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Bio II Notes 3/8

by: Rocket

Bio II Notes 3/8 BIO 1144

GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Notes covering CNS difference in vertebrates, brain diagram, and beginning bone system
Thomas Holder
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.


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Date Created: 03/16/16
  Synapse: junction/gap where nerve terminal meets a neuron, muscle, or some gland  + Axon­ myelin sheath has gaps, as impulse travels down the axon it “jumps” these gaps    +2 Types of Synapse  ­ Electrical: ionic currents flow across gap; very fast gotta go fast  ­ Chemical: transport/movement of neurotransmitters/ packet of chemicals (most common  form) In muscle; Acetylcholine  *Acetylcholine released  (carrying impulse) across  cleft to open channels                        Evolution of Nervous System: Kingdom Animalia  +Phylum Cnidaria (jellyfishes)  ­ Very simple neural organization  ­ With proto neurons→ simple primitive cells “before” “nerve cells”  ­ Nerve Net​ : impulse are not one­way  ­ Simplified Nervous Organ    +Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms)  ­ 2 Anterior Ganglia: each has network branching off  ­ Weakly developed nervous organization (no brain or spinal chord so not true CNS)  ­ Mostly one­way impulses    +Phylum Annelida (segmented worms)  ­ Motor and sensory neurons  ­ Brain and Ventral Nerve Chord  ­ Primitive CNS    +Phylum Mollusca (squids, octopi, oysters, mussels)  ­ Squids and Octopi: Nervous system that might be equivalent to fish, very advanced for  Mollusca  ­ Most advanced and complex of all non­chordate invertebrates?    +Phylum Arthropoda (insects, crustaceans)  ­ Similar to Annelida and Mollusca  ­ Groups of Insects (social insects ex. Bees, ants, wasps) have well developed brain  ­  Well developed system ties along with complex social structures, queen, soldiers,  workers  ­ Social behavior, learning, division of labor  ­ Most advanced and complex of all non­chordate invertebrates?    Vertebrate Nervous System  Brain +Spinal Cord (dorsal/hollow) = CNS  +Spinal Cord­ structure pertained and protected within the vert. Colum  +Layers (Meninges) Protection and Support for entire CNS  Dura Mater­ outer  Arachnoid­ middle  Pia mater­ inner  *Cerebrospinal Fluid: found in between each layer and in hollow canal    +Brain­ increased in size and complexity with vert. Evolution  ­ Changes in embryonic development  ­ Changes in “sections” of brain, especially cerebrum  ­ Entire nervous system develops from Neural fold in embryo    +3 Divisions of Vert. Brain  1. Hindbrain: continuation of spinal cord and brainstem  2. Midbrain: right above hindbrain, small section  3. Forebrain: where most significant changes occur of development of brain (i.e. cerebrum)      Vertebrate Evolution of Brain ­­­­> Size!  (Direct  correlation)          *ON TEST*  Spinal Cord:​ provides structure and support  Midbrain​: visual and auditory sensors  Medulla oblongata: ​basic functions  breathing, heart rate  Cerebellum:​ movement, equilibrium,  balance, largest in birds + mammals  Thalamus:​  middle relay station between  hindbrain and forebrain  Hypothalamus​ : housekeeping center;  homeostasis  Pituitary gland: hormonal gland   Corpus callosum:​  thick band of nerve  fibers connecting right and left cerebrum  Cerebrum​ : thought process, problem  solving, language, emotions      Muscular and Skeletal System Ch. 44  +Skeletal System: endoskeleton; constant living structure being replenished  ­ Phylum Chordata and Echinodermata  Function:  ­Locomotion   ­Support  ­Protection  ­Calcium and other Mineral Storage  ­Attachment sites for Skeletal Muscle  ­Production of Blood Cells    Bone Tissue: is hardened connective tissue, very strong but lightweight  ­Contain collagen fibers make them flexible  ­Depository of Minerals: Calcium and phosphorus salts  +2 Bone Formation  Endochondral: bone replaces cartilage (majority of bones)  Intramembranous: bone forms within membranes of connective tissues (thin bone/plates)    Types Of Bone Tissue:  1. Compact Bone: ground bone or dense bone, tightly packed together tissue organized into  Osteons (structure unit of compact bone)  2. Spongy Bone: lightweight, looks like bony spikes like chain lick, lots of air pockets and  space, not organized into Osteons  +Long Bone Anatomy: Femur                              Periosteum: Entire Outer Covering of Bone except on Epiphyseal ends  Articular Cartilage: hyaline cartilage; shock absorber  Bone Cells:  1. Osteoprogenitor Cells:  ­ early developed bone cells  ­ Found in periosteum  ­ Differentiate into osteoblasts    2.  Osteoblasts  ­ Bone Forming cells   ­ Producing bony tissue    3. Osteocytes  ­ Matured osteoblasts “trapped” by the bone tissue they produced     4. Osteoclasts  ­ Bone resorbing cells  ­ Breaking down old/damaged bone tissue 


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