Bio II Notes 3/8
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.
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Date Created: 03/16/16
Synapse: junction/gap where nerve terminal meets a neuron, muscle, or some gland + Axon myelin sheath has gaps, as impulse travels down the axon it “jumps” these gaps +2 Types of Synapse Electrical: ionic currents flow across gap; very fast gotta go fast Chemical: transport/movement of neurotransmitters/ packet of chemicals (most common form) In muscle; Acetylcholine *Acetylcholine released (carrying impulse) across cleft to open channels Evolution of Nervous System: Kingdom Animalia +Phylum Cnidaria (jellyfishes) Very simple neural organization With proto neurons→ simple primitive cells “before” “nerve cells” Nerve Net : impulse are not oneway Simplified Nervous Organ +Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) 2 Anterior Ganglia: each has network branching off Weakly developed nervous organization (no brain or spinal chord so not true CNS) Mostly oneway impulses +Phylum Annelida (segmented worms) Motor and sensory neurons Brain and Ventral Nerve Chord Primitive CNS +Phylum Mollusca (squids, octopi, oysters, mussels) Squids and Octopi: Nervous system that might be equivalent to fish, very advanced for Mollusca Most advanced and complex of all nonchordate invertebrates? +Phylum Arthropoda (insects, crustaceans) Similar to Annelida and Mollusca Groups of Insects (social insects ex. Bees, ants, wasps) have well developed brain Well developed system ties along with complex social structures, queen, soldiers, workers Social behavior, learning, division of labor Most advanced and complex of all nonchordate invertebrates? Vertebrate Nervous System Brain +Spinal Cord (dorsal/hollow) = CNS +Spinal Cord structure pertained and protected within the vert. Colum +Layers (Meninges) Protection and Support for entire CNS Dura Mater outer Arachnoid middle Pia mater inner *Cerebrospinal Fluid: found in between each layer and in hollow canal +Brain increased in size and complexity with vert. Evolution Changes in embryonic development Changes in “sections” of brain, especially cerebrum Entire nervous system develops from Neural fold in embryo +3 Divisions of Vert. Brain 1. Hindbrain: continuation of spinal cord and brainstem 2. Midbrain: right above hindbrain, small section 3. Forebrain: where most significant changes occur of development of brain (i.e. cerebrum) Vertebrate Evolution of Brain > Size! (Direct correlation) *ON TEST* Spinal Cord: provides structure and support Midbrain: visual and auditory sensors Medulla oblongata: basic functions breathing, heart rate Cerebellum: movement, equilibrium, balance, largest in birds + mammals Thalamus: middle relay station between hindbrain and forebrain Hypothalamus : housekeeping center; homeostasis Pituitary gland: hormonal gland Corpus callosum: thick band of nerve fibers connecting right and left cerebrum Cerebrum : thought process, problem solving, language, emotions Muscular and Skeletal System Ch. 44 +Skeletal System: endoskeleton; constant living structure being replenished Phylum Chordata and Echinodermata Function: Locomotion Support Protection Calcium and other Mineral Storage Attachment sites for Skeletal Muscle Production of Blood Cells Bone Tissue: is hardened connective tissue, very strong but lightweight Contain collagen fibers make them flexible Depository of Minerals: Calcium and phosphorus salts +2 Bone Formation Endochondral: bone replaces cartilage (majority of bones) Intramembranous: bone forms within membranes of connective tissues (thin bone/plates) Types Of Bone Tissue: 1. Compact Bone: ground bone or dense bone, tightly packed together tissue organized into Osteons (structure unit of compact bone) 2. Spongy Bone: lightweight, looks like bony spikes like chain lick, lots of air pockets and space, not organized into Osteons +Long Bone Anatomy: Femur Periosteum: Entire Outer Covering of Bone except on Epiphyseal ends Articular Cartilage: hyaline cartilage; shock absorber Bone Cells: 1. Osteoprogenitor Cells: early developed bone cells Found in periosteum Differentiate into osteoblasts 2. Osteoblasts Bone Forming cells Producing bony tissue 3. Osteocytes Matured osteoblasts “trapped” by the bone tissue they produced 4. Osteoclasts Bone resorbing cells Breaking down old/damaged bone tissue
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