StudyGuide for Exam 1
StudyGuide for Exam 1 ARTH 3353
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ivonne Ruiz on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ARTH 3353 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Anne Perry in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Pre-Columb Art & Arch in Art History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Chavin This is located in the interior of the old temple Galleries were built at different levels and are connected by stairways and by a maze of small vents and drains that pass beneath the exterior plazas and sunken courts Several galleries contained incised and painted figures and another was filled with an offering of fine ceramics and human bones Important to note that lots of Chavin art consists of humananimal composites such as the Lanzon This is a relief sculpture of processional figure located in the Sunken Circular Plaza It can be said that this figure is a Shaman The Lanzon is located in the center of the cruciform gallery suggests that it was considered to be an Axis Mundi Axis Mundi means literally and cosmically the center of the universe The Lanzon may have originally functioned as an oracle meaning that a priest was hidden in the gallery above the stone and could have spoken for it Like the wizard of oz The Lanzon refers to the Amazonian foot plow natural fertility The Lanzon features round eyes feline fangs at nose snarling mouth claws talons as nails Socalled smiling God is an upright anthropomorphic figure with zoomorphix features including fangs serpent hair and clawed feet One hand is up and the other is down meaning that they may serve to unite two realms terrestrial and celestial l J l 3 d 39139 b 541 v d quot w b 39 39 rm tilt quotl39t39l Jl l 4 A Raimondi Stela Anatropic design Standing figure with splayed taloned feet Arms to the side holding 2 vertical staffs Staffs have faces snakes swirls and vegetation This was predominantly associated with agricultural fertility Paracas Mummy Bundles and the garments included as offerings represent thousands of hours of labor The most elaborate of the mummy bundles found at these sites was about five feet tall and contained 44 items of embroidered apparel and blankets mantles Bundles have their own personalities often with a particular palette Textiles in the bundles do not appear to have been used prior to burial but were made new and added as offerings Clothing comes in all sizes regardless of gender or age of the deceased Extravagant way for them to honor the dead and create offerings to the spirit world These mummy bundles had cat whiskers septum jewelry They would be buried with shells textiles gold all of this used as offerings Sometimes they would even have human hair wigs put on The bodies were put into baskets in fetal position and then wrapped up in all different types of textiles cloths and fabrics The more elaborate the people were wrapped up the more important they were considered to be Trophy Heads Mummified heads Hole punched in the forehead to put a piece of cloth through it so that the warriors could carry it around as their trophy The mouths of the heads are bound together Head Hunting These warriors went out with their spears arrows and killed people to get their trophy headsquot All based around religion Trophy Heads They were considered treasured artifacts This wasn t considered a sport but rather as something extremely serious as an offering to the gods These warriors went out armed for heads and were thought of as spiritual or were offered as sacrifices to the gods Reason for trophy hunting is that they thought their ancestors controlled the crops weather etc in general their entire livelihood so they made these types of offerings All considered reciprocity they take care of their ancestors and their ancestors will take care of them Back Bent Figures Sacrificial human decapitation They would carry tumi blades and use those to cut off the heads Shaman s would do the rituals However the drawings of the back bent figures change over time they gain more detail Nazca Male Effigy with Trophy Heads They wore exquisite attire Wore a Gord for a hat Trophy heads were associated with farming fertility agriculture which is why they were used as offerings for agriculture StepFret Bottles These bottles have different meanings Imagery Is the taking of heads as trophies Sacrifices appear to be birdmen wearing elaborate bird wings Bird Sacrificersquot In the textbook it is described as a Battle Scenequot but in reality it isn t a battle because these warriors went trophy hunting but their opponents were ambushed and weren t prepared to fight A battle requires it to be of equal caliber fight on both ends Textiles The pampas cat was extremely celebrated so many of their textiles had people with pampas catlike characteristics They became greatly used in their art Major motif Anthropomorphic mythical beings with whiskers kitty ears and stripes were widely used Pampas Cat Is an anthropomorphic mythical being Was used a great deal in Nazca art whether it is textiles ceramics etc Their art consisted of humans with pampas catlike features Their art usually had some kind of trophy head figures because trophy head hunting was an extremely huge ordeal in their culture AMB Anthropomorphic mythical being is specific to the Pampas cat of the Nazca culture Nazca Drums Back bent figures with AMB features Contain very explicit imagery ie figures holding up trophy heads with their weapons trophy heads germinating seeding crops coming out of their mouths Other trophy heads are placed by the genital region as if to symbolize an 39 V offerin for fertiiy Goglyphs Geometric lines either pointing to where the sun sets or rises Contain different drawings of animals and insects all in geometric shaped lines Moche Moche Ceramics Anthropomorphic vessels Orange clay colors creamy Built by molds versus handmade Certain pieces represent ora and fauna They created lots of stirrup spout vessel bottles Anthropomorphic vessels The warrior cult Ceramic images of warriors were highly valued at the time sort of like they were collected by people Some of them would even be buried with people Long Nose Long Nose is an example of a warrior ceramic He had elite status given the earrings he wore gauges Warrior usually had really long hair and would wrap it up In that specific ceramic he is seated with a plate and chisel maybe even performing a sacrifice by himself 0 INDIVIDUAL PORTRAIT EFFIGY VASES SHOW SPECIFIC PERSONS AT DIFFERENT AGES AND ENGAGED IN DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES WITH DIFFERENT COSTUME ELEMENTS TO INDICATE THEIR STATUS 0 LONG NOSE IS A WARRIOR DRESSED IN BEAUTIFUL TEXTILE WRAPPING HIS LONG HAIR HUGE EAR PLUGS Mythical Subjects Wrinkle Face Supernatural deity Wrinkle face is wideeyed has fangs and possibly looks like he could be a Shaman In this demonstration it is using the hierarchy of scale meaning that the bigger a person it portrayed or drawn the more important they were hence Archaeolo n why Wr inkle Face is portrayed bigger than the other people 39 1 j 5quot w 53quot gy Meets Imagery Sipan Tomb 1 Tomb of the warrior priest He was buried with a warrior t protect him in the afterlife dog female alpaca s pots gold lots of treasures Buried with four other tombs and people to help protect the warrior priest in the afterlife He was found with giant gauges Mosaic art He wore a peanut necklace half gold and half silver Sacsayhuaman Zig zag walls all done with human labor which is rather impressive given that these rocks were absolutely huge Specialists say it took them half a century to build maybe even less The rocks looks almost uffy pillowlike Inca considered labor to be a tribute to the gods which is why they used human labor to build these kinds of walls Machu Picchu about 8000 feet in altitude it is still considered to be a mystery on how exactly the Inca managed to build this remarkable site Half of it was agricultural terraces Other half was habitational ceremonial site 4 Qhariwarmithe conjoining of opposites the dominating controlling force represented by the cut stonework and the wild unordered appearance of mother earth Steps cut from living rock shows Inca penchant for imposing order upon wild nature with stonework and agriculture Nibbled stone masonry enhances the quality of the outcrop held in its embrace Carolyn Dean Whatever expresses the union of complements is an example of qhariwarmi Because integrated outcrops occupy the interface between nature and art they exist simultaneously as parts of and blur the boundary dividing natural and built environments 2 As places of union between Inka and earth integrated rock outcrops also served as powerful signs of belonging in a particular locale and therefore functioned as imperialist claims to the possession and assimilation of new territories Tiwanaku Semisubterranean Temple with Sculpted Heads Around 200 heads were found during excavation of the temple Half stepped diamond shape Akapana is a simulacrum of the mountains to the south Foundation of the pyramid is a monumental terrace of cut stone blocks and the facades of the upper 6 terraces exhibit stone panels that were originally covered with metal plaques and painted in vibrant colors A thin layer of blue green gravel covered the upper terraces just like the kind that lines ravines and temporary ravines that ow down the mountains during the rainy season The gravel was infused with the essence of the mountain huacas which ere imbued with spiritual power associated with agricultural fertility Sculptures The structure of the pyramid also confirms the relationship to the mountain and sources of water The sunken court on the summit collected huge amounts of water during the rainy season which was drained into an interior conduit and channeled onto the lower terraces in effect creating a cascading fountain of alternating subterranean and surface channels of owing water This recreated the movement of water down the mountains during torrential rainstorms when the water would ow alternately through underground streams and then gush down slopes forming pools in natural terraces before owing further downward On the Akapana the water also pooled on the terraces then dropped out of sight only to gush out on the next terrace The Akapana was the Visible presence of the lifegiving source of water Bennett Monolith sense of incredible consistent aesthetic of the site Very rectilinear and blocklike Holds a cup used by Shamans to drink alcohol and he also holds a snuff tray in which they would take potent seeds hallucinogens and pulverize them so they could ingest them
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