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What is ambulatory?

What is ambulatory?


Department: History
Course: History of Art 1
Professor: Erin hackmann
Term: Spring 2016
Cost: 50
Name: Art History final exam
Description: Medieval architecture exam review guide
Uploaded: 03/16/2016
10 Pages 15 Views 8 Unlocks

Final Exam study guide:

What is ambulatory?

Section 1: Vocabulary review

∙ Ambulatory: The passageway around the apse in a church, or around the central place in a  centrally planned building

∙ Apse: A large semicircular or polygonal recess on an end wall of a building. Often used to hold  relics or altars.

∙ Arcade: A series of arches carried by columns or piers and supporting a common wall or lintel.  ∙ Bar tracery: slender, curving bars are placed in a stained glass window to support and divide it,  creating a flowery feel.

∙ Bay: A unit of space surrounded and defined by columns, piers, walls, or other architectural  elements.

∙ Clerestory: The topmost zone of a wall with windows. Used to open up a building and allow  more natural light into a building.

What is arcade?

∙ Codex: A very old form of book or manuscript, often ornamented, held together by stitching or  other bindings.  

∙ Compound pier: A pier that has several engaged shafts against its surface, used often in  Romanesque and Gothic structures.

∙ Crossing: The area of a cross shaped church where the 4 arms meet.

∙ Cruciform: Anything cross shaped, like the cross shaped plan of a church

∙ Fleurs-de-lis: A stylized symbol and a French symbol of royalty. Example:  

What is bar tracery?

If you want to learn more check out What is marginal social cost?

∙ Flying buttress: An arched bridge over an aisle roof. Example:  ∙ Illumination: A painting on paper or parchment used as an illustration or decoration. ∙ Jamb: In architecture, the vertical element on both sides of a wall that supports an arch of lintel. ∙ Lancet window: A tall, thin window with a sharply pointed arch on top.

∙ Mandorla: Light surrounded or coming off of a sacred figure. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the triangular theory of love?

∙ Millefiori: A thousand flowers, a glassmaking technique for creating a multicolored glass  window

∙ Nave: The central part of a church. Two or three stories high and usually flanked by aisles. ∙ Plate tracery: a way to create a stained glass design that involves placing stained glass in hole  cut in the wall.

∙ Quatrefoil: A four lobed decorative pattern common in Gothic art and architecture ∙ Reliquary/relic: A super fancy container used as a repository for sacred relics/a worshiped  object associated with a holy figure, such as a saint.

∙ Rose window: A round window often filled with stained glass, often found in large gothic  churches

∙ Side aisle: One of the corridors parallel to the nave of a church or basilica 

∙ Transept: The crossing arms of the cross shaped churches.

∙ Transverse arch: An arch that connects the wall piers on both sides of an interior space ∙ Trefoil: An ornamental design made up of three rounded lobes placed next to each other. ∙ Tripartite: A architectural design with three vertical levels.  

∙ Trumeau: A column, pier, or post found at the center of a large portal or doorway, supporting  the lintel We also discuss several other topics like What is episodic memory?

∙ Tympanum: In medieval and later architecture, the area over a door enclosed by and arch and a  lintel

Section 2: Art piece review

Hinged Clasp from the Sutton Hoo Burial Ship: ∙ Early medieval art, Scandinavian

∙ Taken from a 90 foot long burial ship

∙ Example of Millifiori

∙ Very valuable

∙ Has geometric patterns and animal patterns, like  the snakes and two boars

South Cross:

∙ Early Medieval, Irish

∙ The cross is VERY large

∙ Crosses had specific meaning and associates with  churches or saints

∙ Irish crosses have the circle, Latin ones don’t.

If you want to learn more check out How do you reduce poverty?

Gripping Beasts, detail of Oseberg Ship:

∙ Early Medieval

∙ Burial ship for a queen and her servant

∙ The ship had been looted of treasure before it  was found, but the ship itself is very valuable and  the whole ship is covered in carvings and  

interlaced ornaments.

Palace Chapel of Charlemagne: 792-805 

∙ Early Medieval

∙ Charlemagne’s rein was seen as a continuation of  the early holy roman empire under Constantine ∙ This castle complex shows the mix of Roman,  Christian, and other styles.

∙ The chapel is a house of worship, with relics ∙ It was turned into a mausoleum after his death

Crucifixion with Angels and Mourning Figures, Lindau  Gospels:

∙ Early Medieval art

∙ Front cover of one of the gospels

∙ The cover is covered in gold, jewels, and other  valuable materials.

∙ Made with repousse, hammering the gold from  behind to make figures

∙ The jewels are raised to allow light to filter  underneath, adding a glow

∙ Example of a Codex

Nave, Church of St. Cyriakus:  

∙ Early Medieval art

∙ Nave flanked by two side aisles

∙ Example of Tripartite architecture, with a nave  arcade, gallery, and clerestory

∙ There is a rhythmic effect common in this art  period

∙ There are rectangular piers alternating with  round columns

∙ Very characteristic of Romanesque architecture

We also discuss several other topics like Proto­ language doesn’t have syntax, and only have words for concrete concepts. has a simple, what?

Doors of Bishop Bernward, Abbey church of St. Michael:  1015 

∙ Early Medieval art

∙ Built with the lost wax bronze casting process ∙ Gargantuan architecture

∙ Largest single cast bronze piece since antiquity ∙ Outlines the core values of Christianity

∙ Old testament on left, new on right, read staring  at the top left and going counterclockwise.

Transept, Cathedral of St. James, Santiago de  Compostela: 1078-1122, Spain

∙ Romanesque Art

∙ Major place for pilgrimage

∙ The extra transept was added to help with  pilgrimage traffic

∙ Allowed visitors to not interrupt the service ∙ Has two stories and rhythmic arches

Plan of Cathedral of St. James, Santiago de Compostela: ∙ Romanesque Art

∙ A typical cruciform building, with a larger cross  section than usual.  

∙ Many apse to hold relics for people to pilgrimage  to and visit

∙ Memorize this

Reliquary Statue of Sainte Foy: 

∙ Romanesque Art

∙ Relic was stolen, and it was claimed that the saint  asked for it to happen

∙ Jewels were constantly added to increase the  splendor

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Cathedral Complex: Pisa

∙ Romanesque Art

∙ Every part was built in a different time period ∙ Every part of the complex was huge and  


∙ Lots of marble

∙ Uses some classical themes

Durham Cathedral: England

∙ Romanesque art

∙ A very fortified complex.

∙ The building has been altered many times, with  the windows added later.

∙ Many ribbed groin vaults

Plan of Durham Cathedral:

∙ Romanesque art

∙ Memorize this

Trumeau, South Portal, Priory Church of Saint-Pierre,  Moissac: France

∙ Romanesque art

∙ A central supporting pillar of a doorway

∙ There are crisscrossing lions and the prophet  Jeremiah is twisted

∙ Has some Islamic artistic ideas

Gislebertus, tympanum of west portal, Cathedral of  Saint-Lazare: France

∙ Romanesque art

∙ Either created or commissioned by a Gilbert ∙ Shows end of the world and people judged for  afterlife

∙ Gilbert=Gislebertus

The Bayeux Embroidery: 1066-1082 

∙ Romanesque art

∙ Depicts Normand battle of Hastings  

∙ Tells a story  

∙ It is an embroidery

∙ The sighting of Halley’s comet is shown

Hildegard von Bingen, The Universe:  

∙ Romanesque Art

∙ Hildegard was a woman who had various visions  of what the world looked like in the eyes of god ∙ She wrote books, made medicine, and so on. ∙ This was her depiction of what the universe looks  like.

∙ Has to do with the fall of man from the garden of  eden and birth of chaos

∙ She also writes music

Ambulatory and apse chapels of the Abbey Church of  Saint-Denis: 1140-1144 France

∙ Gothic Art

∙ The first gothic building

∙ Burial place for saint and French kings.  

∙ Used ribbed groin vaulting to add more free  space

∙ The ribs are filled in with webbing to create a  lighter roof, allowing many more windows, since  there is less stress on the walls.  

∙ Light is very important and religious

Plan of the choir of the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis:  France

∙ Gothic art

∙ Memorize this

Schematic drawing of Chartres Cathedral:

∙ Gothic art

∙ A large gothic church built with the latin cross  plan (cruciform)

∙ The main entrance is on the West

∙ Has flying buttresses, and many other typical  gothic architectural pieces.

West façade, Chartres Cathedral: France

∙ Gothic art

∙ The three doors called the royal portal only used  or ceremonies

∙ The doors are surrounded by sculpted figures of  Christ and the Apostles

∙ Each portal is dedicated to a different aspect of  the bible.

Detail, Royal portal, west façade, Chartres Cathedral:  France

∙ Gothic Art

∙ Kings, queens, prophets

∙ Shows the theocratic nature of France

∙ A little elongated, but mostly naturalistic

∙ The figures seem to reach out to each other.

Nave, Chartres Cathedral: France

∙ Gothic Art

∙ The saint allowed the church to burn to have a  bigger built

∙ Tripartite design, with a clerestory on the top  level

∙ More stained glass survived than normal

∙ Pointed arches and ribbed groin vaults

Plan, Chartres Cathedral: France

∙ Gothic art

∙ Memorize this

Rose window and lancets, north transept, Chartres  Cathedral: France

∙ Gothic art

∙ Some people opposed the high taxes used to  build the cathedral

∙ More stained glass survived than normal, since  towns people protected the windows by hiding  them at home

∙ A rose window made with plate tracery

∙ Commisioned either by the king or his mother,  you can see this because of the many Fleurs-de lis, which are symbols of royalty

Plan, Cathedral of Notre-Dame: Reims, France ∙ Gothic art

∙ Memorize This

∙ The extra large nave is used for coronations

West façade, Cathedral of Notre-Dame: Reims, France ∙ Gothic art

∙ Coronation church of the kings of France

∙ Sculptural decoration covering the whole front ∙ More wide and sturdy than tall and pointy ∙ Mary is central rather than christ

West façade, central portal, right side, Reims Cathedral,  France: Annunciation (left pair) c. 1240- 1250, Visitation  (right pair) c. 1230 

∙ Gothic art

∙ The left and right figures show artistic differences ∙ Lots of naturalism and ancient influences

∙ There are at least 3 artist making the sculptures  with very different styles

Nave, Reims Cathedral: France

∙ Gothic art

∙ Huge rose window,  

∙ Very vertical, draws the eyes up

∙ Tripartite

∙ Extra large nave for coronation

Upper chapel, the Sainte-Chapelle: Paris

∙ Gothic art

∙ Lots of gold

∙ Very radient art

∙ LOTS of stained glass, cost more than the building ∙ Very thin engaged columns

∙ Largest stained glass up till that point in history

Queen Blanche of Castile and King Louis IX:

∙ Gothic art  

∙ Illuminated dedication page of a bible

∙ Shows king Louis IX and his mother

∙ Illuminators worked in workshops with large  number of people working together to create a  manuscript

Salisbury Cathedral: England

∙ Gothic art

∙ It is larger and more spread out than French  cathederals, since English churches are rural and  French ones are urban

Plan of Salisbury Cathedral:  

∙ Gothic art

∙ Memorize this

∙ The east end is squared off instead of rounded off

Nave of Salisbury Cathedral:

∙ Gothic art

∙ This is more horizontal than vertical

∙ There are less clerestories

∙ There is a divide where the cumlns stop and turn  into a different design that makes the eye look to  the front

∙ Less stained glass

∙ Different types of stone

Nicola Pisano, Annunciation, Nativity, and Adoration of  the Shepherds, detail of pulpit: 1260 

∙ Gothic art

∙ Birth of Jesus

∙ Roman and Etruscan influences.

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