clasp from the Sutton Hoo Burial Ship: Early medieval art, Scandinavian Taken from a 90 foot long burial ship Example of Millifiori Very valuable Has geometric patterns and animal patterns, like the snakes and two boars South Cross: Early Medieval, Irish The cross is VERY large Crosses had specific meaning and associates with churches or saints Irish crosses have the circle, Latin ones don’t. Gripping Beasts, detail of Oseberg Ship: Early Medieval Burial ship for a queen and her servant The ship had been looted of treasure before it was found, but the ship itself is very valuable and the whole ship is covered in carvings and interlaced ornaments. Palace Chapel of Charlemagne: 792-805 Early Medieval Charlemagne’s rein was seen as a continuation of the early holy roman empire under Constantine This castle complex shows the mix of Roman, Christian, and other styles. The chapel is a house of worship, with relics It was turned into a mausoleum after his death Crucifixion with Angels and Mourning Figures, Lindau Gospels: Early Medieval art Front cover of one of the gospels The cover is covered in gold, jewels, and other valuable materials. Made with repousse, hammering the gold from behind to make figures The jewels are raised to allow light to filter underneath, adding a glow Example of a Codex Nave, Church of St. Cyriakus: Early Medieval art Nave flanked by two side aisles Example of Tripartite architecture, with a nave arcade, gallery, and clerestory There is a rhythmic effect common in this art period There are rectangular piers alternating with round columns Very characteristic of Romanesque architecture Doors of Bishop Bernward, Abbey church of St. Michael: 1015 Early Medieval art Built with the lost wax bronze casting process Gargantuan architecture Largest single cast bronze piece since antiquity Outlines the core values of Christianity Old testament on left, new on right, read staring at the top left and going counterclockwise. Transept, Cathedral of St. James, Santiago de Compostela: 1078-1122, Spain Romanesque Art Major place for pilgrimage The extra transept was added to help with pilgrimage traffic Allowed visitors to not interrupt the service Has two stories and rhythmic arches Plan of Cathedral of St. James, Santiago de Compostela: Romanesque Art A typical cruciform building, with a larger cross section than usual. Many apse to hold relics for people to pilgrimage to and visit Memorize this Reliquary Statue of Sainte Foy: Romanesque Art Relic was stolen, and it was claimed that the saint asked for it to happen Jewels were constantly added to increase the splendor Cathedral Complex: Pisa Romanesque Art Every part was built in a different time period Every part of the complex was huge and monumental Lots of marble Uses some classical themes Durham Cathedral: England Romanesque art A very fortified complex. The building has been altered many times, with the windows added later. Many ribbed groin vaults Plan of Durham Cathedral: Romanesque art Memorize this Trumeau, South Portal, Priory Church of Saint-Pierre, Moissac: France Romanesque art A central supporting pillar of a doorway There are crisscrossing lions and the prophet Jeremiah is twisted Has some Islamic artistic ideas Gislebertus, tympanum of west portal, Cathedral of Saint-Lazare: France Romanesque art Either created or commissioned by a Gilbert Shows end of the world and people judged for afterlife Gilbert=Gislebertus The Bayeux Embroidery: 1066-1082 Romanesque art Depicts Normand battle of Hastings Tells a story It is an embroidery The sighting of Halley’s comet is shown Hildegard von Bingen, The Universe: Romanesque Art Hildegard was a woman who had various visions of what the world looked like in the eyes of god She wrote books, made medicine, and so on. This was her depiction of what the universe looks like. Has to do with the fall of man from the garden of eden and birth of chaos She also writes music Ambulatory and apse chapels of the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis: 1140-1144 France Gothic Art The first gothic building Burial place for saint and French kings. Used ribbed groin vaulting to add more free space The ribs are filled in with webbing to create a lighter roof, allowing many more windows, since there is less stress on the walls. Light is very important and religious Plan of the choir of the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis: France Gothic art Memorize this Schematic drawing of Chartres Cathedral: Gothic art A large gothic church built with the latin cross plan (cruciform) The main entrance is on the West Has flying buttresses, and many other typical gothic architectural pieces. West façade, Chartres Cathedral: France Gothic art The three doors called the royal portal only used or ceremonies The doors are surrounded by sculpted figures of Christ and the Apostles Each portal is dedicated to a different aspect of the bible. Detail, Royal portal, west façade, Chartres Cathedral: France Gothic Art Kings, queens, prophets Shows the theocratic nature of France A little elongated, but mostly naturalistic The figures seem to reach out to each other. Nave, Chartres Cathedral: France Gothic Art The saint allowed the church to burn to have a bigger built Tripartite design, with a clerestory on the top level More stained glass survived than normal Pointed arches and ribbed groin vaults Plan, Chartres Cathedral: France Gothic art Memorize this Rose window and lancets, north transept, Chartres Cathedral: France Gothic art Some people opposed the high taxes used to build the cathedral More stained glass survived than normal, since towns people protected the windows by hiding them at home A rose window made with plate tracery Commisioned either by the king or his mother, you can see this because of the many Fleurs-de- lis, which are symbols of royalty Plan, Cathedral of Notre-Dame: Reims, France Gothic art Memorize This The extra large nave is used for coronations West façade, Cathedral of Notre-Dame: Reims, France Gothic art Coronation church of the kings of France Sculptural decoration covering the whole front More wide and sturdy than tall and pointy Mary is central rather than christ West façade, central portal, right side, Reims Cathedral, France: Annunciation (left pair) c. 1240- 1250, Visitation (right pair) c. 1230 Gothic art The left and right figures show artistic differences Lots of naturalism and ancient influences There are at least 3 artist making the sculptures with very different styles Nave, Reims Cathedral: France Gothic art Huge rose window, Very vertical, draws the eyes up Tripartite Extra large nave for coronation Upper chapel, the Sainte-Chapelle: Paris Gothic art Lots of gold Very radient art LOTS of stained glass, cost more than the building Very thin engaged columns Largest stained glass up till that point in history Queen Blanche of Castile and King Louis IX: Gothic art Illuminated dedication page of a bible Shows king Louis IX and his mother Illuminators worked in workshops with large number of people working together to create a manuscript Salisbury Cathedral: England Gothic art It is larger and more spread out than French cathederals, since English churches are rural and French ones are urban Plan of Salisbury Cathedral: Gothic art Memorize this The east end is squared off instead of rounded off Nave of Salisbury Cathedral: Gothic art This is more horizontal than vertical There are less clerestories There is a divide where the cumlns stop and turn into a different design that makes the eye look to the front Less stained glass Different types of stone Nicola Pisano, Annunciation, Nativity, and Adoration of the Shepherds, detail of pulpit: 1260 Gothic art Birth of Jesus Roman and Etruscan influences.
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