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# Exam 1 Study Guide CHM1045

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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sara Merkle on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHM1045 at Florida State University taught by Robert Cameron in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 274 views. For similar materials see Chemistry in Chemistry at Florida State University.

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Date Created: 09/21/15

CHM1045 Exam 1 Study Guide Exam date September 25th 2015 Dr Robert Cameron Chapter One Terms A law such as Newton s laws of motion is one that describes a relationship between two certain factors that will always be true under the same conditions For instance force will always equal mass times acceleration A theory is a principle that explains facts or laws related to it These are constantly being tested and if one is disproved it must be retested and modified or discarded entirely Matter is anything and everything that we may come in contact with By definition it is anything that occupies space and has massquot A substance is a form of matter that has definite and distinct composition and properties Ex Water ammonia sugar salt gold and oxygen Mixtures are combinations of two or more substances where the substances keep their individual identities Ex Air soft drinks milk and cement Homogenous mixtures are ones that are the same no matter what sample of the mixture you take ie sugar water Heterogeneous mixtures are ones that may change dependent on the sample you take ie mixing iron shavings with sand Elements cannot be separated by chemical or physical means Physical properties are those that can be observed without changing the identity substance Ex Color shape melting and boiling point Chemical properties involve changing a chemical or chemical Extensive properties are those that are measured dependent of the amount of the substance that you have for example mass Intensive properties are those that can be measured no matter how much stuf quot you have for example density d 1 Please see tables 12 and 13 in book or my first set of notes on Study Soup to see SI base units and prefixes Converting Temperature Use the following formulas 5 F 2 C 9 3 9 F Em 32 K c 27313 Practice Problems 1 Convert 57 F to Celsius 2 Convert 106 0C to Fahrenheit 3 Convert 32 C to Kelvin Significant Digit SD Rules Zeros are not significant unless they are between significant digits Digits preceding or following significant digits are considered placeholders since there is no significant value for those places FOR EXAMPLE 23000 only has 2 significant digits the 2 and the 3 The following zeros only indicate that we are dealing with a large number For numbers greater than one any zeros following the decimal point are significant For numbers less than one the only significant zeros are those that fall at the end of the number FOR EXAMPLE 20640 has five significant digits while 030 only has two significant digits For addition and subtraction the solution must have an equal amount of digits to the right of the decimal point as that number with the least amount of digits to the decimal point FOR EXAMPLE adding 04 and 035 would round to 08 due to there only being one digit to the right of the decimal in 04 In multiplying or dividing the number of significant figures in the solution must be equal to that of the number with the least amount of significant digits FOR EXAMPLE 04035 would equal 01 because of the single significant digit in 04 Constants and counted numbers are considered to have infinite SD s Practice Problems How many significant digits are in the following EanSNNtquot 00047 100 34 x 105 54060 00940 Dimensional Analysis 1 in 254 cm 1 cm3 1 mL 1 lb 4563 g Used to convert between prefixes and between English measurement and metric measurement amongst other things desired unit invertmm I 7 dcsnrcd unit g1 ft1 lf photo from httpconnectmheducationcomconnecthmEBookdosetTabsectionTabs So if we were to convert 145 inches to meters it would look something like this 254 cm 1 m 14 39gtlt x 5m 1m 100cm 254 1 m 14 39gtlt x 5m 1m 1006144 Now multiply through and your units will be meters 145 in 0355 m Notice the amount of significant digits Please see link for any other questions regarding dimensional analysis Practice problems Convert 30 X 103 mg to kg Convert 17 miles to meters Convert 8 mL to m3 Big ideas to focus on Significant digits and dimensional analysis as you will see these a lot moving forward Answer sheet chapter one Converting temperature 1 14 C 2 223 F 3 240 K Significant digits SIMPP UV wPNUON Dimensional Analysis 1 30 x 10393 2 2700 3 8 x 10396 Chapter two Dalton s atomic theory All elements are composed of small particles called atoms All atoms of an element are identical and all atoms of different elements are different Compounds have atoms of more than one element where the ratio present is either an integer or a fraction A chemical reaction involves the separation combination or rearrangement of atoms it does not create nor destroy atoms The law of definite proportions states that elements form in defined proportions 1 Thomson was responsible for deriving the chargetomass ration and the plum pudding model He essentially changed the way the atom was viewed entirely RA Milikan preformed the oil drop experiment and discovered that electrons all have an equal charge Rutherford s scatter experiment ended in the conclusion of today s modern view of the atom Protons determine the element and the chemical identity Neutrons are proton gluequot and are half of the mass of the nucleus Electrons do chemistryquot in the sense that they interact with electrons of other elements Isotopes Isotopes are the elements that have the same atomic number but different mass numbers ie 12C 13C 14C Please see Dr Cameron s lecture notes for rules on nomenclature They were taught in class on September 11 2015 Some great sites for nomenclature practice httpwwwuscaeduchemistrygenchemnomtsthtm httpwwwpafacultynetbiologykeithkr graph siteionic nomenclature pageh t httpsquizletcomsubjectnomenclaturepractice Chapter three Atomic mass is the mass of the atom in atomic mass units amu Atomic mass unit is a mass exactly equal to one twelfth the mass of one carbon 12 atom The atomic number lies under the element s symbol on the periodic table carbon s atomic mass is 1201 roughly Since atoms are so small it is virtually impossible to measure them in any known system of measurement And so the mole was born The mole is the number of things in this case atoms that a substance contains much like there are 12 eggs in a dozen The conversion factor Avogadro s number is NA 6022 x 1023 The molar mass can be defined as the mass in grams of one mole of a substance the molar mass of carbon is 12 Given this information you can figure out the mass of one single atom in grams 12 carbon 12 g 1993X1023g 602 2 X 1 023 Mass of quotI A Number of moles quotNA Number of atoms clement m m of element 39n 39 NINA of element N httpconnectmheducationcomconnecthmEBookdosetTabsectionTabs To obtain molar masses of compounds simply add the molar masses of the different elements For example to find the molar mass of water add the molar mass of oxygen to the molar mass to 2hydrogen 2 mass of H mass of O 210 160 180 To calculate the percent composition divide the molar mass of the element by the molar mass of the compound and then multiply by 100 To find the percent of oxygen in H20 16390 x1000 88 90 180 0 39 0 Chemical equations show what is happening during a chemical reaction using chemical symbols FOR EXAMPLE H2 02 H20 Where the plus means quotreacts withquot and the arrow means quotto yieldquot The equation must be balanced in the sense that the charges of the ions but be equal to 0 Make sure that the number of each type of atoms is equal on both sides of the equation In this reaction the hydrogen and the oxygen are considered reactants and the water yielded is considered the product Stoichiometry is the quantitative study of reactants and products in a chemical reaction A limiting reagent is the reagent or reactant is the one that is used up first in a reaction Please see blackboard for practice problems involving stoichiometry Important concepts Balancing reactions nomenclature and stoichiometry Chemistry will build on all of these concepts CHM1045 Exam 1 Study Guide Exam date September 25th 2015 Dr Robert Cameron Chapter One Terms A law such as Newton s laws of motion is one that describes a relationship between two certain factors that will always be true under the same conditions For instance force will always equal mass times acceleration A theory is a principle that explains facts or laws related to it These are constantly being tested and if one is disproved it must be retested and modified or discarded entirely Matter is anything and everything that we may come in contact with By definition it is anything that occupies space and has massquot A substance is a form of matter that has definite and distinct composition and properties Ex Water ammonia sugar salt gold and oxygen Mixtures are combinations of two or more substances where the substances keep their individual identities Ex Air soft drinks milk and cement Homogenous mixtures are ones that are the same no matter what sample of the mixture you take ie sugar water Heterogeneous mixtures are ones that may change dependent on the sample you take ie mixing iron shavings with sand Elements cannot be separated by chemical or physical means Physical properties are those that can be observed without changing the identity substance Ex Color shape melting and boiling point Chemical properties involve changing a chemical or chemical Extensive properties are those that are measured dependent of the amount of the substance that you have for example mass Intensive properties are those that can be measured no matter how much stuf quot you have for example density d 1 Please see tables 12 and 13 in book or my first set of notes on Study Soup to see SI base units and prefixes Converting Temperature Use the following formulas 5 F 2 C 9 3 9 F Em 32 K c 27313 Practice Problems 1 Convert 57 F to Celsius 2 Convert 106 0C to Fahrenheit 3 Convert 32 C to Kelvin Significant Digit SD Rules Zeros are not significant unless they are between significant digits Digits preceding or following significant digits are considered placeholders since there is no significant value for those places FOR EXAMPLE 23000 only has 2 significant digits the 2 and the 3 The following zeros only indicate that we are dealing with a large number For numbers greater than one any zeros following the decimal point are significant For numbers less than one the only significant zeros are those that fall at the end of the number FOR EXAMPLE 20640 has five significant digits while 030 only has two significant digits For addition and subtraction the solution must have an equal amount of digits to the right of the decimal point as that number with the least amount of digits to the decimal point FOR EXAMPLE adding 04 and 035 would round to 08 due to there only being one digit to the right of the decimal in 04 In multiplying or dividing the number of significant figures in the solution must be equal to that of the number with the least amount of significant digits FOR EXAMPLE 04035 would equal 01 because of the single significant digit in 04 Constants and counted numbers are considered to have infinite SD s Practice Problems How many significant digits are in the following EanSNNtquot 00047 100 34 x 105 54060 00940 Dimensional Analysis 1 in 254 cm 1 cm3 1 mL 1 lb 4563 g Used to convert between prefixes and between English measurement and metric measurement amongst other things desired unit invertmm I 7 dcsnrcd unit g1 ft1 lf photo from httpconnectmheducationcomconnecthmEBookdosetTabsectionTabs So if we were to convert 145 inches to meters it would look something like this 254 cm 1 m 14 39gtlt x 5m 1m 100cm 254 1 m 14 39gtlt x 5m 1m 1006144 Now multiply through and your units will be meters 145 in 0355 m Notice the amount of significant digits Please see link for any other questions regarding dimensional analysis Practice problems Convert 30 X 103 mg to kg Convert 17 miles to meters Convert 8 mL to m3 Big ideas to focus on Significant digits and dimensional analysis as you will see these a lot moving forward Answer sheet chapter one Converting temperature 1 14 C 2 223 F 3 240 K Significant digits SIMPP UV wPNUON Dimensional Analysis 1 30 x 10393 2 2700 3 8 x 10396 Chapter two Dalton s atomic theory All elements are composed of small particles called atoms All atoms of an element are identical and all atoms of different elements are different Compounds have atoms of more than one element where the ratio present is either an integer or a fraction A chemical reaction involves the separation combination or rearrangement of atoms it does not create nor destroy atoms The law of definite proportions states that elements form in defined proportions 1 Thomson was responsible for deriving the chargetomass ration and the plum pudding model He essentially changed the way the atom was viewed entirely RA Milikan preformed the oil drop experiment and discovered that electrons all have an equal charge Rutherford s scatter experiment ended in the conclusion of today s modern view of the atom Protons determine the element and the chemical identity Neutrons are proton gluequot and are half of the mass of the nucleus Electrons do chemistryquot in the sense that they interact with electrons of other elements Isotopes Isotopes are the elements that have the same atomic number but different mass numbers ie 12C 13C 14C Please see Dr Cameron s lecture notes for rules on nomenclature They were taught in class on September 11 2015 Some great sites for nomenclature practice httpwwwuscaeduchemistrygenchemnomtsthtm httpwwwpafacultynetbiologykeithkr graph siteionic nomenclature pageh t httpsquizletcomsubjectnomenclaturepractice Chapter three Atomic mass is the mass of the atom in atomic mass units amu Atomic mass unit is a mass exactly equal to one twelfth the mass of one carbon 12 atom The atomic number lies under the element s symbol on the periodic table carbon s atomic mass is 1201 roughly Since atoms are so small it is virtually impossible to measure them in any known system of measurement And so the mole was born The mole is the number of things in this case atoms that a substance contains much like there are 12 eggs in a dozen The conversion factor Avogadro s number is NA 6022 x 1023 The molar mass can be defined as the mass in grams of one mole of a substance the molar mass of carbon is 12 Given this information you can figure out the mass of one single atom in grams 12 carbon 12 g 1993X1023g 602 2 X 1 023 Mass of quotI A Number of moles quotNA Number of atoms clement m m of element 39n 39 NINA of element N httpconnectmheducationcomconnecthmEBookdosetTabsectionTabs To obtain molar masses of compounds simply add the molar masses of the different elements For example to find the molar mass of water add the molar mass of oxygen to the molar mass to 2hydrogen 2 mass of H mass of O 210 160 180 To calculate the percent composition divide the molar mass of the element by the molar mass of the compound and then multiply by 100 To find the percent of oxygen in H20 16390 x1000 88 90 180 0 39 0 Chemical equations show what is happening during a chemical reaction using chemical symbols FOR EXAMPLE H2 02 H20 Where the plus means quotreacts withquot and the arrow means quotto yieldquot The equation must be balanced in the sense that the charges of the ions but be equal to 0 Make sure that the number of each type of atoms is equal on both sides of the equation In this reaction the hydrogen and the oxygen are considered reactants and the water yielded is considered the product Stoichiometry is the quantitative study of reactants and products in a chemical reaction A limiting reagent is the reagent or reactant is the one that is used up first in a reaction Please see blackboard for practice problems involving stoichiometry Important concepts Balancing reactions nomenclature and stoichiometry Chemistry will build on all of these concepts

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