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NYU / History / HIST 1068 / Does intensity affect pitch?

Does intensity affect pitch?

Does intensity affect pitch?


School: New York University
Department: History
Course: Music History II
Professor: Leanne dodge
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Music and Music History
Cost: 50
Name: Final Study Guide
Description: Monteverdi to Mozart
Uploaded: 03/16/2016
17 Pages 38 Views 1 Unlocks

Final Exam Study Guide

Does intensity affect pitch?

Music History II, Spring 2016: May 6, 2016

Listening identification (~40%)

Review from the first part of the semester (selected):

NAWM 74: Claudio Monteverdi, L’Orfeo (excerpts from Act II) ­opera

a) aria/canzonetta

­ w/ strings

­ light­hearted

­ male vocalist

­ strophic

b) Song

­ “Mira, deh Mira Orfeo”

­ andante

­ male vocalist

­ harpsichord

­ says title of song

­ tuneful and brief If you want to learn more check out What are the facts of child abuse & neglect?

c) Dialogue in recitative­ “Ahi casi acerbo” in beginning

­ operatic

­ female voice

What are the functions of dialogue in a drama?

­ changes to minor from (b)

­ male solo with harpsichord

­ basso continuo (strings)

­ dialogue between shepherd (relaxed) and Messenger (female) ← urgent and dissonant

d) Recitative

­ Orfeo’s lament

­ slow and dramatic

­ male vocalist

­ rising pitches, chromatic alterations and rhythmic changes ­ climax on “e Sole” near end

­ slow

­ Orfeo’s lament

­ dramatic

­ building intensity through rising pitches

­ “a dio terra”

­ rhythmic parallelism and chromaticism and rising pitch to climax on “e sole” with leap down to seventh Don't forget about the age old question of What makes humans more intelligent than other animals?

e) Choral madrigal

­ chorus version of “Ahi casi acerbo”

What causes speed to increase and decrease?

­ madrigalism → voices speed up, ascend…

­ andante

­ madrigalism: voices speedup “che tosto fugge” (that soon fly away) ascend “gran salita” (steep ascent) and descend “il precipizio” (the precipice)

NAWM 80: Giacomo Carissimi, Historia di Jephte (excerpts) ← oratorio ­ harpsichord and solo female voice

­ dramatic conversation between roles

­ chorus (6 voices) has ritornello and lament bass

­ echoing of voices

­ very distressed

­ lots of leaps

NAWM 82: Girolamo Frescobaldi, Toccata No. 3 If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of short-term memory?

­ harpsichord solo with embellishments and trills

­ style shifts frequently, creates distinct sections

­ feels like lots of mini cadenzas

­ speeds up at beginnings of phrases and slows at the


NAWM 85: Jean­Baptiste Lully, Armide (excerpts)

a) Overture

­ snares, trumpets, harpsichord, strings and winds

­ stately theme

­ dotted rhythms!!!

­ first part: slow duple meter/homophonic

­ second part: fast compound triple meter → returns to first section

b) Conclusion of divertissement

­ strings Don't forget about the age old question of What type of landform occurs when underground limestone is dissolved by acidic groundwater?

­ suspensions, unison, flowing

­ female solo over strings and harpsichord, later joined by homophonic choir

c) Act II, Scene 5

­ *wind machine*, harpsichord, trumpets, winds

­ stately theme

­ female solo over harpsichord

­ picks up with dance

NAWM 92: Alessandro Scarlatti, Clori vezzosa, e bella

a) Recitative

­ harpsichord, strings and female solo (minor key)

­ dissonant

­ ”pena”

­ walking bass

b) Aria

­ dance­type rhythm

­ repetition of “si, si”

­ modulates to major key

­ da capo form

NAWM 94: Arcangelo Corelli, Trio Sonata Op. 3, No. 2

basically strings only

a) Grave

­ strings suspended over walking bass

­ dissonant

b) Allegro

­ violins

­ dance rhythm

­ fugal and fast

c) Adagio

­ slow strings Don't forget about the age old question of Why were settlement houses created?

d) Allegro

­ dance, fast strings

­ fugal imitation

From the second half of the semester:

NAWM 96: Antonio Vivaldi, Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in A Minor, Op. 3, No. 6 ­3 mvts: Allegro, Largo, Presto

a) Allegro

­ dance­like theme

­ ritornello form

­ solo episode drives music forward by modulating to a major key b) Largo

­ slow, lots of suspensions

­ violins only

c) Presto

­ very fast stately theme

­ harpsichord and violin

­ descending runs

NAWM 97: François Couperin, Vingt­cinquième ordre (excerpts)

­ harpsichord suite

­ begins with large chord

­ modulates to minor key

­ lots of trills and triplets and ornaments Don't forget about the age old question of Why is ancient rome important to history?

­ replaced short notes with fast runs → tirades

­ two melodic lines moving in opposite directions, then descending in unison ­ lots of trills and fermatas/cadenzas

­ slow with trills

­ methodical pace

NAWM 98: Jean­Philippe Rameau, Hippolyte et Aricie (excerpts) Opera

a) Flute, violins, bass, voice

­ Rapid pulsations and scales from strings and flutes to imitate noise of sea and winds

­ changes in harmony

­ male and female solos between string sections

b) monophonic choir w/ female voice (in French!) and strings

­ dramatic and distressed

­ dissonant harmonies

NAWM 100: J.S. Bach, Prelude and Fugue in A Minor


a) Prelude

­ begins with virtuosic passagework

­ chords are added onto the descending melody line

­ pedal note

­ imitates strings → goes back and forth between notes

­ always a moving line

b) fugue

­ long fugue subject/ritornello

­ moves into faster theme

NAWM 102: J.S. Bach, The Well­Tempered Clavier, Book I


­ slow, steady beat

­ lots of wave chords/trills

­ walking bass

NAWM 103: J.S. Bach, Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland (BWV 62) Cantata (in German)

a) Chorus w/ strings, OBOES, cornet

­ fast­moving, all unison for theme

­ choir joins, singing “Heiden Heiland”

b) Aria (male tenor w/ strings)

­ lots of sustained syllables with moving chromatic figures in male solo ­ structure of da capo aria

­ melismatic

c) Recitative (bass w/ continuo)

­ quickly rising scale on “laufen” ← run

­ rapid motion on “heller” (brilliant)

d) Aria (bass w/ strings and continuo)

­ melismatic

­ weird voice tremors!

­ repetitive melody in strings

e) Accompanied recitative (Soprano & alto w/ strings) ­ female voices sing in parallel 3rds and 6ths

­ slow

f) Chorale

­ 4 part harmony

­ orchestra doubles vocal part (colla parte)

­ monophonic

NAWM 105: George Frideric Handel, Giulio Cesare (excerpts) Opera

a) Recitative

­ harpsichord

­ exchange between Cleopatra and Nireno

­ strings and winds play separately from singers

b) Aria (Cleopatra → orchestra → Cesare)

­ slow and repetitive

­ female solo over orchestra

­ strings echo voice line and vice versa

NAWM 106: George Frideric Handel, Saul (excerpts) Oratorio, IN ENGLISH OMG FINALLY

a) Accompanied recitative

­ male voice

­ strings repeat dotted rhythm in between vocalist

b) Recitative

­ dialogue between Saul & Jonathan

­ “Son of Jesse”

­ dramatic

­ w/ continuo (cello)

­ ”die then thyself”

c) chorus “O fatal consequence of rage”

­ orchestra

­ repeated “consequence of rage”

­ fugue like

NAWM 107: Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, La serva padrona (excerpts) a) Recitative (Italian)

­ male & female sings between strings

­ intense section with harpsichord and strings

b) Aria

­ fast

­ male vocal (bass) w/ strings

­ repeated melodies

NAWM 109: John Gay, The Beggar’s Opera (excerpts) ­ IN ENGLISH OMGGG

­ Ballad Opera

­ begins with unaccompanied dialogue and ends w/ air ­ ”My heart was so free” w/ strings

­ music echoes voice line

NAWM 110: Christoph Willibald Gluck, Orfeo ed Euridice (excerpts) ­ Opera

­ Begins with intense pickup to soft orchestra and harp ­ CHORUS ABRUPTLY ENTERS LOUDLY

­ String tremolos, dissonant chords

­ returning melodies throughout

NAWM 113: Domenico Scarlatti, Sonata in D Major, K. 119 ­ Keyboard sonata (harpsichord)

­ Binary form

­ Large leaps, rushing scales, rapid arpeggios (crossing of hands)

­ Pulsing triplets

NAWM 114: C.P.E. Bach, Sonata in A Major, H. 186

­ Keyboard sonata (fortepiano)

­ Adagio

­ Empfindasm style: conveying refined emotion

­ Embellishments: turns, trills…

­ Constantly, changing rhythm

­ Sudden harmonic, dynamic level changes

NAWM 115: Giovanni Battista Sammartini, Symphony in F Major, No. 32 ­ Fast

­ Strings (violins, violas, cellos)

­ Binary form (not typical sonata form)

NAWM 116: Johann Stamitz, Sinfonia a 8 in E­flat Major, Op. 11, No. 3 ­ Allegro assai

­ Strings (stops), OBOE DUETS, horn call


NAWM 117: J.C. Bach, Concerto for Harpsichord or Piano and Strings in E­Flat Major, Op. 7, No 5

­ starts with slow strings and piano

­ fast repetition

­ each idea is usually repeated twice

­ alternates between piano solos and strings

­ Sonata form

­ Soloist doesn’t accompany on ritornello

NAWM 118: Joseph Haydn, The Joke Quartet

­ moderato strings

­ repeated theme

­ Playful character

­ Surprising pauses at the end

NAWM 119: Joseph Haydn, Symphony No. 88 in G Major (Hob. I:88) IT’S A SYMPHONY WOOHOO

NAWM 121: W.A. Mozart, Piano Sonata in F Major, K. 332

­ piano only

­ Sonata form

­ Trills

­ sf/ sfp

NAWM 122: W.A. Mozart, Piano Concerto in A Major, K. 488

­ w/ orchestra

­ piano cadenza

­ Ritornello


­ Dotted rhythms

­ Many repeated melodies

NAWM 124: W.A. Mozart, Don Giovanni (excerpts)

­ Italian

­ w/ orchestra

­ NO, NO, NO, NO, ← opera buffa bass




­ Intense whispering

Identifications (~20%)​: Each identification will be worth five points

Ritornello form

­ main theme that recurs in sections throughout an entire piece

­ Ritornello form for orchestra alternates with episodes for soloists ­ Guide to tonal structure of music, confirms modulations

­ Opening ritornello is composed of small units (2­4 measures)

­ Solo episodes are virtuosic

Lutheran cantata

­ Added poetic texts to biblical and chorale texts

­ Was introduced by Lutheran theologian/poet Erdmann Neumeister ­ Prominent in Lutheran liturgy

­ Form of Lutheran church music in the 18th century

­ Includes recitatives, aria, chorale settings and usually one or more choruses Bach’s years in Weimar

­ (1708­1717) Was a court musician, organist, and concertmaster at the court chapel and Duke of Weimar

­ He composed mostly for organ and cantatas for the church chapel ­ Learned composition by copying/arranging music of other composers like Vivaldi while at Weimar for organ/harpsichord music

­ His style was influenced by Vivaldi, learned to write concise themes, clarify harmonic scheme, and to develop subjects into a larger structure based on ritornello

Bach’s years in Leipzig

­ cantor/civic music director → Produced more cantatas and church music ­ Director of collegium musicum → produced concertos and chamber works ­ Private teacher → organ/harpsichord pieces

­ Composed, copied and rehearsed music for church services

­ Directed top choir, supervised other choirs

­ Composed one major work for church each week

­ Provided music for town ceremonies as well as weddings, funerals, etc… ­ was paid middle class income for duties above and provided with an apartment Da capo aria

­ ABA aria form in three sections

­ first section is repeated after the second section ends

­ A section is broken into two stanzas separated (or at least introduced by) an instrumental ritornello

­ B section enters a new key and lack the ritonellos of the A section to give it contrast before returning to the A section, possibly embellished

­ EX: Alessandro Scarlatti’s Clori Vezzosa, e bella.

Galant style

­ “Classical style,” commonly called galant

­ French for courtly manner

­ Freer and more songlike, opposite of baroque

­ Emphasized melody in 2­4 measure phrases

­ Originated in Italian concertos and operas

­ Became foundation for musical idiom

Opera buffa

­ 18th century genre of Italian comic opera

­ Comic opera sung throughout

­ Full length work with six plus singing characters

­ For entertainment, but also taught a moral lesson

­ Had accompanied recitatives and chorus


­ 18th century genre of Italian comic opera

­ Genre originated from Naples and Venice when comic scenes were purged from serious operas, so comic characters had their own separate story in the intermezzo

­ Break between acts of a serious play/opera

­ Usually had 2 or 3 people in comic situation

­ Served as comic relief

Opera reforms

­ Influenced by Enlightenment

­ Strived to make design more “natural”

­ Flexible in structure, more expressive, less ornamented w/ coloratura ­ Modified da capo aria

­ Greater use of accompanied recitative and ensembles to increase variety and dramatic impact

­ Alternated recitatives and arias to move action faster

­ Added choruses, and more use of orchestra

­ Made plot/drama more important rather than focusing on singers and music Sonata form

­ Based off binary form b/c it doesn’t return to the tonic in the first section ­ Sections broken into exposition → development → recap

­ Exposition consists of: primary theme in tonic → transition→ pause (leadup to second theme which is in a new key)→ secondary theme→ cadence in new key ­ Recap: primary theme→ secondary theme → cadence in new key ­ Most common form for the first movement of a sonata, chamber work, or symphony.

Exposition (of sonata form) SEE ABOVE IN SONATA FORM

­ Usually repeated. First theme is in the tonic.

­ Transitions into the dominant or relative major.

­ Second theme is in new key.

­ Closing theme is in new key


­ Hungarian Patrons of Joseph Haydn

­ Under Esterhazys, kept busy by composing music and managing music personnel

­ Was also isolated from the rest of the music world, but developed his own personal time

­ Couldn’t sell his works because he was under contract

­ New contract allowed him to sell his music while maintaining his position, so he began composing for publication

­ Third generation of Esterhazy finally let Haydn go with pension and disbanded the orchestra

Sturm und Drang

­ Storm and stress

­ Literary and music movement in Germany in 18th c.

­ Scholars associated Sturm und Drang six Haydn symphonies in minor key that evoked emotional agitation

­ Loud and passionate

­ Minor key

­ Fast movement

Haydn’s symphonies

­ Initially the symphonic form was (in same key):

1) Fast sonata form w/ slow intro

2) Slow mvt (in closely related key)

3) minuet/trio

4) Fast finale in sonata/rondo form (ABACABA)

­ Later in his years, (1768 ­1772) symphonies became longer, rhythmically complex, contrapuntal, challenging to play, extreme dynamics contrast ­ Rich harmonies and more modulations

­ Adapted again to a more popular style and crowd pleaser: symphonies became more festive and fanfare­ish (1773)

First­movement form in Mozart’s concerti

­ Solo sections resemble sonata form

­ ritornello (orchestral exposition) → episode (solo exposition) → rit (Transition NT) → ep (development) → solo (recap) → rit (TrNT) → CADENZA → final ritornello (PG. 243)

­ Opening ritornello introduces first theme, transition, 2nd theme and closing theme but remains in tonic

­ Ritornello returns, shortened, to mark end of first mvt, usually interrupted by cadenza

­ Uses transition to contrast lyrical themes

­ Introduces new idea at beginning of development which becomes focus and returns at the end of recap and final ritornello

Mozart’s operas

­ Opera Buffa

­ Lorenzo da Ponte: librettist for Mozart’s Italian comic operas

­ Ensemble finales allowed characters to clash

­ Operatic fame was established in Vienna and beyond by Singspiel The Abduction from the Harem and used Turkish style music as the “oriental” setting was popular

­ Use of winds, helped define the characters and situation

1 Longer essay of the following two​(~15%)

Describe the development of the symphony as a genre over the course of the eighteenth century. Include discussion of works by Sammartini, Stamitz, and Haydn. What are the general characteristics for symphony movements by the time of Haydn? What form is used by the end of the eighteenth century for a first movement, and what is the big­picture overview of how this first­movement form works? Describe its specific sections and how themes work (you may include a diagram).


­ Originated in Italy around 1730

­ Spread across Europe

­ Italian sinfonia and Opera overture are the most obvious ancestors ­ Also orchestral concertos, church sonatas orchestral suites

­ First symphonies were from Northern Italy

­ From italy, spread to Germany, Austria, France, England

­ Early symphonies were in 3 movements→ Fast­Slow­Fast

Sammartini’s Symphonies

­ Giovanni Batista Sammartini, Symphony in F Major No. 32 is a typical symphony ­ There are three movements in the fast slow fast format and the piece is relatively short, under ten minutes total. 

Stamitz’s Symphonies:

­ Stamitz was the first symphony composer to use consistently what would later become the standard plan four movement plan 

­ Also among the first to introduce strongly contrasting theme after the modulation to dominant in the first movement, a practice which also became standard. 

­ Especially prominent was Mannheim​, one of the most active musical centers in Europe under the leadership of composer Johann Stamitz. 

­ First movement of Sinfonia in Eb Major 

­ Follows customary plan but without sectional repetitions of binary form and on much larger scale v.s. Sammartini’s symphony. 

Haydn’s Symphonies:

­ Organized in 4 movements

­ Fast sonata form → slow movement → minuet and trio → fast finale ­ Haydn wrote 3 symphonies in his first 3 years under Nicholas Esterhazy­­ 1762­1765

­ He eventually incorporated solo sections into his symphonies in order to exhibit the talents of his musicians

­ Hayden wrote longer symphonies and rhythmically complex

­ London symphonies of 1790

­ Intensified rhythmic drive

­ More memorable thematic inventions

By the end of the 18th century, sonata form was adopted for the first movement. It starts with an exposition that includes the first theme in tonic, a modulating transition to second and closing themes in dominant. 

There is a development section which visits a closely related key and modulates, followed by a recapitulation with a restatement of the first theme and transition in their original keys and the second and closing themes transposed to tonic. 

­ Describe the evolution of the concerto as a genre over the course of the eighteenth century. Include discussion of works by Vivaldi and Mozart. What form does each composer typically use for a first movement? What is the big­picture overview of how this form works (you may include a diagram)? What elements of Vivaldi’s form does Mozart preserve?

Vivaldi: 3 movement form

­ Opening fast movement:

­ Slow mvt. In same/related key

­ Final fast mvt. In tonic often short than 1st mvt.


­ Standard 3­movement pattern: fast­slow­fast

­ First movement: combines elements of ritornellos and sonata forms ­ Blends elements of ritornello and sonata form in his works

­ Cadenzas interrupt final ritornello

­ Cadenzas induced solo sections

­ They also resembled the exposition­development­recapitulation movements of regular sonata form

In the 1680s and 90s, composers created a new kind of orchestral composition, the concerto, that soon became the most prestigious type of Baroque instrumental music and helped to establish the orchestra as the leading instrumental ensemble. It united contrasting forces into a harmonious whole. The concerto has its roots in Lully operas, where some of the dances included episodes for solo wind trio, and to instrumental sonatas. By the 1700s composers had introduced the orchestral concerto and the concerto grosso (multiple solo instruments). Antonio Vivaldi is known primarily for his concerti, numbering around 500. Vivaldi's work at a female orphanage required him to constantly write music for the girls to play. Concertos were uniquely well suited for players of varying abilities because the best performers could show off their skill in the solo parts, while those of lesser ability could play in the orchestra. With occasional exceptions, Vivaldi followed the three movement plan with an opening fast movement, a slow movement in the same or closely related key, and a final fast movement in the tonic. By using this format so consistently, he helped establish it as a standard for the next three centuries.

Vivaldi structured the fast movements of his concertos in ritornello form, as seen in his concerto for Violin and Orchestra in A minor, Op. 3. No. 6. Additionally, Vivaldi was the first concerto composer to make the slow movement important, writing expressive cantabile melodies like operatic arias. Even while symphonic form gained increasing attention throughout the 18th cent, the solo concerto remained popular as a vehicle for virtuosos, who often wrote concertos to play themselves. The first movement of solo concertos by JC Bach and Mozart is in essence sonata form framed by ritornello form. There are three solo sections equivalent to the three periods of sonata form framed by four orchestral ritornelli; the first presents all or most of the main ideas while the others are relatively short. J.C. Bach's Concerto for Harpsichord or Piano and Strings in Eb Major demonstrates these parallels. The Baroque plan of alternating ritornelli and episodes is clearly reflected in Bach's concerto, yet the three solo episodes in which the pianist takes the lead and the orchestra provides accompaniment and punctuation have the shape of an exposition, development, and recapitulation. JC Bach's use of ritornello form in combination with sonata form is a preservation of Vivaldi's form.

Shorter paragraph essays based on the following​: (~10%)

Discuss J.S. Bach’s years in Weimar. What was his job? What genres of pieces did he composer while there? What was a significant musical influence on him dating from this time [hint: it relates to his own music copying habit]?

(1708­1717) In 1708 Bach became a court musician for the duke of Weimar, first as organist then later as concertmaster. He composed mostly for organ and cantatas for the church. He learned composition by copying/arranging music of other composers, especially Vivaldi’s style while at Weimar for organ/harpsichord music. Bach was heavily influenced by copying the music of Torelli, Vivaldi, Telemann, and others. 

Discuss J.S. Bach’s years in Leipzig. What was his job? What genres of pieces did he compose while there?

While at Leipzig, he was cantor/civic music director and produced cantatas and pieces for church. He also composed concertos and chamber works when he was director of collegium musicum. Also, organ/harpsichord when he was a private teacher. He worked at St. Thomas and taught Latin and music.

Compare the posthumous reputations of Vivaldi, Rameau, Bach, and Handel. Who died in obscurity? Whose works continued to be performed (and to what extent)?

Handel was big in England and wrote all of his major works in England. He was the most imposing figure in English music during his lifetime and he was buried with public honors with a monument. Handel’s music lasted because he adapted to new styles of

music and appealed to a large of audiences and some pieces have been played continuously in England. Oratorios were well known in choral groups, operas have been revived and now are well known.

Bach became well known later after his death when Johann Nikolas Forkel wrote a bio of him because of German nationalism. Musical taste changed radically and his works were left behind and his sons became more famous than him for awhile. Bach was promoted by German musicians and they revived his music and is now everywhere

Vivaldi: After he died, the public tastes changed and his music disappeared. His music influenced Bach. In 1920, Vivaldi’s collection of scores for concerto was found. He is seen now as the central image of music from Baroque period. His operas are not heard as much but his concertos and scores are more famous.

Rameau ­ Though he started his career as a composer/theorist late in life, Rameau died known as one of the most respected musicians in France. Rameau's theories are learned my many music students today, a testament to their important. Though his music is not as omnipresent as Vivaldi, it definitely has a following esp. in France, and his reputation as a theorist never waned.

Discuss Handel’s years in London. How did he earn a living? What main genres of pieces did he compose while there? What genre did he begin to focus on in the 1730s, and why?

● 1710­11 ­ in London and wrote Rinaldo for the Queen’s theatre (the new public house)

● 1712 ­ found a supportive patron in the Earl of Burlington who wrote Italian cantatas and other works

● 1717­1719 ­ served the Earl of Carnarvon where he composed large scale Chandos Anthems for church services

● The British monarch in 1713, Queen Anne, commissioned several ceremonial chral works (Purcell composition as a model)

● Earned about 200euros a year; after Queen Anne died, King George doubled his pension to 400euros a year. Queen Caroline then raised it to 600euros when Handel began to teach her daughters in 1724.

● 1723 ­ won the appointment of the composer of the Chapel Royal ● Provided music for the coronation of King George in 1727 (4 anthems) ● Most of his activities were public, producing operas and later oratories.

London is where Handel spent his mature life. He served numerous aristocratic patrons and enjoyed the lifelong support of the British royal family. In the 1730s, after three decade of writing Italian opera for the London theaters, Handel turned to oratorios in English, mostly on sacred subjects, mostly for financial reasons (rising salaries of singers, bankruptcy) as well as diminishing positive reception. He also published a considerable amount of

instrumental music, from solo and trio sonatas to concertos as orchestral suites.

Discuss the form of Scarlatti’s Sonata in D Major, K. 119. You may include a diagram. Consider aspects including musical repetition, harmonic movement, and small and large scale structures.

Binary form (2 repeated sections)

||: A B C :||: D B C:||

||: I → V v V :||: V → I i I :||

● First section, composed in the 1740s, broken chord establishes the tonic, which is then supported by a scalar idea and a cadence which is then repeated. ● A new phrase which imitate the rhythm and effect of castanets ● After a modulation, a theme appears in the dominants minor (resembles texture of melody and accompaniment and is the most developed)

● Builds to the climax with trills and growing dissonances

­ How does Haydn use humor in his music? Use specific examples drawn from your listening and/or class discussions.

In The Joke he ends the piece with the opening idea and the closing passage w/ surprising pauses. In The Surprise Symphony he uses a loud cymbal crash on a weak beat in the slow movement.

­ Using examples of specific symphonies, describe Haydn’s different periods of composition. Make sure to include examples of his early symphonies, his symphonies from around 1770, and his symphonies from the late 1780s/90s. Who did he compose for at the different points in his life? How does his musical style change over the course of his life?

Initially the symphonic form was (in same key):

1) Fast sonata form w/ slow intro

2) Slow mvt (in closely related key)

3) minuet/trio

4) Fast finale in sonata/rondo form (ABACABA)

­ Later in his years, (1768 ­1772) symphonies became longer, rhythmically complex, contrapuntal, challenging to play, extreme dynamics contrast ­ Rich harmonies and more modulations (ex. Le Matin, Le midi, Le soir) ­ Adapted again to a more popular style and crowd pleaser: symphonies became more festive and fanfare­ish (1773) (ex. Paris symphonies: commissioned for performance in France, London Symphonies: invited by Johann Peter Salomon)

Haydn showed a mastery of the symphony from his first works in the genre but his approach changed over time. Most of his early symphonies are in three movements in fast­slow­fast sequence. For his sonata form movements, he chose themes made of elements that were easily broken up and recombined. During his first years with the Esterhazys, Haydn composed about 30 symphonies, all diverse as he sought novelty and variety in his offerings at court. In his middle period, Haydn wrote twelve

symphonies over four years with a matured technique. Haydn no longer viewed the symphony as light entertainment, and now regarded it as a serious work that demanded close attention. These symphonies are longer, more rhythmically complex, more contrapuntal, and more challenging to play. Several symphonies from this period, particularly the six in minor keys have an emotional agitated character that some scholars associate with Sturm und Drang. Beginning in 1773, Haydn embraced a more popular style, and Haydn produced works to suite audience desires. Symphony No. 56 in C major is festive and brilliant, like its predecessors in the same key, but is more broadly emotional and expressive. In the 1780s Haydn increasingly composed for the public. The Paris symphonies were commissioned for performance at the French capital. Symphonies 88­92 were written on commission and offered a combination of popular and learned styles giving them immediate and lasting appeal. The twelve London symphonies of 1790 are his crowning achievements, with more daring harmonic conceptions, intensified rhythmic drive, and more memorable thematic inventions. Changes to the orchestra achieved a new spaciousness and brilliance. 

Important Composers/figures to know:

Antonio Vivaldi ​→ Main job and most memorable work was with the Pieta; he was a headmaster of the orphanage/homeless shelter that was also a music conservatory so they could be productive people in society. In Venice. Taught string instruments, teach how to play, and how to write and read things that they could perform. As a result, he wrote mostly instrumental music, esp. Concertos­­ e.g. Concerto in A mino​r. Since there are solo sections and string accompaniments, it is easy for a wide variety of students to play them. Very advanced students could show off skills in solo sections.

George Frederic Handel​→ Travelled a lot, earned living being supported by patrons. His chief patron in Italy was a Marquee Fransico Respolli. Wrote latin motets for church performances and chamber cantatas for private music sessions. Was hired to be a court music director in Germany for the elector of Hanover. Had free reign­­ didn’t need to write all sacred pieces, which is where all of his instrumental pieces came to life.

Used job in Germany to establish self in London, became wealthier there. Wrote music for british monarchs, became a private tutor for royal family, wrote for important state events.

Joseph Haydn ​→ “Father of Classical Music”. Served primarily Esterhazy family in Hungary. Composed whatever they wanted him to compose, Nicholas Esterhazy was the contractor of most of his work. Composed lots of work for Baritone. Was in charge of orchestra, personnel, instruments and upkeep. Exclusive to the Esterhazy family until Nicholas’ death. After this, he became widely known as he was not confined to the family.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ​→ Son of Leopold Mozart, born in Germany, a child prodege. Played both harpsichord and violin. Spent 8 years as concertmaster for an Archbishop’s court in

Salsburg. Afterwards, worked as a freelance composer in Vienna. Met JC Bach, met Haydn, met a lot of well­known composers and was heavily influenced by prior composers.

J.S. Bach ​→ ​Came from musical family, grew up playing the church organ. Most well known for his organist works; organ church music composer/sacred music. In weimar, he was a court organist, wrote cantatas for Court Chapel­­ still in sacred music. However, since he toured and became well­known as a performer, he became stuck in church music. Developed that realm of music. When he went to Cotham, had a position as a court music director, write mostly solo and ensemble pieces for domestic or court entertainment.

Leipzig ​→ ​Became the cantor of the St. Thomas school and the civic music director (most prestigious in Germany!) Position demanded that he teach church music, and instruct students in Latin. Copying music, rehearsals, adopted top choir, trained students in conducting lower choirs. At that time, he kind of become a famous figure like Vivaldi­­ wrote pieces for school. Since St. Thomas was top music school in Germany, he had a lot of clout.

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