Unit 3 Study Guide
Unit 3 Study Guide SOC 113
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 113 at Brigham Young University taught by Dr. Kristie Phillips in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see American Heritage in General Science at Brigham Young University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
AMERICAN HERITAGE STUDY GUIDE UNIT 3 CHAPTERS 811 VOCAB CH 8 Loyal Opposition When losers continue to support the system Federalist Party Hamilton strong federal government and broad interpretation of the Constitution Original Consent Giving consent to a law the rst time Periodic Consent Give continuing consent at intervals to a law original consent was already given Filtered Consent When the selection of government of cials is distanced from direct election by the people to protect against mob rule Electoral College Group of electors selected by people responsible for selection of president Majority Receiving more than 50 of the votes Plurality Receiving the largest percentage of votes Proportional representation Party representation is closely tied to the national or regional vote of party CHAPTER 9 Deep Change Fundamental alteration in the way life is lived Boosterism Promotion sometimes in excessive or exaggerated manner Popular Government Government of the people by the people for the people Democratic Revolution Change in political power by the voting of the people Trust Business entity created to monopolize and dominate a market New Deal creation of various government agencies and programs designed to stimulate the economy and help US escape that Great Depression Fourteen Points Moralistic ideals of Woodrow Wilson that were to be implemented after World War I League of Nations Creation of a group of nations to help ensure peace Judicial Action When the courts use judicial power to achieve social goals CHAPTER 10 Public Togetherness groups of political party members gather to have more solidarity and support Political Machine Group organized to deliver vote on election day CHAPTER 11 Confederacy Alliance of southern states that seceded from the Union over slavery Emancipation Proclamation Abraham Lincoln issued to free all slaves Secession Formal withdrawal of states or regions from a nation Factionalism When nation has multiple factions that compete against each other Sectionalism Factionalism on a larger regional scale NOTES CHAPTER 8 Ra ca on With Rati cation the new government had to be implemented George Washington unifying gure 0 His status and prestige was unrivaled Hamilton wanted an ambitious economic program to build a nation Assume revolutionary war debt of all thirteen states Pay off all debt of federal government establish nancial reputation Establish United States Bank manage country39s nancial affairs Negotiate trade agreement with Great Britain lmpose taxes on imported goods encourage and protect domestic manufactures Jefferson39s Ideology DemocraticRepublic Party ldeal Society SelfRelieant individuals with small gov39t to protect rights Supported alliances with France Smaller federal government narrow interpretation of constitutional power House of Representatives Elected every two years Every 10 years evaluation to see if number of delegates needs to change depending on changes in population Part of government closest to the people Senate Elected every six years More removed from the people represent larger group and have longer term President Electors are selected by each state who then vote for the president Electoral CoHege Supreme Court Part of government most removed from the people Justices nominated by the president con rmed by senate Serve as judges for life or until retirement Structure of Elections Four main characteristics 0 President elected separate from legislature 0 Single representative is elected from each district or state 0 Plurality of votes is suf cient for election except in Electoral College 0 Fixed intervals for elections Middle of Road Politics Candidates portray opponents as some sort of extreme put selves in the middle Tendencies in American Elections Voters punish party in power Primary elections pull candidates away from the middle of American electorate toward middle of party electorate General election pushes candidates back toward the middle Relative turnout and vote of independents have strong in uence on elections CHAPTER 9 1880 Founding was almost complete Success of Revolution Operating government in place Americans coming together with set of ideals party politics functioning well enough Bill of Rights adopted Judicial Review would soon be of cial Deep Change Brought about by Open Space Land in the West Abundant Opportunity Technological Change Founding that actually worked Deep Changes People 0 Population increased increased life expectancy high birth rate ow of immigrants 0 Health and longevity Decreased infant mortality increased lifespan Increased income better public health system health care 0 Birthrate life expectancy increase decreased birth rate More emphasis on quality than quantity Increased number of women working outside of home 0 Families Changes in size marriage births 0 Immigration steady ow 0 Migration Westward people began to move west looking for opportunity 0 Urbanization very different from rural life 0 Pollution coal new heating source 0 Crime rates increased with urbanization Technology and Economic Growth 0 Transportation faster travel became easier cost of shipping decreased 0 Communication faster and cheaper than before 0 Wealth and Income improvements in transportation community economic growth 0 Agriculture and Manufacturing machines allow small part of population to produce enough for many 0 Food and Nutrition food processing diet changed cheaper and more abundant foods led to obesity 0 Housing living space per person increased transportation can work farther from home 0 Consumer Goods cheapermore accessible products 0 Leisure improvements more time for recreational activities Education and Ideas 0 Rise in income more investments in children39s education 0 Content of education changed Growth of Government 0 Grew during good and bad times 0 Grew as part of growing society government39s role also increased Deep Change and Constitutional Experience Who Participates 0 Popular Government government of the people by the people for the people 0 Democratic Revolution change in political power by voting of the people 0 Deep Change property ownership increased learning became more accessible 0 Slaves not considered participants How is Federalism to be kept in balance 0 Key enumerated powers 0 Growth and complexity of modern world growth and complexity of national government How does Founding address the economy 0 Jacksonians government is best which governs least 0 Society continues to experience deep change government has to become more involved CHAPTER 10 Ordinance of 1784 organize national domain into discrete territories Land Ordinance of 1785 Called for systematic survey of Northwest Territory and division into plots Northwest Territory Lands north of the Ohio River Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Called for government development of the west CHAPTER 11 Civil War four years 600000 deaths All political acts in representative democracy involves compromise Federalism and Slavery were the issues at the heart of the con ict that led to the Civil war Slavery Slavery was obvious solution to demand for labor Owners of slaves got pro table returns and substantial income from work of slaves 1860 population of slaves 4 million No social mobility could not improve their conditionslives Abolitionism movement against slavery Did not attract support until 185039s appealed to Northerners Many southern states considered seceding Constitutional Structure and the Slavery Crisis Slaves counted as 35 of a person Constitution prevented Congress from passing laws prohibiting slaves before 1808 States were required to return runaway slaves to their owners Dred Scott Case Slave sued for freedom because he had lived in states with his owner in states wher slavery was illegal Ruling slaves were considered property can39t be freed by state laws nulli ed Missouri Compromise major factor contributing to the Civil War Election of 1860 Most Divided and least centrist election in American History Four candidates with very different ideas about slavery and expansion 0 Abraham Lincoln REPUBLICAN Nation can39t have both free and slaved states 0 Stephen Douglass DEMOCRAT NORTH Slave and free state status should be decided by popular sovereignty 0 John Bell CONSTITUTIONAL UNION No rm stand on slavery concerned with keeping the union together 0 John Breckinridge DEMOCRAT SOUTH ProSlavery The Confederacy vs The Union Confederacy 0 Jefferson Davis President of the Confederate States 0 Robert E Lee General of Confederate Forces The Union 0 Abraham Lincoln President of the United States 0 Ulysses S Grant nal general of union forces Saving the Union Lincoln was key Virtue of ordinary soldiers who volunteered to ght Structural Changes after the Civil War Disabled veterans reminded both sides of the cost of the war Victory of North ended ambiguity surrounding federalism States did not have right to secede Federal Government now had different character and level of power 13th 14th 15th Amendment adopted to eliminate slavery and clarify relations between national government and the states 0 13th abolished slavery throughout the entire country 0 14th eliminated 35 representation for slaves also applied Bill of Rights to slaves 0 15th guaranteed right to all adult male citizens to vote regardless of race color past slavery
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