Final Exam Study Guide
Music History II, Spring 2016: May 6, 2016
Listening identification (~40%)
Review from the first part of the semester (selected):
NAWM 74: Claudio Monteverdi, L’Orfeo (excerpts from Act II) opera
“Mira, deh Mira Orfeo”
says title of song
tuneful and brief
c) Dialogue in recitative “Ahi casi acerbo” in beginning
changes to minor from (b)
male solo with harpsichord Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between physical abuse and physical discipline?
basso continuo (strings)
dialogue between shepherd (relaxed) and Messenger (female) ← urgent and dissonant
slow and dramatic
rising pitches, chromatic alterations and rhythmic changes climax on “e Sole” near end
building intensity through rising pitches
“a dio terra”
rhythmic parallelism and chromaticism and rising pitch to climax on “e sole” with leap down to seventh
e) Choral madrigal
chorus version of “Ahi casi acerbo”
madrigalism → voices speed up, ascend…
madrigalism: voices speedup “che tosto fugge” (that soon fly away) ascend “gran salita” (steep ascent) and descend “il precipizio” (the precipice)
NAWM 80: Giacomo Carissimi, Historia di Jephte (excerpts) ← oratorio harpsichord and solo female voice
dramatic conversation between roles We also discuss several other topics like Intellectual disability refers to what?
chorus (6 voices) has ritornello and lament bass
echoing of voices
lots of leaps
NAWM 82: Girolamo Frescobaldi, Toccata No. 3
harpsichord solo with embellishments and trills
style shifts frequently, creates distinct sections
feels like lots of mini cadenzas
speeds up at beginnings of phrases and slows at the
NAWM 85: JeanBaptiste Lully, Armide (excerpts)
snares, trumpets, harpsichord, strings and winds
first part: slow duple meter/homophonic
second part: fast compound triple meter → returns to first section
b) Conclusion of divertissement
suspensions, unison, flowing
female solo over strings and harpsichord, later joined by homophonic choir
c) Act II, Scene 5
*wind machine*, harpsichord, trumpets, winds
female solo over harpsichord If you want to learn more check out What are the memory stages?
picks up with dance
NAWM 92: Alessandro Scarlatti, Clori vezzosa, e bella
harpsichord, strings and female solo (minor key)
repetition of “si, si”
modulates to major key Don't forget about the age old question of Which state in the us is most likely to form karst features such as caves and sinkholes?
da capo form
NAWM 94: Arcangelo Corelli, Trio Sonata Op. 3, No. 2
basically strings only
strings suspended over walking bass
fugal and fast
dance, fast strings
From the second half of the semester:
NAWM 96: Antonio Vivaldi, Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in A Minor, Op. 3, No. 6 3 mvts: Allegro, Largo, Presto
solo episode drives music forward by modulating to a major key b) Largo
slow, lots of suspensions
very fast stately theme
harpsichord and violin
NAWM 97: François Couperin, Vingtcinquième ordre (excerpts)
begins with large chord If you want to learn more check out Why were settlement houses created?
modulates to minor key
lots of trills and triplets and ornaments
replaced short notes with fast runs → tiradesDon't forget about the age old question of What does bernini's david sculpture represent?
two melodic lines moving in opposite directions, then descending in unison lots of trills and fermatas/cadenzas
slow with trills
NAWM 98: JeanPhilippe Rameau, Hippolyte et Aricie (excerpts) Opera
a) Flute, violins, bass, voice
Rapid pulsations and scales from strings and flutes to imitate noise of sea and winds
changes in harmony
male and female solos between string sections
b) monophonic choir w/ female voice (in French!) and strings
dramatic and distressed
NAWM 100: J.S. Bach, Prelude and Fugue in A Minor
begins with virtuosic passagework
chords are added onto the descending melody line
imitates strings → goes back and forth between notes
always a moving line
long fugue subject/ritornello
moves into faster theme
NAWM 102: J.S. Bach, The WellTempered Clavier, Book I
slow, steady beat
lots of wave chords/trills
NAWM 103: J.S. Bach, Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland (BWV 62) Cantata (in German)
a) Chorus w/ strings, OBOES, cornet
fastmoving, all unison for theme
choir joins, singing “Heiden Heiland”
b) Aria (male tenor w/ strings)
lots of sustained syllables with moving chromatic figures in male solo structure of da capo aria
c) Recitative (bass w/ continuo)
quickly rising scale on “laufen” ← run
rapid motion on “heller” (brilliant)
d) Aria (bass w/ strings and continuo)
weird voice tremors!
repetitive melody in strings
e) Accompanied recitative (Soprano & alto w/ strings) female voices sing in parallel 3rds and 6ths
4 part harmony
orchestra doubles vocal part (colla parte)
NAWM 105: George Frideric Handel, Giulio Cesare (excerpts) Opera
exchange between Cleopatra and Nireno
strings and winds play separately from singers
b) Aria (Cleopatra → orchestra → Cesare)
slow and repetitive
female solo over orchestra
strings echo voice line and vice versa
NAWM 106: George Frideric Handel, Saul (excerpts) Oratorio, IN ENGLISH OMG FINALLY
a) Accompanied recitative
strings repeat dotted rhythm in between vocalist
dialogue between Saul & Jonathan
“Son of Jesse”
w/ continuo (cello)
”die then thyself”
c) chorus “O fatal consequence of rage”
repeated “consequence of rage”
NAWM 107: Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, La serva padrona (excerpts) a) Recitative (Italian)
male & female sings between strings
intense section with harpsichord and strings
male vocal (bass) w/ strings
NAWM 109: John Gay, The Beggar’s Opera (excerpts) IN ENGLISH OMGGG
begins with unaccompanied dialogue and ends w/ air ”My heart was so free” w/ strings
music echoes voice line
NAWM 110: Christoph Willibald Gluck, Orfeo ed Euridice (excerpts) Opera
Begins with intense pickup to soft orchestra and harp CHORUS ABRUPTLY ENTERS LOUDLY
String tremolos, dissonant chords
returning melodies throughout
NAWM 113: Domenico Scarlatti, Sonata in D Major, K. 119 Keyboard sonata (harpsichord)
Large leaps, rushing scales, rapid arpeggios (crossing of hands)
NAWM 114: C.P.E. Bach, Sonata in A Major, H. 186
Keyboard sonata (fortepiano)
Empfindasm style: conveying refined emotion
Embellishments: turns, trills…
Constantly, changing rhythm
Sudden harmonic, dynamic level changes
NAWM 115: Giovanni Battista Sammartini, Symphony in F Major, No. 32 Fast
Strings (violins, violas, cellos)
Binary form (not typical sonata form)
NAWM 116: Johann Stamitz, Sinfonia a 8 in Eflat Major, Op. 11, No. 3 Allegro assai
Strings (stops), OBOE DUETS, horn call
NAWM 117: J.C. Bach, Concerto for Harpsichord or Piano and Strings in EFlat Major, Op. 7, No 5
starts with slow strings and piano
each idea is usually repeated twice
alternates between piano solos and strings
Soloist doesn’t accompany on ritornello
NAWM 118: Joseph Haydn, The Joke Quartet
Surprising pauses at the end
NAWM 119: Joseph Haydn, Symphony No. 88 in G Major (Hob. I:88) IT’S A SYMPHONY WOOHOO
NAWM 121: W.A. Mozart, Piano Sonata in F Major, K. 332
NAWM 122: W.A. Mozart, Piano Concerto in A Major, K. 488
Many repeated melodies
NAWM 124: W.A. Mozart, Don Giovanni (excerpts)
NO, NO, NO, NO, ← opera buffa bass
CLANGING OF SWORDS (CLANGITY CLANG)
SOMEONE GOT STABBED
Identifications (~20%): Each identification will be worth five points
main theme that recurs in sections throughout an entire piece
Ritornello form for orchestra alternates with episodes for soloists Guide to tonal structure of music, confirms modulations
Opening ritornello is composed of small units (24 measures)
Solo episodes are virtuosic
Added poetic texts to biblical and chorale texts
Was introduced by Lutheran theologian/poet Erdmann Neumeister Prominent in Lutheran liturgy
Form of Lutheran church music in the 18th century
Includes recitatives, aria, chorale settings and usually one or more choruses Bach’s years in Weimar
(17081717) Was a court musician, organist, and concertmaster at the court chapel and Duke of Weimar
He composed mostly for organ and cantatas for the church chapel Learned composition by copying/arranging music of other composers like Vivaldi while at Weimar for organ/harpsichord music
His style was influenced by Vivaldi, learned to write concise themes, clarify harmonic scheme, and to develop subjects into a larger structure based on ritornello
Bach’s years in Leipzig
cantor/civic music director → Produced more cantatas and church music Director of collegium musicum → produced concertos and chamber works Private teacher → organ/harpsichord pieces
Composed, copied and rehearsed music for church services
Directed top choir, supervised other choirs
Composed one major work for church each week
Provided music for town ceremonies as well as weddings, funerals, etc… was paid middle class income for duties above and provided with an apartment Da capo aria
ABA aria form in three sections
first section is repeated after the second section ends
A section is broken into two stanzas separated (or at least introduced by) an instrumental ritornello
B section enters a new key and lack the ritonellos of the A section to give it contrast before returning to the A section, possibly embellished
EX: Alessandro Scarlatti’s Clori Vezzosa, e bella.
“Classical style,” commonly called galant
French for courtly manner
Freer and more songlike, opposite of baroque
Emphasized melody in 24 measure phrases
Originated in Italian concertos and operas
Became foundation for musical idiom
18th century genre of Italian comic opera
Comic opera sung throughout
Full length work with six plus singing characters
For entertainment, but also taught a moral lesson
Had accompanied recitatives and chorus
18th century genre of Italian comic opera
Genre originated from Naples and Venice when comic scenes were purged from serious operas, so comic characters had their own separate story in the intermezzo
Break between acts of a serious play/opera
Usually had 2 or 3 people in comic situation
Served as comic relief
Influenced by Enlightenment
Strived to make design more “natural”
Flexible in structure, more expressive, less ornamented w/ coloratura Modified da capo aria
Greater use of accompanied recitative and ensembles to increase variety and dramatic impact
Alternated recitatives and arias to move action faster
Added choruses, and more use of orchestra
Made plot/drama more important rather than focusing on singers and music Sonata form
Based off binary form b/c it doesn’t return to the tonic in the first section Sections broken into exposition → development → recap
Exposition consists of: primary theme in tonic → transition→ pause (leadup to second theme which is in a new key)→ secondary theme→ cadence in new key Recap: primary theme→ secondary theme → cadence in new key Most common form for the first movement of a sonata, chamber work, or symphony.
Exposition (of sonata form) SEE ABOVE IN SONATA FORM
Usually repeated. First theme is in the tonic.
Transitions into the dominant or relative major.
Second theme is in new key.
Closing theme is in new key
Hungarian Patrons of Joseph Haydn
Under Esterhazys, kept busy by composing music and managing music personnel
Was also isolated from the rest of the music world, but developed his own personal time
Couldn’t sell his works because he was under contract
New contract allowed him to sell his music while maintaining his position, so he began composing for publication
Third generation of Esterhazy finally let Haydn go with pension and disbanded the orchestra
Sturm und Drang
Storm and stress
Literary and music movement in Germany in 18th c.
Scholars associated Sturm und Drang six Haydn symphonies in minor key that evoked emotional agitation
Loud and passionate
Initially the symphonic form was (in same key):
1) Fast sonata form w/ slow intro
2) Slow mvt (in closely related key)
4) Fast finale in sonata/rondo form (ABACABA)
Later in his years, (1768 1772) symphonies became longer, rhythmically complex, contrapuntal, challenging to play, extreme dynamics contrast Rich harmonies and more modulations
Adapted again to a more popular style and crowd pleaser: symphonies became more festive and fanfareish (1773)
Firstmovement form in Mozart’s concerti
Solo sections resemble sonata form
ritornello (orchestral exposition) → episode (solo exposition) → rit (Transition NT) → ep (development) → solo (recap) → rit (TrNT) → CADENZA → final ritornello (PG. 243)
Opening ritornello introduces first theme, transition, 2nd theme and closing theme but remains in tonic
Ritornello returns, shortened, to mark end of first mvt, usually interrupted by cadenza
Uses transition to contrast lyrical themes
Introduces new idea at beginning of development which becomes focus and returns at the end of recap and final ritornello
Lorenzo da Ponte: librettist for Mozart’s Italian comic operas
Ensemble finales allowed characters to clash
Operatic fame was established in Vienna and beyond by Singspiel The Abduction from the Harem and used Turkish style music as the “oriental” setting was popular
Use of winds, helped define the characters and situation
1 Longer essay of the following two(~15%)
Describe the development of the symphony as a genre over the course of the eighteenth century. Include discussion of works by Sammartini, Stamitz, and Haydn. What are the general characteristics for symphony movements by the time of Haydn? What form is used by the end of the eighteenth century for a first movement, and what is the bigpicture overview of how this firstmovement form works? Describe its specific sections and how themes work (you may include a diagram).
Originated in Italy around 1730
Spread across Europe
Italian sinfonia and Opera overture are the most obvious ancestors Also orchestral concertos, church sonatas orchestral suites
First symphonies were from Northern Italy
From italy, spread to Germany, Austria, France, England
Early symphonies were in 3 movements→ FastSlowFast
Giovanni Batista Sammartini, Symphony in F Major No. 32 is a typical symphony There are three movements in the fast slow fast format and the piece is relatively short, under ten minutes total.
Stamitz was the first symphony composer to use consistently what would later become the standard plan four movement plan
Also among the first to introduce strongly contrasting theme after the modulation to dominant in the first movement, a practice which also became standard.
Especially prominent was Mannheim, one of the most active musical centers in Europe under the leadership of composer Johann Stamitz.
First movement of Sinfonia in Eb Major
Follows customary plan but without sectional repetitions of binary form and on much larger scale v.s. Sammartini’s symphony.
Organized in 4 movements
Fast sonata form → slow movement → minuet and trio → fast finale Haydn wrote 3 symphonies in his first 3 years under Nicholas Esterhazy 17621765
He eventually incorporated solo sections into his symphonies in order to exhibit the talents of his musicians
Hayden wrote longer symphonies and rhythmically complex
London symphonies of 1790
Intensified rhythmic drive
More memorable thematic inventions
By the end of the 18th century, sonata form was adopted for the first movement. It starts with an exposition that includes the first theme in tonic, a modulating transition to second and closing themes in dominant.
There is a development section which visits a closely related key and modulates, followed by a recapitulation with a restatement of the first theme and transition in their original keys and the second and closing themes transposed to tonic.
Describe the evolution of the concerto as a genre over the course of the eighteenth century. Include discussion of works by Vivaldi and Mozart. What form does each composer typically use for a first movement? What is the bigpicture overview of how this form works (you may include a diagram)? What elements of Vivaldi’s form does Mozart preserve?
Vivaldi: 3 movement form
Opening fast movement:
Slow mvt. In same/related key
Final fast mvt. In tonic often short than 1st mvt.
Standard 3movement pattern: fastslowfast
First movement: combines elements of ritornellos and sonata forms Blends elements of ritornello and sonata form in his works
Cadenzas interrupt final ritornello
Cadenzas induced solo sections
They also resembled the expositiondevelopmentrecapitulation movements of regular sonata form
In the 1680s and 90s, composers created a new kind of orchestral composition, the concerto, that soon became the most prestigious type of Baroque instrumental music and helped to establish the orchestra as the leading instrumental ensemble. It united contrasting forces into a harmonious whole. The concerto has its roots in Lully operas, where some of the dances included episodes for solo wind trio, and to instrumental sonatas. By the 1700s composers had introduced the orchestral concerto and the concerto grosso (multiple solo instruments). Antonio Vivaldi is known primarily for his concerti, numbering around 500. Vivaldi's work at a female orphanage required him to constantly write music for the girls to play. Concertos were uniquely well suited for players of varying abilities because the best performers could show off their skill in the solo parts, while those of lesser ability could play in the orchestra. With occasional exceptions, Vivaldi followed the three movement plan with an opening fast movement, a slow movement in the same or closely related key, and a final fast movement in the tonic. By using this format so consistently, he helped establish it as a standard for the next three centuries.
Vivaldi structured the fast movements of his concertos in ritornello form, as seen in his concerto for Violin and Orchestra in A minor, Op. 3. No. 6. Additionally, Vivaldi was the first concerto composer to make the slow movement important, writing expressive cantabile melodies like operatic arias. Even while symphonic form gained increasing attention throughout the 18th cent, the solo concerto remained popular as a vehicle for virtuosos, who often wrote concertos to play themselves. The first movement of solo concertos by JC Bach and Mozart is in essence sonata form framed by ritornello form. There are three solo sections equivalent to the three periods of sonata form framed by four orchestral ritornelli; the first presents all or most of the main ideas while the others are relatively short. J.C. Bach's Concerto for Harpsichord or Piano and Strings in Eb Major demonstrates these parallels. The Baroque plan of alternating ritornelli and episodes is clearly reflected in Bach's concerto, yet the three solo episodes in which the pianist takes the lead and the orchestra provides accompaniment and punctuation have the shape of an exposition, development, and recapitulation. JC Bach's use of ritornello form in combination with sonata form is a preservation of Vivaldi's form.
Shorter paragraph essays based on the following: (~10%)
Discuss J.S. Bach’s years in Weimar. What was his job? What genres of pieces did he composer while there? What was a significant musical influence on him dating from this time [hint: it relates to his own music copying habit]?
(17081717) In 1708 Bach became a court musician for the duke of Weimar, first as organist then later as concertmaster. He composed mostly for organ and cantatas for the church. He learned composition by copying/arranging music of other composers, especially Vivaldi’s style while at Weimar for organ/harpsichord music. Bach was heavily influenced by copying the music of Torelli, Vivaldi, Telemann, and others.
Discuss J.S. Bach’s years in Leipzig. What was his job? What genres of pieces did he compose while there?
While at Leipzig, he was cantor/civic music director and produced cantatas and pieces for church. He also composed concertos and chamber works when he was director of collegium musicum. Also, organ/harpsichord when he was a private teacher. He worked at St. Thomas and taught Latin and music.
Compare the posthumous reputations of Vivaldi, Rameau, Bach, and Handel. Who died in obscurity? Whose works continued to be performed (and to what extent)?
Handel was big in England and wrote all of his major works in England. He was the most imposing figure in English music during his lifetime and he was buried with public honors with a monument. Handel’s music lasted because he adapted to new styles of
music and appealed to a large of audiences and some pieces have been played continuously in England. Oratorios were well known in choral groups, operas have been revived and now are well known.
Bach became well known later after his death when Johann Nikolas Forkel wrote a bio of him because of German nationalism. Musical taste changed radically and his works were left behind and his sons became more famous than him for awhile. Bach was promoted by German musicians and they revived his music and is now everywhere
Vivaldi: After he died, the public tastes changed and his music disappeared. His music influenced Bach. In 1920, Vivaldi’s collection of scores for concerto was found. He is seen now as the central image of music from Baroque period. His operas are not heard as much but his concertos and scores are more famous.
Rameau Though he started his career as a composer/theorist late in life, Rameau died known as one of the most respected musicians in France. Rameau's theories are learned my many music students today, a testament to their important. Though his music is not as omnipresent as Vivaldi, it definitely has a following esp. in France, and his reputation as a theorist never waned.
Discuss Handel’s years in London. How did he earn a living? What main genres of pieces did he compose while there? What genre did he begin to focus on in the 1730s, and why?
● 171011 in London and wrote Rinaldo for the Queen’s theatre (the new public house)
● 1712 found a supportive patron in the Earl of Burlington who wrote Italian cantatas and other works
● 17171719 served the Earl of Carnarvon where he composed large scale Chandos Anthems for church services
● The British monarch in 1713, Queen Anne, commissioned several ceremonial chral works (Purcell composition as a model)
● Earned about 200euros a year; after Queen Anne died, King George doubled his pension to 400euros a year. Queen Caroline then raised it to 600euros when Handel began to teach her daughters in 1724.
● 1723 won the appointment of the composer of the Chapel Royal ● Provided music for the coronation of King George in 1727 (4 anthems) ● Most of his activities were public, producing operas and later oratories.
London is where Handel spent his mature life. He served numerous aristocratic patrons and enjoyed the lifelong support of the British royal family. In the 1730s, after three decade of writing Italian opera for the London theaters, Handel turned to oratorios in English, mostly on sacred subjects, mostly for financial reasons (rising salaries of singers, bankruptcy) as well as diminishing positive reception. He also published a considerable amount of
instrumental music, from solo and trio sonatas to concertos as orchestral suites.
Discuss the form of Scarlatti’s Sonata in D Major, K. 119. You may include a diagram. Consider aspects including musical repetition, harmonic movement, and small and large scale structures.
Binary form (2 repeated sections)
||: A B C :||: D B C:||
||: I → V v V :||: V → I i I :||
● First section, composed in the 1740s, broken chord establishes the tonic, which is then supported by a scalar idea and a cadence which is then repeated. ● A new phrase which imitate the rhythm and effect of castanets ● After a modulation, a theme appears in the dominants minor (resembles texture of melody and accompaniment and is the most developed)
● Builds to the climax with trills and growing dissonances
How does Haydn use humor in his music? Use specific examples drawn from your listening and/or class discussions.
In The Joke he ends the piece with the opening idea and the closing passage w/ surprising pauses. In The Surprise Symphony he uses a loud cymbal crash on a weak beat in the slow movement.
Using examples of specific symphonies, describe Haydn’s different periods of composition. Make sure to include examples of his early symphonies, his symphonies from around 1770, and his symphonies from the late 1780s/90s. Who did he compose for at the different points in his life? How does his musical style change over the course of his life?
Initially the symphonic form was (in same key):
1) Fast sonata form w/ slow intro
2) Slow mvt (in closely related key)
4) Fast finale in sonata/rondo form (ABACABA)
Later in his years, (1768 1772) symphonies became longer, rhythmically complex, contrapuntal, challenging to play, extreme dynamics contrast Rich harmonies and more modulations (ex. Le Matin, Le midi, Le soir) Adapted again to a more popular style and crowd pleaser: symphonies became more festive and fanfareish (1773) (ex. Paris symphonies: commissioned for performance in France, London Symphonies: invited by Johann Peter Salomon)
Haydn showed a mastery of the symphony from his first works in the genre but his approach changed over time. Most of his early symphonies are in three movements in fastslowfast sequence. For his sonata form movements, he chose themes made of elements that were easily broken up and recombined. During his first years with the Esterhazys, Haydn composed about 30 symphonies, all diverse as he sought novelty and variety in his offerings at court. In his middle period, Haydn wrote twelve
symphonies over four years with a matured technique. Haydn no longer viewed the symphony as light entertainment, and now regarded it as a serious work that demanded close attention. These symphonies are longer, more rhythmically complex, more contrapuntal, and more challenging to play. Several symphonies from this period, particularly the six in minor keys have an emotional agitated character that some scholars associate with Sturm und Drang. Beginning in 1773, Haydn embraced a more popular style, and Haydn produced works to suite audience desires. Symphony No. 56 in C major is festive and brilliant, like its predecessors in the same key, but is more broadly emotional and expressive. In the 1780s Haydn increasingly composed for the public. The Paris symphonies were commissioned for performance at the French capital. Symphonies 8892 were written on commission and offered a combination of popular and learned styles giving them immediate and lasting appeal. The twelve London symphonies of 1790 are his crowning achievements, with more daring harmonic conceptions, intensified rhythmic drive, and more memorable thematic inventions. Changes to the orchestra achieved a new spaciousness and brilliance.
Important Composers/figures to know:
Antonio Vivaldi → Main job and most memorable work was with the Pieta; he was a headmaster of the orphanage/homeless shelter that was also a music conservatory so they could be productive people in society. In Venice. Taught string instruments, teach how to play, and how to write and read things that they could perform. As a result, he wrote mostly instrumental music, esp. Concertos e.g. Concerto in A minor. Since there are solo sections and string accompaniments, it is easy for a wide variety of students to play them. Very advanced students could show off skills in solo sections.
George Frederic Handel→ Travelled a lot, earned living being supported by patrons. His chief patron in Italy was a Marquee Fransico Respolli. Wrote latin motets for church performances and chamber cantatas for private music sessions. Was hired to be a court music director in Germany for the elector of Hanover. Had free reign didn’t need to write all sacred pieces, which is where all of his instrumental pieces came to life.
Used job in Germany to establish self in London, became wealthier there. Wrote music for british monarchs, became a private tutor for royal family, wrote for important state events.
Joseph Haydn → “Father of Classical Music”. Served primarily Esterhazy family in Hungary. Composed whatever they wanted him to compose, Nicholas Esterhazy was the contractor of most of his work. Composed lots of work for Baritone. Was in charge of orchestra, personnel, instruments and upkeep. Exclusive to the Esterhazy family until Nicholas’ death. After this, he became widely known as he was not confined to the family.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart → Son of Leopold Mozart, born in Germany, a child prodege. Played both harpsichord and violin. Spent 8 years as concertmaster for an Archbishop’s court in
Salsburg. Afterwards, worked as a freelance composer in Vienna. Met JC Bach, met Haydn, met a lot of wellknown composers and was heavily influenced by prior composers.
J.S. Bach → Came from musical family, grew up playing the church organ. Most well known for his organist works; organ church music composer/sacred music. In weimar, he was a court organist, wrote cantatas for Court Chapel still in sacred music. However, since he toured and became wellknown as a performer, he became stuck in church music. Developed that realm of music. When he went to Cotham, had a position as a court music director, write mostly solo and ensemble pieces for domestic or court entertainment.
Leipzig → Became the cantor of the St. Thomas school and the civic music director (most prestigious in Germany!) Position demanded that he teach church music, and instruct students in Latin. Copying music, rehearsals, adopted top choir, trained students in conducting lower choirs. At that time, he kind of become a famous figure like Vivaldi wrote pieces for school. Since St. Thomas was top music school in Germany, he had a lot of clout.