Exam 1 Learning Objectives/Study Guide
Exam 1 Learning Objectives/Study Guide SOP3004
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Marcinak on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOP3004 at Florida State University taught by Christopher Beck in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 347 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Test 1 Study Guides CH 13 amp 5 CH1 0 How does social psychology study human behavior thoughts and feelings 0 Ask questions that can be empirically tested 0 Ask questions about how people relate and view one another 0 Why is it difficult to de ne social psychology 0 There are many parts to the study of social psychology 0 We are biopsychosocial organisms 0 How does social psychology relate to sociology and other areas of psychology 0 They all focus on how people feel and think compared to sociology social psychology focuses more on individuals and experimentations Compared to personality psychology it focuses on how individuals view and relate to one another 0 Which field is most closely related to social psychology and often studied in unison O Sociology 0 What does social psychology focus on 0 How people think about relate and in uence one another 0 How we construct our social world 0 How our social intuitions guide and sometimes deceive us 0 How our social behavior is shaped by other people our attitudes and our biology 0 How social psychological principles apply to our everyday lives 0 How did behaviorism and Freudian psychoanalysis contribute to the eld of social psychology 0 Automatic and unconscious vs conscious and controlled 0 We have unconscious desired that control our actions 0 Our behavior can be conditioned h 0 What 1mportant20t century event st1mulated interest in soc1al psychology and why did it do so 0 Nazi trials in WW2 because we were shocked that people so easily listened to directions even though they were cruel O Milgram Experiment tested the extent that people would follow directions even though they did not want to and knew they were harming another person 0 What are some of the most important common themes of social psychology what do they mean and why are they important 0 Power of the Situation Determines our limitations and possibilities The situation you are in determines how you act and present yourself 0 Biological Roots We are evolved cultural animals but the world we live in is different that the world we evolved in 0 We construct our Reality There is an objective reality but we view it through our own lens of beliefs and values We try to make sense of everything around us 0 We have duplex minds that enable intuitions Unconscious thought processes affect our decisions and actions 0 Sel sh impulse vs social conscience Nature tells us go but culture says stop so we have competing internal and external drives 0 Focus on self I Selfesteem I Selfcontrol I Selfawareness I SelfPresentation 0 Con ict and Social Prejudice I Gender Issue I Racial Issues I Post 911 0 Group Dynamics Social Loa ng 0 Concepts are important because they teach us about life and how to gain friends and positively control your life 0 What is the ABC triad and how does it apply to what social psychologists do 0 Affect How people feel 0 Behavior What people do 0 Cognition What people think 0 It helps have a broad understanding of how people think act and feel Research Methods 0 How does labeling relate to bias in research and what are some examples of this 0 Depending on how you label something could affect a person39s opinion of it 0 If observers except a certain outcome they may see this more regularly I ie Fans see more faults on other team than their own 0 Why can t we just use common sense to tell us about social psychology 0 Experiments reveal outcomes that are obvious after the testing has been done 0 What is the hindsight bias 0 Once you learn the outcome of something you have a tendency to over exaggerate the fake that you already knew it I knew it all along What is a theory and what does your book say about the comparison between evolutionary theory and the theory of gravity 0 A theory is an integrated set of principles that predict and explain observed events 0 Evolution is just a theory but so is gravity What can and can t correlational research tell us about human behavior thoughts and feelings O Correlational studies discern the relationships between variables 0 Shows us if two variables are correlated 0 Correlation does not equal causation A third variable could be affecting the results What does it mean for two variables to be positively correlated with one another Negatively correlated with one another 0 Positive correlation is when one increases or decreases the other does the same 0 Negative correlation is when one increases or decreases the other does the opposite What can correlation coefficients range from What does the sign mean 0 l to l O The sign represents the direction of the relationship Positive Negative What is the 3rd variable problem with correlational research 0 Two events may correlate but there could be another variable causing them to correlate I ie Ice cream sales have a positive correlation with murder rates but ice cream does not cause murder 0 Correlational research allows us to predict but not confirm causation What are some of the unintended in uences on survey research 0 Responding with desirable answers instead of true one39s 0 Order of questions 0 Wording of questions What is the goal and what are the features of experimental research 0 A control group a manipulated variable a response variable and random assignment are key features They set up cause and effect environments in order to determine the cause of a change 0 Why are these features important for achieving the goal of experimental research 0 These features are important because an experiment must be done under controlled settings in order to produce valid results 0 What are independent and dependent variables 0 Independent variable is the manipulated one 0 Dependent variable is the one recorded that is expected to change from the manipulate one 0 What is an operational de nition and why is it important 0 An operational de nition is how you de ne a construct within the experiment 0 Setting a speci c and constant de nition of the variables 0 It is important because different people could have a different idea of what a variable is By clearly de ning it we eliminate error I Ie what do we mean by aggression 0 What are the ways in which we evaluate a measure we that we are using to assess a certain construct 0 Reliability Consistency I TestRetest If subjects are given the same assessment multiple times how constant would the results stay I Interrater If two judges judged the results how consistent would the results be Consistency between raters O Validity Accuracy I Internal How well is the experiment measuring what it should be measuring I External How can it be generalized to the public I Concurrent How well do these results match up with previous results 0 What does it mean to have an interaction of effects on a dependent variable 0 The differing level of the independent variable affects the dependent variable When there are two independent variables and they interact 0 What is a main effect 0 The effect of one independent variable ignoring the effects of all the others 0 What are demand characteristics Text 0 Cues in the environment that tell the participant what behavior is expected 0 What are the pros and cons of correlational and experimental research CH2 I Correlational Real world applications I Experimental Can explore cause and effects by controlling environment I Correlational Results can be ambiguous because of third variable I Experimental Some variables can not be studied in a lab setting and some results can not be extemalized to the real world What is the spotlight effect 0 When people think that others are paying more attention to them than they actually are What is the illusion of transparency and what does your book say about this and feeling nervous in front of others part from class part from book 0 We think others can see right through us but they are really paying less attention than we think What is selfawareness What is the difference between public and private 0 SelfEsteem is knowledge of your character feelings and desires 0 Public Aware of how others perceive you 0 Private Aware of your internal state What are failings of our selfawareness o Discrepancies What are the different types of self What happens when there are discrepancies between them 0 Actual Self Who you are right now 0 Ideal Self Who you want to be Ought Self The self it is your duty to be Feared Self The self you are scared of becoming Discrepancies motivate change and cause emotional reactions 0 What are the 5 ways that we learn about ourselves that we talked about in class know their real names and what are problems associated with them 0 Looking through others What do others think about me trying to get feedback from other Looking inside Who are you Good at what you think about yourself but not why Looking at others Comparing yourself to others There is always someone doing better or worse than you Looking at yourself Looking at how your behavior has beenis Behavior doesn39t always appropriately determine feelings Looking at close others Thinking that if people around you have a trait than you do too We may distance ourselves from people who make us look bad 0 What are upward and downward social comparisons When might we use each 0 O Downward comparisons Thinking you are better than someone else Upward comparisons Thinking others are better than you We might use these to make us feel better about ourselves or to motivate ourselves to do better 0 What are BIRGing and CORFing What is the function of each 0 O Basking in Re ected Glory We associate ourselves with others when they are successful Cutting off Re ected Failure We avoid those who make us look bad 0 How we view others is important to us 0 What differentiates BIRGing and CORFing from upward and downward comparisons O Upward and downward comparisons re ect what we think about ourselves BIRGing and CORFing re ects what we think of others and the actions we take 0 What are the motives for seeking selfknowledge and which motive tends to be the strongest O Appraisal motive The desire to know the truth about yourself 0 Consistency motive The desire to get feedback that approves what we already know 0 Selfenhancement motive The desire to hear attering things about yourself 0 Selfenhancement and better than average effects I Unrealistic Optimism Nothing bad will happen to me I False Consensus Everyone agrees with me I False Uniqueness I m special and unique I We all think we re above average 0 What were the examples of the selfserving bias that were given in class 0 Football games 0 What is selfesteem O A person39s overall evaluation of selfworth 0 What is the sociometer theory of selfesteem 0 We have an innate need to belong our sociometer tells us if we are being accepted 0 People who feel accepted have higher selfesteem 0 What is the terror management theory of selfesteem 0 We will die one day but we want to live forever 0 Thinking about death makes us adhere to cultural norms better and than we have higher self esteem and think about death less What are the positive and negative things associated with high selfesteem 0 Positive Buffer from negative life events 0 Negatives narcissism aggressiveness What is the false consensus effect 0 Thinking everyone agrees with you What is the false uniqueness effect 0 Thinking you are special and unique What is selfhandicapping from book 0 Protecting your self image by creating a handy excuse for failure How does culture affect perceptions of the self from book 0 We note our performance and adjust it to the others desires What is selfpresentation who does it and why do people do it 0 Acting a certain way in order to present yourself in a favorable manner Everyone does it to try and fit in and look better What are implications of selfpresentation for conducting research 0 People may alter their answers to a more socially desirable answer What is selfmonitoring and when is it good when is it problematic 0 Being attuned to the way you present yourself and adjusting your actions to be socially desirable It is good to adjust yourself to a situation but you may seem insensitive or like you are faking What is selfregulation and what else is it known as 0 Self control It has three parts I Impulse control I Managing goals and needs I Monitoring and altering your responses 0 What were the ndings of the marshmallow selfcontrol study What long term implications are there 0 Children who had self control scored over 200 points higher on SATS 0 What is the limited resource model of selfcontrol and what are implications of this 0 All types of control rely on one energy source and it is hard to control more than one at once I Behavior control I Thought control I Emotional control I Impulse control 0 What can happen when selfregulation fails O Unstable relationship less success drug and alcohol consumptions eating poorly STD s 0 Academic success is predicted more by selfcontrol than IQ testing CH3 0 What are attributions and when do we make them 0 Attributions are explanations of why we engage in certain behaViors 0 We make them to explain a behavior What are internal and external attributions and what do they explain 0 Internal Dispositional 0 External Situational 0 They explain why someone acted a certain way What does the Jones amp Harris 1967 proCastroantiCastro study say about the types of attributions we make 0 Even when someone is forced to express a certain opinion we still believe they really think it What is the fundamental attribution error 0 The tendency to overestimate internal attribution and underestimate external attribution when observing the behavior of others What is actorobserver bias How is it related to the fundamental attribution error 0 Tendency to make internal attributions about others but external attributions about yourself When do we attribute our behavior to external versus internal causes Sedikides et al 1998 How does this relate to selfserving biases from when we talked about the self 0 Group or personal success internal 0 Group or personal failure external 0 Taking credit for success internal blaming others for error external What is Kelley s covariation model What are the three types of relevant information we need and what do they predict 0 Model for determining when we make internal and external attributions 0 Consistency Does the person always act this way If they do their behavior is consistent O Distinctiveness Does the person act this way under other circumstances If not than there is high distinctiveness O Consensus Do others act this way If they do than there is high consensus 0 If there is high everything we make an external attribution 0 If there is high consistency but low distinctiveness and consensus than we make an internal attribution 0 If there is no consistency than it is ambiguous What is the overconfidence phenomenon O The tendency to overestimate one39s beliefs 0 We think we are better at things than we really are What is con rmation bias How may this relate to how we seek out information 0 The Tendency to search for information that confirms what we believe We look for information that confirms but not for info that disconfirms What are heuristics and when do we use them 0 Mental shortcuts that we use in order to estimate the likelihood of an event 0 We use them to make quick decisions but they are often wrong What does your book state about embodied cognition Be able to generalize its examples to other situations 0 Body sensations in uence our judgement 0 Social exclusion literally feels cold physical warmth leads to social warmth What does the text state about how we reconstruct memories and our past behaviors Do we tend to be accurate O No we reconstruct memories based on how we currently feel We unconsciously alter our memories We will even unconsciously interpret misinformation into the memory of an event if we learn of misleading information What does the Schwarz 1991 study state about heuristics 0 People asked to list 6 examples of assertiveness rated themselves as more assertive than those who had to list 12 examples What is the availability heuristic How does it affect our judgments of the likelihood of events 0 Tendency to estimate the likelihood of an event based on how easily instances of it come to mind The easier we recall something the more likely the probability of it happening seems What are the limitations of the availability heuristic See the Ruder amp Bless 2003 study 0 Works more when we are happy then when we are sad What is the simulation heuristic O Tendency to be in uenced by how easily you can imagine an event happening 0 1e If you missed your ight by 5 minutes you can imagine exactly what you could have changed to get there one time whereas if you missed your ight by two hours you could not think of one speci c event to change and you will be less mad 0 What is anchoring and adjusting How does this in uence our judgments O Tendency to be in uenced by our starting point 0 Different anchors produce different adjustments 0 How does the conjunction fallacy affect how likely that we judge the occurrence of combination events 0 Conjunction fallacy is believing that the likelihood of two events is greater than the likelihood of one 0 What all drives the false consensus effect 0 Representation heuristic The tendency to estimate the likelihood of an event based on how well it matches your expectations 0 THTHHHTT o TTTTTTTTT 0 What does the text state about illusory correlations and the gambler s fallacy O Illusory correlations Perception of a relationship where none exists or that a stronger relationship exists than does We add significance to random events 0 Gambler39s Fallacy Illusion of control over a chance event or believing a previous event in uences a chance event 0 How does priming affect our thoughts and behaviors 0 Recent events activate certain memories and increase the accessibility of a certain concept 0 Our prejudgments have a huge effect on how we perceive an event 0 What are selffulfilling prophecies Be able to relate these to both the rats in a maze and the bloomers examples 0 People39s expectations lead them to think in ways that confirm their expectations I Maze brightdull rats and bloomers CH5 What are the basic components or ideas of evolutionary theory and how do they contribute to evolution 0 3 major component to evolution I Variation Small percentage of genes change randomly I Natural selection Some variations are more favorable for surviving these will generally be passed on to the next generation I Heritability a large amount of genes are passed on from parents What is sexual selection and how is it a more speci c type of natural selection 0 More aggressive attractive males will attract more females and therefore pass on more of their genes What is the EEA and how does it inform social psychology 0 Environment evolutionary adaptiveness is the period when humans first emerged and adapted to It eXplains why humans adapted in a certain way What are the ways in which the EEA differs from today s environment and how does this affect our social psychology 0 We crave sweet and fatty foods act aggressively because these traits used to be beneficial to us What is error management theory and how is it adaptive 0 We are biased to make errors in the more adaptive direction 0 Not attending to potential threats is more dangerous than over attending to them 0 False positive over attending 0 Miss under attending What percentage of our individual variation does genetics predict O 50 of our personality is from genes Who Wins in the nature vs nurture debate 0 False Dichotomy 0 It isn t really a debate they go hand in hand How does our environment affect our genesbiology and vice versa 0 People react differently in environments 0 People choose the environment they live in O Epigenetics our environment in uences Who we are What are our large brains evolved for O Relating to others Why is culture so beneficial for our species 0 Humans rely on other humans for survival division of labor 0 Learning and progress is passed onto the next generation How much in uence do peers have on determining a person s behavior and personality 0 4050 of behaviorsdecisions What is cultural psychology 0 Studies how thoughts emotions and behaviors differ across cultures 0 Collectivist vs Individualist What does your book say about Norms and Cultural Similarity O Norms are standards for expected behavior 0 Cultures differ in many aspects but are the same with friendships incest and war What are the two types of cultures that are typically studied in cultural psychology how are they characterized and What societies tend to have each kind What does the Sedikides 2003 study predict for different cultures O O Collectivist Focused on external reasons of behavior and connections with others asiaafrica better at otherrelated traits Individualist Focused on being different from others and internal reasons for behavior western better at selfrelated traits 0 What was the example given in the book about the way the environment can actually change the norm of that environment 0 Food 0 What are the biological in uences of seX on behavior 0 Men are more aggressive and dominant Women display more empathy and are more caring 0 How do we know that there is a strong in uence of culture or nurture on gender differences 0 Gender differences are fairly consistent through all cultures 0 What are the major gender differences found in research 0 0 Girls focus on relationships Boys focus on dominance Men get paid more Men think about and initiate seX more Women form stronger family bonds Women focus on connectedness while men focus on independence 0 What are the criticisms of advances made in gender equality 0 Men and women are more naturally inclined to certain tendencies o Are there more differences between the genders or between individuals 0 Individuals
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