Unit 1 Study Guide
Unit 1 Study Guide SOC 113
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 113 at Brigham Young University taught by Dr. Kristie Phillips in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see American Heritage in General Science at Brigham Young University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
AMERICAN HERITAGE STUDY GUIDE UNIT 1 CHAPTERS 13 VOCAB CH 1 Sovereignty Ultimate political power having the nal say Despot a ruler exercising absolute power Human Predicament The cycle from tyranny to anarchy Tyranny absolute power centralized in one person or small group Revolution removing tyranny from power Anarchy No one person or group has absolute power chaos Competing Groups Groups that ght for supreme power and control Good Society Stable and prosperous society without tyranny freedom to choose way to live Political Legitimacy Ruling by a sanction may be divine right or consent Divine Right of Kings theory that roya lines are established by God Theocracy Divinely inspired rule Aristocracy Rule based on distinguished or wise ancestorsheritage Human Nature the fundamental disposition of humans that determines their behavior Autocracy Sees people in need of carefully controlled environment provided by government Classical Republicanism Sees people as good but corruptible government has restricted power Libertarianism See individual freedom as most important government protects that freedom Liberalism Sees people in favorable light government necessary to protect from corruption Bill of Rights rst 10 amendments regarding basic protections of rights from the government Structure Rules and restrictions designed to better harness virtue Pois City or CityState often selfgoverned Social Compact Group of individuals making a common agreement about the sort of political world they want to live in State of Nature hypothetical condition existing in the absence of government where human beings live in complete freedom and general equality Ch 2 Corporate Communities colonial settlements established for nancial purposes by companies lndentured Servitude Land owners pay passage for individuals who agree to term of service then free Covenant Communities Settlements based on religious or moral values Pilgrims small congregation seeking to separate themselves from Church of England Puritans Wanted to reform the Church of England not sever ties God39s Elect God has chosen who will be saved need to build holy community Christian Calling People have to work hard prosperity indicates God39s approval Moral Selfgovernance all must live a righteous life City on a Hill Biblical ideal of society governed by civil liberty Natural Liberty Where men are free to do what they please no regard for moral value of actions Civil Liberty Men are free to do what is good just and honest CH 3 Whig Party England39s rst political party organized opposing the king Second Treatise of Government John Locke authority comes from the people Glorious Revolution bloodless revolution made the king subject to parliament Rule of Law a way of distinguishing whether a particular law supported freedom or not Generality Laws apply to everyone Prospectivity Laws apply to future not past action Publicity Laws must be known and certain to everyone Consent Laws must be generally accepted Due Process Laws must be applied and administered impartially Court Party English royal court subject to corruption Country Part opposed the court party considered morally independent with pure motives Separation of Powers Dividing powers of government between separate branches NOTES CHAPTER 1 How can we design a government that resolves con icting interests and fosters bene cial cooperation while maintaining order and liberty First Principles Humans are complicated but their good intentions are not enough People accept the sovereign or the government only if the ideas are legitimate Power of Ideas Pilgrims Covenant ideas Joh Calvin and Puritans God s elect Jamestown corporate ideas 0 Making money 0 Relations with the tribes tribes and colonists did not see the world the same way SelfSelection of People Immigrants came to British colonies in search of a better life they didn t come randomly Open Lands Slavery as an Economic Institution enslaved Africans became a staple Good Society Welfare Freedom Virtue Human Nature Virtue is impossible Mortals don t know how to balance all the virtues Our Design of government or social structure follows assumption about human nature 0 Economists individuals are motivated by selfinterest Psychologists individuals are controlled by subconscious Biologist Humans are controlled by their genetic endowment Marxists Individuals are controlled by classenvironment Optimists People are basically good treat them well and they will respond 0 Pessimists people have a dark side that must be controlled by 0000 society SelfInterest actions are motivated solely by concern for our own well being Public Virtue We consider the effect of our actions on others as well as our own interests Both selfinterest and Public Virtue seem to happen at the same time creates a problem there s a lot of gray humans are complicated In designing a government we need an idea and make assumptions about how people work Have to try to design a system that works for everybody Most political scientist and economist assume selfinterested behavior much of the time Devising a system what is the motivation that will be dominant in people Motivations are not equivalent to outcomes Selfinterest may lead to good outcomes Public virtue may lead to bad outcomes Outcomes must be judged independently Human Predicament Tyranny Revolution Anarchy Competing Groups When anarchy is widespread people will often accept repression of tyranny in search of order Tyrants go to extremes to maintain power When a tyrant is gone problems are not necessarily over Legitimacy Avenues to Legitimacy 0 King Divine institution 0 Theocratic authority 0 The wise o The people People accept the version of legitimacy most consistent with their own ideas CHAPTER 2 United States grew out of colonies made by Great Britain Colonies established by variety of groups for variety of purposes 0 Business promote corporate wealth 0 Religious Religious freedom African Slaves were the primary labor force of Virginia Beliefs of Puritans God s Elect Christian Calling Moral SelfGovernance City Upon A Hill Reasonable order created by people Reasonable prosperity for everyone Strong vibrant culture Peaceful towards others strong and well respected Citizens in charge of their own lives pursuit of common goals CHAPTER 3 American Revolution was against Britain Tyranny to recover English Rights Timeline 1603 King James Scotland believed Kings ruled by pleasure of God only 1649 Civil War Parliament was victorious 1660 Charles II is back from exile to the throne 1685 James II Catholic threatened religious wars from past Lockes Second Treatise of Government Direct Inspiration for American Founders Government is not God authority of the people 1 Original quotstate of naturequot humans lived in perfect freedom to equality 2 Men created a social contract a Individuals came together and agreed to establish government b Government human intervention served human purpose 3 Only job of government is to protect human rights 4 Government exists by the consent of the governed 5 If government violates the social contract people have the right and duty to revolt The Rule of Law 5 Principles 0 Generality o Prospectivity o Publicity o Consent 0 Due Process The People or the Mob Problem the rule of law must rest on consent People themselves should consent to the laws that govern them If laws meet the ve tests and creates predictability they help foster freedom But the rule of law does not guarantee justice or freedom Two Models of Representation Virtue Based someone who follows personal conscience regardless of public opinion Interest Based someone who follows what people back home want regardless of personal conscience Neither one is good or bad
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